Data Collection Strategies
Evaluating diabetes prevention and management programs involves gathering appropriate data. Diabetes programs
will collect different types of data and may use a range of data collection strategies. The types of data that
will be collected and how they will be collected depend on the specific evaluation questions being addressed and
type of evaluation being conducted. Most evaluations will draw on both qualitative and quantitative data
sources. Using a mixed-methods approach can provide the most comprehensive information to answer specific
Data collection strategies also differ depending on the stage of program development or implementation. Process
evaluations, for example, consider how the diabetes program is being implemented. Data collection for process evaluations may focus on tracking
attendance of participants, involvement of staff and partners, implementation of program activities, or reach
and appropriateness of program materials. The types of information gathered for process evaluations may include
data about individual program participants and their opinions and satisfaction with the program, staff
perceptions of program implementation, and program participation.
Outcome evaluations, which assess the effects of the diabetes program, require different data. Data collection
for outcome evaluations may focus on tracking
changes in participants' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The types of information gathered for outcome
evaluations may include quantitative (numeric) data or qualitative (descriptive) data. Examples of quantitative
data collection strategies include extracting data from existing sources, such as electronic health records or
other clinical data, as well as conducting surveys or questionnaires, which can be administered by telephone,
mail, or internet. Examples of
qualitative data collection strategies include interviews, focus groups, and open-ended survey questions.
Observational data, which uses standardized procedures to record behaviors, situations, and events, and can be
quantitative or qualitative.
Resources to Learn More
Resources - Assessment Materials, Forms & Instruments
Offers a variety of resources for use in clinical and community-based diabetes programs including patient
documentation and assessment forms, program enrollment and evaluation tools, and staff assessment survey
Organization(s): Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Research and Evaluation
Provides links to assessment tools in English, Spanish, and French that can be used free-of-charge for program
evaluation needs. Includes diabetes-specific scales for obtaining data from program patients.
Organization(s): Self-Management Resource Center
to Health Toolkit: Evaluation Guide
Provides evaluation guidance for community health workers (CHWs) implementing the Road to Health Toolkit, an
outreach program to help people prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. Offers examples as aids in assessing program
process and outcomes.
Organization(s): National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention