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Evaluation Measures

Evaluation measures, also called evaluation indicators, provide specific information on whether a program is achieving its goals. For general information on evaluation measures, see Evaluation Measures in the Rural Community Health Toolkit.

Rural communities implementing diabetes programs should use measures that provide information addressing progress towards specific program goals. The most appropriate measures for evaluating a diabetes program will depend on the program model, type of evaluation, data collection strategies, and other considerations. Common measures include:

Participant Data

  • Demographic information of participants or the target population (gender, race, ethnicity, age, educational attainment, income)
  • Biological markers (height, weight, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, HbA1c)
  • Medical history (medication use, provider visits, hospitalizations)
  • Present health status (glucose control, complications, social support systems including family and peers)

Program Processes

  • Program enrollment rate
  • Program completion rate
  • Program implementation costs
  • Number and type of program materials and resources produced
  • Use of program materials and resources among participants
  • Number of appropriate referrals
  • Number and type of program activities or sessions convened
  • Program staffing (staff ratios, qualifications, training)

Health Outcomes

  • Changes in HbA1c values
  • Changes in blood pressure values
  • Changes in weight
  • Changes in body mass index
  • Changes in cholesterol levels (LDL and HDL)
  • Variability in random blood glucose testing
  • Changes in quality of life and well-being
  • Changes in psychological health
  • Changes in health status
  • Changes in obesity rates
  • Complications rate (renal failure, retinopathy)
  • Changes in mortality rates (diabetes-related and all causes)

Other Outcomes

  • Environmental and contextual factors (living situation, social support, cultural influences, community resources)
  • Changes in diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (screening benefits and guidelines, risk behaviors)
  • Changes in lifestyle, self-management practices, and diabetes skills (glucose monitoring, dietary intake, physical activity, foot care)
  • Changes in behavioral intentions
  • Changes in self-efficacy
  • Changes in medication usage and adherence
  • Participant satisfaction with program sessions or meetings
  • Patient satisfaction with care
  • Changes in diabetes screening rates
  • Changes in overall healthcare use and costs
  • Overall healthcare cost savings
  • Provider behaviors (prescribing, referrals, communication, patient education)

Resources to Learn More

Diabetes Evaluation Measures
Website
Describes evaluation metrics specifically designed for assessing type 2 diabetes prevention and control programs with a focus on worker productivity, healthcare costs, health outcomes, and organizational change.
Organization(s): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Patient Self-Management Support Programs: An Evaluation
Document
Examines the factors identified from interviews with experts and a literature review for consideration when selecting chronically ill patient self-management support programs. Discussion of key findings covers evaluations of program models and measures used to determine effectiveness. Recommendations are offered for developing a self-management program.
Organization(s): RAND Health and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Date: 11/2007