Skip to main content
Rural Health Information Hub

STAIR (Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation)

  • Need: To increase access to telemental health services for rural veterans, especially women, with a history of trauma.
  • Intervention: STAIR (Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation) is a 10-week program designed to reduce PTSD and depression symptoms and increase emotional regulation and social functioning in clients.
  • Results: Therapists reported that clients attended more sessions when offered via teleconferencing, and clients reported satisfaction with the program.


Effective (About evidence-level criteria)


According to the VA Office of Rural Health, 4.7 million veterans live in the rural United States. Of these rural veterans, 8% are women. According to a 2014 Journal of Rural Health article, rural women veterans were less likely than their urban counterparts to seek mental healthcare from Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. The VA Palo Alto Health Care System (VAPAHCS) in California is working to increase access for these women and other veterans through telemental health.

STAIR (Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation) targets rural women veterans, especially those with military sexual trauma (MST) and other military-related trauma. According to the VA, one in three women veterans seeking VA services reported having experienced MST. Although women are a specific target population, the program is open to all genders and has similar effectiveness across populations.

Services offered

Clients can choose to receive individual or group treatment via teleconferencing either in the nearest community-based outpatient clinic (CBOC) or in the clients' own homes. They can also use webSTAIR, a web-based version of STAIR paired with expert coaching through telemental health, at select VA systems across the country.

STAIR works to reduce PTSD and increase participants' social functioning. The 10-week program helps veterans build skills such as:

  • Mood management
  • Relationship building
  • Social functioning


VAPAHCS therapists reported that more clients felt safer and attended more sessions when they could do so in their homes or in a clinic familiar to them. Clients reported that the facility and staff provided a positive environment, and many clients would recommend the STAIR program to others.

webSTAIR was launched in 2017 as an Enterprise Wide Initiative supported by the VA Office of Rural Health. The initiative is being offered to rural veterans with therapist guidance at the VAPAHCS; Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center in Houston, Texas; and the Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital in Hines, Illinois. From 2017 to 2022, webSTAIR expanded through a training model available to all VA clinicians. Clinicians were provided with training in the webSTAIR platform and provided access to use the program with veterans they serve.

For more information about STAIR for telemental health:

Weiss, B.J., Azevedo, K., Webb, K., Gimeno, J., & Cloitre, M. (2018). Telemental Health Delivery of Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) for Rural Women Veterans Who Have Experienced Military Sexual Trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(4), 620-25. Article Abstract

Azevedo, K.J., Weiss, B.J., Webb, K., Gimeno, J., & Cloitre, M. (2016). Piloting Specialized Mental Health Care for Rural Women Veterans Using STAIR Delivered via Telehealth: Implications for Reducing Health Disparities. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27(4A), 1-7. Article Abstract


It can be difficult enrolling people into the program, as participants may not want to talk about trauma, especially sexual trauma.

The clinic-to-home program requires participants to have strong internet connection, webcam, and a newer computer model or device. Participants without these means were offered tablets. Program coordinators also often rely on Telemental Health Technicians (THTs) to help clients schedule appointments and use their equipment.


Program coordinators learned that other veteran populations were interested in the STAIR program. A number of male veterans, especially those who had experienced MST, had requested participating in the STAIR program, so all current STAIR programs are available to people regardless of gender identity. The coordinators believe that STAIR and webSTAIR could also be useful for veterans who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer (LGBTQ), as they might experience stigma or violence targeting their sexual or gender identity and face additional barriers to accessing culturally competent care.

Contact Information

Jamie Kim, Lead Project Manager
VA Palo Alto Health Care System

Abuse and violence
Mental health
Mental health conditions

States served
National/Multi-State, California, Illinois, Texas

Date added
December 19, 2016

Date updated or reviewed
March 4, 2024

Suggested citation: Rural Health Information Hub, 2024. STAIR (Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation) [online]. Rural Health Information Hub. Available at: [Accessed 29 May 2024]

Please contact the models and innovations contact directly for the most complete and current information about this program. Summaries of models and innovations are provided by RHIhub for your convenience. The programs described are not endorsed by RHIhub or by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. Each rural community should consider whether a particular project or approach is a good match for their community’s needs and capacity. While it is sometimes possible to adapt program components to match your resources, keep in mind that changes to the program design may impact results.