Fit & Strong!®
- Need: Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition which often causes multiple related disabilities in older adults.
- Intervention: An 8-week physical activity, behavior change, and falls prevention program geared to older adults with osteoarthritis.
- Results: Participants gained confidence with increased exercise, lessened stiffness, improved joint pain and improved lower extremity strength and mobility.
Evidence-levelEvidence-Based (About evidence-level criteria)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic condition among older adults which limits physical activity and is a risk factor for related disabilities. Research has proven that arthritis-associated muscle weakness and endurance can be minimized or reversed with regular exercise. The Fit & Strong!® program was developed to assist older adults with lower extremity OA to improve mobility and maintain independent functioning. The program combines two components shown effective for OA: physical activity and behavioral health education.
The Fit & Strong! design focuses on affordability, easy replication, and involves an eight-week physical activity/behavior change program for older adults.
As of August 2018, the program is offered in many locations throughout 26 states, including several rural communities.
Of additional note, in June 2017 the National Council on Aging also gave Fit & Strong! the approval as an evidence-based falls prevention program.
Funding for this program's development was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute on Aging, the Arthritis Foundation, and The Retirement Research Foundation.
Fit & Strong! classes meet 3 times per week for 8 weeks or 2 times per week for 12 weeks (24 total sessions). The classes consist of multi-component exercises that focuses on:
- Aerobic training
- Strength/resistance training
- Health education and self-management for sustained behavior change
- Group discussion
- Individualized health plans for post-class maintenance
Before program completion, instructors negotiate exercise adherence contracts with participants and emphasize a lifestyle which includes three self-directed 1-hr exercise sessions per week.
Fit and Strong! participants will likely see these sustained improvements after 12-18 months after an 8-week course:
- Increased confidence in their ability to exercise safely with arthritis
- Increased participation in exercise
- Increased lower extremity strength and mobility
- Decreased lower extremity stiffness
- Decreased anxiety and depression
Originally designed using only physical therapists (PTs) as instructors, additional research found that certified exercise instructors (CEIs) provided similar outcomes for participants. CEIs are less expensive than PTs, and likely more available in rural areas, making Fit & Strong! easier to implement.
In addition to CEIs, individuals who are certified in comparable evidence-based exercise programs like "A Matter of Balance" and chronic disease self-management programs (CDSMP) can also be trained as Fit & Strong! Instructors.
For more detailed information about program effectiveness:
- Hughes, S.L., Seymour, R.B., Campbell, R.T., Huber, G., Pollak, N., Sharma, L., & Desai, P. (2006). Long-term Impact of Fit and Strong! On Older Adults With Osteoarthritis. The Gerontologist, 46(6), 801-14. Article Abstract
- Seymour, R.B., Hughes, S.L., Campbell, R.T., Huber, G.M., & Desai, P. (2009). Comparison of Two Methods Of Conducting the Fit and Strong! Program. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 61(7), 876-84.
- Hughes, S.L., Seymour, R.B., Campbell, R.T., Desai, P., Huber, G., & Chang, H.J. (2010) Fit and Strong!: Bolstering Maintenance of Physical Activity among Older Adults with Lower-extremity Osteoarthritis. American Journal of Health Behavior, 34(6), 750-63.
- Brady, T.J., Jernick, S.L., Hootman, J.M., Sniezek, J.E. (2009) Public Health Interventions for Arthritis: Expanding the Toolbox of Evidence-based Interventions. Journal of Women's Health, 18(12),1905-17. Article Abstract
For those interested in starting a Fit & Strong! program, a 12-page guide is available providing information including readiness assessments, instructor requirements, support resources and quality assurance procedures.
Fit & Strong instructors must:
- Be certified by either a nationally recognized fitness organization or serve as a leader of another evidence-based exercise program
- Complete Fit & Strong! training and certification
Program costs will vary depending on space, instructor and equipment costs such as:
- Open area for walking
- Chairs for participants
- Elastic exercise bands
- Adjustable ankle weights
- Floor mats
- Fit & Strong! Instructor and Participant Manuals
The program is licensed by the University of Illinois, Chicago and licensing fees apply.
Contact InformationAndrew DeMott, Program Manager
Fit and Strong! Team
Aging and aging-related services
Wellness, health promotion, and disease prevention
June 7, 2013
Date updated or reviewed
August 24, 2018
Please contact the models and innovations contact directly for the most complete and current information about this program. Summaries of models and innovations are provided by RHIhub for your convenience. The programs described are not endorsed by RHIhub or by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. Each rural community should consider whether a particular project or approach is a good match for their community’s needs and capacity. While it is sometimes possible to adapt program components to match your resources, keep in mind that changes to the program design may impact results.