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Sexual Assault Nurse Exams through the National TeleNursing Center

  • Need: Clinicians in rural areas are often unprepared to treat sexual assault victims after an assault.
  • Intervention: The National TeleNursing Center (NTC) in Massachusetts uses telemedicine to connect Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners to clinicians in remote areas, offering them guidance through examinations.
  • Results: Clinicians report that the help gives them confidence through the examination process and NTC has assisted in the care of over 300 patients.


National TeleNursing Center logo Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) is a national model of nursing practice in which nurses receive specialized training to provide trauma-informed care, including forensic evidence collection, for victims of sexual assault. In 1995, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) started the MA SANE program, deploying MA SANEs to care for sexual assault patients in 30 hospitals across Massachusetts. It is a challenge in many states, including Massachusetts, to provide SANE services to all hospitals, especially in rural locations.

In 2012, the Massachusetts DPH received funds through a competitive solicitation from the Department of Justice Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) to develop and pilot the National TeleNursing Center (NTC), the first national 24/7 sexual assault telemedicine resource for clinicians. Through a video conferencing system, NTC links SANEs to clinicians in rural and underserved areas in order to provide help in the examination process of a sexual assault victim following an assault. They also give guidance on how to collect forensic evidence that is used to prosecute the offenders. Their goal is to increase the confidence and competence of rural clinicians in performing a sexual assault examination, as well as to give quality support to the patients.

From NTC's headquarters at Newton-Wellesley Hospital in Massachusetts, NTC's 24-hour call schedule is covered by 21 SANE-certified nurses. Upon a remote clinic's admission of a sexual assault victim, NTC is notified and the nurse on call arrives at Newton-Wellesley Hospital within the hour to provide assistance.

Through a request for proposal process from the Massachusetts DPH, 6 remote or underserved medical sites across the nation were chosen as NTC pilot sites. The following sites were active from 2016 through December 2018, when the federal grant ended:

Sites active from 2016 to the present:

Cyndy Forbes - TeleSANE
Cyndy Forbes, ER Nurse and Sexual Assault Response Team Coordinator at California's Sutter Lakeside Hospital, provides exams for victims of sexual assault. Photo courtesy of McDougall and Duvall Advertising.

Twelve national partners have helped to establish and continue the program. The Massachusetts administration has recently appropriated funding to help sustain and expand NTC teleSANE services within the state. Over the next 18 months, 9 additional teleSANE sites will be established in addition to the current 3 sites.

Through a Health Resource & Service Administration (HRSA) grant, NTC is currently providing technical assistance to East Tennessee State University for the training of new SANE providers and the use of teleSANE guidance.

Services offered

The following are services that have been provided through the National TeleNursing Center at the launch of the new pilot sites:

Camera - TeleSANE
TeleSANEs teach nurses like Elise Sage, Clinical Nurse and SANE Coordinator for the Hopi Health Care Center, how to improve photography for evidence collection. Photo courtesy of McDougall and Duvall Advertising.
  • NTC staff paid a visit to offer education on their services and conducted an assessment of the facility's technology capabilities.
  • NTC provided a computer with video conferencing capabilities, installation assistance, and continued technical support.
  • An information technology liaison was designated to oversee the accurate functioning of the telemedicine system.
  • A clinical liaison was designated to serve as coordinator with NTC and to oversee the sexual assault care team.

During an examination:

  • NTC nurses offer support and guidance to clinicians on the use of Massachusetts Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kits. The kits include forms to document a patient's assault history, their physical exam findings, and provide methods to collect forensic evidence.
  • A local rape crisis advocate is available to provide emotional support to the patient.
  • The completed kits are then sent to a crime lab for analysis.

Following an examination:

  • NTC nurses review documentation, packing of forensic evidence specimens and chain of custody procedures with the clinician.
  • A debriefing is offered with the clinician to review the experience. Because these situations can be emotionally taxing and rural clinicians may have less experience in conducting such exams, debriefing is key.
  • The rape crisis advocate links patients with aftercare and counseling services if desired.
  • Clinicians are offered continued education regarding sexual assault and forensic evidence collection.
Evidence Collection - TeleSANE
TeleSANEs teach remote site clinicians how to collect forensic evidence that is used to prosecute offenders. Photo courtesy of McDougall and Duvall Advertising.


A full evaluation of the program's effectiveness is currently being conducted; however, NTC has already seen some positive results. Clinicians who have used their services say that the support has helped them feel more comfortable with the examination process. Before the clinician can call NTC for help, the patient's permission is required.

As of April 1st, 2019, NTC has assisted in the care of 301 patients. The consent rate of non-military patients is 97%.

Additional resources explaining the importance of NTC and SANE programs:

Can Telenursing Help Victims of Sexual Assault?, The Crime Report
  • Campbell, R., Patterson, D., Lichty, L. F., (October, 2005). The Effectiveness of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs: A Review of Psychological, Medical, Legal, and Community Outcomes. SAGE Journals. 6(4). Article Abstract


  • Clinicians at remote sites have varying levels of experience treating sexual assault victims. Many have either not been trained or have limited opportunities to use their training as victims may be reluctant to come forward. This is especially true in remote or rural communities in which it is difficult to achieve anonymity.
  • It is currently a national requirement that any clinician providing telenursing or telemedicine services become licensed in every state in which their services are used. As part of this pilot project, the NTC nurses were licensed in MA, CA, and AZ. Getting licensed may be a time-consuming process and delay a nurse's start with NTC.
  • The baseline skill level and training of the remote site clinicians may vary. It is important to have an assessment of their level of experience and training when assisting and/or supporting them.
  • Complex organizational processes have delayed the implementation of NTC services in some locations.
  • The national scope of the program presented some challenges. NTC is currently developing a uniform way to provide support and training that meets multiple needs in varying settings.


Start your program with a strong team and continue to build it. Ensure that your staff is high-caliber. Be strict in your acceptance process of SANE nurses. Prerequisites of NTC nurses include 5 years of experience as a practicing SANE nurse, expertise in several areas of practice, and a recommendation from their supervising nurse. The nurses go through an extensive interview process, and, once hired, take training classes and perform clinical practicums several times each year. The nurses are also required to renew their accreditation on a yearly basis.

Through sustainable funding sources, NTC is planning on increasing their pilot sites in selected locations across the nation.

Contact Information

Randi Petricone, MSN, RN, WHNP-BC, SANE, SANE Associate Director
National TeleNursing Center
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)

Abuse and violence
Criminal justice system
Sexual and reproductive health
Trauma-informed care

States served
Arizona, California, Massachusetts

Date added
February 8, 2016

Date updated or reviewed
April 2, 2019

Suggested citation: Rural Health Information Hub, 2019. Sexual Assault Nurse Exams through the National TeleNursing Center [online]. Rural Health Information Hub. Available at: [Accessed 2 December 2022]

Please contact the models and innovations contact directly for the most complete and current information about this program. Summaries of models and innovations are provided by RHIhub for your convenience. The programs described are not endorsed by RHIhub or by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. Each rural community should consider whether a particular project or approach is a good match for their community’s needs and capacity. While it is sometimes possible to adapt program components to match your resources, keep in mind that changes to the program design may impact results.