Project ENABLE (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends)
- Need: To enhance palliative care access to rural patients with advanced cancer or heart failure and their family caregivers.
- Intervention: Project ENABLE consists of: 1) an initial in-person palliative care consultation with a specialty-trained provider and 2) a semi-structured series of weekly, phone-delivered, nurse-led coaching sessions designed to help patients and their caregivers enhance their problem-solving, symptom management, and coping skills.
- Results: Patients and caregivers report higher quality of life and lower rates of depression and (caregiver) burden.
Evidence-levelEvidence-Based (About evidence-level criteria)
Palliative care is often limited in resource-scarce rural communities. While palliative care has traditionally been offered only after exhausting curative treatment options, professional organization guidelines and a growing number of clinical trials demonstrate that offering palliative care at the time of diagnosis and concurrent with disease-oriented care can help improve patients' symptoms, quality of life, and mood and help them and their caregivers plan for an unpredictable future.
Project ENABLE (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) is a telehealth approach that provides palliative care to patients with serious illnesses and their family caregivers. ENABLE was developed in rural New Hampshire and Vermont and is now being implemented and tested in the southeastern United States and in selected areas of Honduras as well as Turkey and Singapore.
History of Project ENABLE
Project ENABLE I (1998-2001) was developed through a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded demonstration project involving 380 patients at three northern New Hampshire cancer practices: the Norris Cotton Cancer Center (NCCC) at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in rural Lebanon, Oncology Associates in Manchester, and a Critical Access Hospital in rural Berlin. The goals were to provide a supportive care intervention to patients who were newly diagnosed with advanced cancer and had limited access to palliative care.
A nurse coach met with patients to facilitate a 4-session seminar guided by the Charting Your Course guidebook, which helps patients and families better cope with their physical, functional, emotional, and spiritual needs. The nurse coach also coordinated care between the cancer centers and their communities. Family caregivers were invited but not required to attend. If they were interested but unable to attend in person, nurse coaches provided the content to patients and families over the phone.
ENABLE II (2003-2008) was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Building on ENABLE I, including adapting the in-person intervention to one delivered by phone, the study's aim was to evaluate the efficacy of ENABLE to improve quality of life, symptoms, and mood for patients with advanced cancer compared to standard care. Over 300 patients enrolled over 4 years: Half of the patients received ENABLE and half received usual cancer care. Family caregivers did not receive a specific intervention but were invited to participate in patients' in-person palliative care consultations.
ENABLE III (2010-2013), funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), was an RCT examining the timing of providing ENABLE to patients and a parallel intervention for family caregivers. Patients and their caregivers were randomly assigned to receive the intervention immediately or 12 weeks after enrollment. The intervention included an in-person comprehensive assessment by a palliative care-certified clinician followed by nurse coach-delivered telehealth sessions. (Patients received 6 sessions and caregivers received 3 sessions.) The patient and caregiver each had a different nurse so that each participant could share questions or concerns freely. Nurses maintained monthly contact with patients and caregivers after the sessions were completed.
ENABLE IV (2012-2017), funded by the American Cancer Society, was an implementation science study using a virtual learning collaborative (VLC) approach to implement ENABLE at racially diverse, rural-serving community cancer centers in Alabama and South Carolina. ENABLE implementation teams at each site were supported by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Coordinating Center experts via monthly videoconferences and annual site visits. Site teams reported monthly progress, patient experience, implementation costs, and lessons learned.
ENABLE CHF-PC (Comprehensive Heartcare for Patients and Caregivers: 2010-present), funded by Dartmouth SYNERGY and the National Palliative Care Research Center Pilot awards, adapted ENABLE to also serve patients with heart failure and their family caregivers. ENABLE CHF-PC combines an in-person palliative consultation by a palliative care specialist and weekly nurse coach telehealth sessions (6 for patients and 4 for caregivers) and monthly follow-up. The sessions also follow "Charting Your Course" and services were tailored to meet a patient's and family's unique needs.
ENABLE-CORNERSTONE (2017-present) is a pilot RCT with 60 underserved rural or African American advanced cancer family caregivers in the South to assess the lay navigator-led intervention.
ENABLE-EPIC (Early Palliative Care in COPD) (2018-present), funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and a University of Alabama at Birmingham Palliative Research Enhancement Award, is a series of pilot trials to translate and test ENABLE for a population with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
ENABLE V (2018-2023), an NCI-funded implementation trial, will compare the effectiveness of VLC versus technical assistance on ENABLE program uptake as measured by the proportion of patients at 48 participating NCI Community Oncology Research Programs (NCORP) practices across the country. The long-term goal is to generate knowledge about ways to improve the adoption, adaptation, integration, and scalability of evidence-based practices and to improve the integration of ENABLE in oncology practices to reduce disparities for patients.
Nurse coaches provide a comprehensive palliative care assessment and Charting Your Course sessions for patients and caregivers. These sessions cover topics such as symptom management, self-care, decision-making, and advance care planning. While palliative care services are considered standardized, they can be tailored to meet the individual patient's and caregiver's needs.
- Compared to national and regional data, a larger number of participants in ENABLE died in their preferred site. (For many participants, this meant dying in their own home.)
- Intervention patients reported lower depressed mood and higher quality of life, with trends toward improved symptom management and survival.
- Kaplan-Meier survival rates one year after enrollment were 63% for those in the early intervention group, compared to 48% for those who began intervention 3 months later.
- Caregivers in the early intervention group had lower depression and stress burden scores.
- Program coordinators developed and tested the ENABLE Implementation Toolkit to assess pre- and post-implementation success.
- Results of a pilot study demonstrated feasibility of carrying out ENABLE with 61 patients and 48 caregivers in New England and the Southeast.
- Patients and caregivers experienced moderate improvements in quality of life and mental health. Patients' symptoms and physical health as well as caregivers' burden improved.
- The completed formative evaluation study involved pulmonary and palliative care clinicians and 10 COPD patient/caregiver dyads.
- The completed pilot trial demonstrated feasibility and acceptability.
For more information about Project ENABLE:
Iyer, A.S., Dionne-Odom, J.N., Ford, S.M., Crump Tims, S.L., Sockwell, E.D., Ivankova, N.V., ... & Bakitas, M.A. (2019). A Formative Evaluation of Patient and Family Caregiver Perspectives on Early Palliative Care in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease across Disease Severity. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 16(8), 1024-1033. Article Abstract
Bakitas, M.A. (2017). On the Road Less Traveled: Journey of an Oncology Palliative Care Researcher. Oncology Nursing Forum, 44(1), 87-95. Article Abstract
Bakitas, M.A., Elk, R., Astin, M., Ceronsky, L., Clifford, K.N., Dionne-Odom, J.N., ... & Smith, T. (2015). Systematic Review of Palliative Care in the Rural Setting. Cancer Control, 22(4), 450-464. Article Abstract
Bakitas, M.A., Tosteson, T.D., Li, Z., Lyons, K.D., Hull, J.G., Li, Z., ... & Ahles, T.A. (2015). Early Versus Delayed Initiation of Concurrent Palliative Oncology Care: Patient Outcomes in the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(13), 1438-1445.
Dionne-Odom, J.N., Azuero, A., Lyons, K.D., Hull, J.G., Tosteson, T., Li, Z., ... & Bakitas, M.A. (2015). Benefits of Early Versus Delayed Palliative Care to Informal Family Caregivers of Patients with Advanced Cancer: Outcomes from the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(13). 1446-1452.
Dionne-Odom, J.N., Kono, A., Frost, J., Jackson, L., Ellis, D., Ahmed, A., ... & Bakitas, M. (2014). Translating and Testing the ENABLE: CHF-PC Concurrent Palliative Care Model for Older Adults with Heart Failure and Their Family Caregivers. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 17(9), 995-1004.
Bakitas, M., Lyons, K.D., Hegel, M.T., & Ahles, T. (2013). Oncologists' Perspectives on Concurrent Palliative Care in an NCI-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. Palliative & Supportive Care, 11(5), 415-423.
Maloney, C., Lyons, K., Li, Z., Hegel, M., Ahles, T.A., & Bakitas, M. (2013). Patient Perspectives on Participation in the ENABLE II Randomized Controlled Trial of a Concurrent Oncology Palliative Care Intervention: Benefits and Burdens. Palliative Care, 27(4), 375-383.
O'Hara, R.E., Hull, J.G., Lyons, K.D., Bakitas, M., Hegel, M.T., Li, Z., & Ahles, T.A. (2010). Impact on Caregiver Burden of a Patient-Focused Palliative Care Intervention for Patients with Advanced Cancer. Palliative & Supportive Care, 8(4), 395-404.
Bakitas, M.A., Lyons, K.D., Hegel, M.T., Balan, S., Brokaw, F.C., Seville, J., ... & Ahles, T.A. (2009). The Project ENABLE II Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(7), 741-749.
Bakitas, M., Stevens, M., Ahles, T., Kirn, M., Skalla, K., Kane, N., & Greenberg, E.R. (for Project ENABLE staff). (2004). Project ENABLE: A Palliative Care Demonstration Project for Advanced Cancer Patients in Three Settings. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 7(2), 363-372. Article Abstract
Patient barriers include poverty and unemployment, level of education, mistrust of healthcare, travel to care, and insulated communities.
Provider barriers include lack of palliative care education, experience, and expertise.
Policy/system barriers include inability of small cancer centers and practices to support palliative care expertise and disincentives from limited reimbursement.
Implementation materials are available through RTIP and the authors' publications and presentations. Early lessons learned from the implementation study include:
- The importance of administrative and palliative care leadership buy-in, support, and commitment
- The need for oncologist champions
- Protected time for coaches to deliver the program
- The need for strategically incorporating ENABLE model elements into existing work-flow patterns
Contact InformationDr. Marie Bakitas, Professor and Marie L. O'Koren Endowed Chair / Associate Director
University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing / UAB Center for Palliative and Supportive Care
Hospice and palliative care
National/Multi-State, Alabama, New Hampshire, Vermont
May 19, 2017
Date updated or reviewed
October 18, 2019
Please contact the models and innovations contact directly for the most complete and current information about this program. Summaries of models and innovations are provided by RHIhub for your convenience. The programs described are not endorsed by RHIhub or by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. Each rural community should consider whether a particular project or approach is a good match for their community’s needs and capacity. While it is sometimes possible to adapt program components to match your resources, keep in mind that changes to the program design may impact results.