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Telehealth Collaborative Care

  • Need: To increase access to specialty care for rural veterans with HIV.
  • Intervention: The Telehealth Collaborative Care (TCC) study connects these patients with HIV specialists via telehealth and works to create shared care relationships with primary care teams in rural areas.
  • Results: TCC provides HIV specialty care to 600 rural veterans in Georgia and Texas.

According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), 26,000 veterans receive VA care for HIV. Of these vets, about 16% live in rural areas, where access to high-quality specialty care is limited.

Rural veterans with HIV are more likely than their urban counterparts to enter care with more advanced illness and less likely to receive the most recent advances in HIV treatment. In addition, rural veterans with HIV have lower survival rates.

The Telehealth Collaborative Care (TCC) study works to improve care for these patients by connecting veterans in rural Georgia and Texas to HIV specialists in Atlanta, Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio VA hospitals.

Researchers received funding from VA's Office of Rural Health and Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) program to develop, evaluate, and implement a program that would improve access to specialty care for rural veterans with HIV.

Services offered

Patients attend their videoconferencing sessions at the nearest VA community-based outpatient clinic (CBOC) and receive care from distant HIV specialty care teams. Along with the patients and specialists, video conference sessions can include:

  • Nurse care managers
  • Pharmacists
  • Primary care physicians (PCPs)
  • Psychologists

In addition, local primary care teams work with the distant HIV specialists to provide "shared care" for rural veterans with HIV. The rural primary care teams focus on reducing cardiovascular risk by treating high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking.


Researchers offered the telehealth option to veterans who live closer to a CBOC or primary care clinic than to a VA hospital with HIV specialty care and who have to drive at least 90 minutes to one of these clinics. Most veterans (90% in the pilot studies) chose the telehealth option and were satisfied or very satisfied with their care.

Rates of HIV viral control remained high (over 90%) and smoking cessation care processes improved. Results for impacts on care outcomes in replication studies are pending.

The program is being replicated in VA sites across the country in 2018, with additional evaluation ongoing.


Rural primary care teams have multiple competing demands for their limited time. This barrier can be overcome by providing additional support to rural primary care teams with HIV care managers at the telehealth hub site who can work directly with veterans by telephone.


This program can be replicated in rural areas served by clinics with potential telehealth connections to HIV specialty clinics. Shared care relationships between distant HIV specialists and local primary care teams can start with a narrow focus on engaging primary care teams in cardiovascular risk factor management and expand from there.

Some rural patients with HIV may prefer to attend telehealth visits in a clinic that is near enough to be accessible but far enough from home to avoid concerns about loss of privacy.

Contact Information
Michael E. Ott, MD, MSPH, Associate Professor of Internal Medicine - Infectious Diseases
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
States served
Georgia, Texas
Date added
July 21, 2017

Please contact the models and innovations contact directly for the most complete and current information about this program. Summaries of models and innovations are provided by RHIhub for your convenience. The programs described are not endorsed by RHIhub or by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. Each rural community should consider whether a particular project or approach is a good match for their community’s needs and capacity. While it is sometimes possible to adapt program components to match your resources, keep in mind that changes to the program design may impact results.