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Texas covers 261,797 square miles, with a 2019 estimated population of 28,995,881 people – 3,075,261 living in rural Texas (USDA-ERS). It ranks second among U.S. states in both area and population. Austin, the capital, is located in the south-central region of the state. The state's largest cities are Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas. According to 2018 data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 78.8% of the state's population is white, 12.8% is African-American, 5.2% is Asian, 1.0% is American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.1% is Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 39.6% is of Hispanic or Latino origin.

Texas Rural Healthcare Facilities

Texas Rural Healthcare Facilities map

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According to, as of January 2020 Texas had:

  • 87 Critical Access Hospitals
  • 299 Rural Health Clinics
  • 186 Federally Qualified Health Center sites located outside of Urbanized Areas
  • 95 short term hospitals located outside of Urbanized Areas

Selected Social Determinants of Health for Rural Texas

17% of Texas residents lack health insurance (Kaiser, 2017). According to the USDA Economic Research Service, the average per capita income for Texans in 2018 was $50,355, although rural per capita income lagged at $40,014. The ERS reports, based on 2018 ACS data, that the poverty rate in rural Texas is 18.1%, compared with 14.5% in urban areas of the state. 20.4% of the rural population has not completed high school, while 16.3% of the urban population lacks a high school diploma according to 2014-2018 ACS data reported by ERS. The unemployment rate in rural Texas is 3.7%, and in urban Texas it is 3.5% (USDA-ERS, 2019).

For a national comparison, please see an overview of the United States.

Data Sources
Kaiser Family Foundation State Health Facts; U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts; USDA Economic Research Service: State Fact Sheets


Texas State Office of Rural Health
Phone: 512.936.6730
Works with local health care providers, county leaders, and state partners to support access to quality health care for rural Texans. Assists rural health providers through a variety of programs including information and referral, assistance with medical license applications, grants and educational awards for individual clinicians, health care institutions, and other organizations.
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There are more organizations related to Texas in the organizations section.

Last Reviewed: 3/8/2019