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Community Health Workers in Rural Settings Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Community Health Workers in Rural Settings.

Williamson Health and Wellness Center
Video highlighting a West Virginia community health worker program that helps patients with chronic illness connect with services and manage their health.
Date: 07/2017
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Integrating Community Health Workers into Complex Care Teams: Key Considerations
Examines effective strategies for integrating community health workers (CHWs) into complex care teams. Discusses factors to consider, such as recruiting and hiring, training and career progression, team integration, support and retention, and more. Includes a brief description of characteristics that are particularly important for CHWs working in rural areas.
Author(s): Jim Lloyd, Caitlin Thomas-Henkel
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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Community Health Workers Get Trained to Reduce Oral Health Disparities
Highlights programs serving the Navajo Nation, Texas colonias, and Appalachian Maryland that use community health workers to provide oral health education and improve access dental care.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Location: Rural Monitor
Date: 03/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Community Health Workers: Recommendations for Bridging Healthcare Gaps in Rural America
Policy brief reviewing research findings on community health worker (CHW) integration, and discussing how CHWs can help bridge healthcare gaps in rural communities. Also reviews various state policies related to CHWs, identifies a number of care settings where CHWs are working in rural areas, and makes policy recommendations to support the continued integration of CHWs into the rural healthcare delivery system.
Author(s): Kailyn Dorhauer Mock, Tracy Morton, Prisci Quijada, Julie St. John
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Understanding Scope and Competencies: A Contemporary Look at the United States Community Health Worker Field
Reports on the progress of the Community Health Worker Core Consensus Project in developing a national consensus regarding community health worker core roles and competencies for urban, rural, and tribal communities.
Author(s): E. Lee Rosenthal, Carl H. Rush, Caitlin G. Allen
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Institute for Health Policy, University of Texas School of Public Health
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Community Health Workers: Roles and Opportunities in Health Care Delivery System Reform
Identifies and discusses health services research on the utilization and integration of Community Health Workers (CHWs) into healthcare service delivery applicable to U.S. policymakers. Includes an analysis regarding the various CHW models, employment data, training and credentialing, and challenges associated with the development of this occupation.
Author(s): John E. Snyder
Date: 01/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
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Community Health Worker (CHW) Toolkit: A Guide for Employers
A toolkit designed to provide prospective employers of community health workers (CHW) a history and understanding of the field and how to implement them into their practices in the state of Minnesota. Includes education and training requirements, a discussion of the roles of the CHW, and examples of successful community health worker models, among other topics.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Minnesota Department of Health - Office of Rural Health and Primary Care
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ROI Toolkit: A Guide for Conducting a Return on Investment Analysis of Your Community Health Worker Health Program
A step-by-step guide to help healthcare organizations learn and understand the key elements for conducting a return on investment analysis for their community health worker (CHW) program.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: MHP Salud
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Using Community Participation to Assess Acceptability of "Contra Caries", A Theory-Based, Promotora-led Oral Health Education Program for Rural Latino Parents: A Mixed Methods Study
Reports on a qualitative study of a promotora-led oral health education program for low-income, Spanish-speaking parents of children aged 1–5 years, conducted in a rural agricultural city in California.
Author(s): Kristin S. Hoeft, Sarah M. Rios, Estela Pantoja Guzman, Judith C. Barker
Location: BMC Oral Health, 15(103)
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
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Evaluation of the Frontier Community Health Care Coordination Network Grant
A policy brief that analyzes the effectiveness of using community health workers as community healthcare coordinators during a 3 year period (2012–2015) in frontier Montana. Includes recommendations to other communities that may consider implementing this model. Project was supported by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy (FORHP) Frontier Community Health Care Network Coordination (FCHCNC) grant program.
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Federal Office of Rural Health Policy
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Addressing Chronic Disease through Community Health Workers: A Policy and Systems-Level Approach
A guideline for the integration of community health workers (CHWs) into community based chronic disease prevention programs using suggested resources. Includes examples from a variety of CHW programs, some of which serve rural communities.
Date: 04/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Investing in Population Health
Profile of a pilot project underway in rural New Mexico focused on population health for Medicaid recipients. Offers communities three levels of patient services and payment. Uses community health workers to address the social determinants of health.
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Value
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Innovative Health Care Provider Roles
Discusses health care provider types that might have the potential to benefit rural communities including community health workers, community paramedics, patient advocates, health coaches, and dental therapists.
Date: 08/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
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Affordable Care Act Opportunities for Community Health Workers: How Medicaid Preventive Services, Medicaid Health Homes, and State Innovation Models are Including Community Health Workers
Discusses how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has provided substantial incentives and opportunities to increase the role of community health workers (CHWs) in state Medicaid programs in urban and rural healthcare facilities (e.g. Rural Health Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers).
Author(s): Amy Katzen, Maggie Morgan
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
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2013 Annual Report Promotor(a) or Community Health Worker (CHW) Training and Certification Advisory Committee
Provides information on the implementation of standards, guidelines, and requirements related to the training and regulation of persons working as promotores or community health workers in Texas.
Date: 03/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Texas Department of State Health Services
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Best Practice Guidelines for Implementing and Evaluating Community Health Worker Programs in Health Care Settings
Assists healthcare agencies in collaborating with CHWs or integrating them into interdisciplinary care teams. Addresses gaps in the CHW literature and assists healthcare administrators, public health professionals, healthcare providers, CHWs, and communities in designing and implementing CHW interventions. Highlights 7 CHW models including care coordinators, health educators, and promotoras in rural, migrant communities.
Author(s): Melissa Gutierrez Kapheim, Jamie Campbell
Date: 01/2014
Type: Document
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Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening in the United States - Mexico Border Region
Discusses the effects of an intervention delivered by community health workers (CHWs), or Promotores de Salud, on cervical cancer screening rates in Hispanic women in the rural border area of New Mexico who were out of compliance with the recommended screening guidelines.
Author(s): Beti Thompson, Hugo Vilchis, Crystal Moran, Wade Copeland, et al.
Location: Journal of Rural Health, 30(2), 196-205
Date: 2014
Type: Document
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A Cost Analysis of a Community Health Worker Program in Rural Vermont
Examines the cost and effectiveness of a hospital affiliated community health program staffed by 3 community health workers in rural Vermont. Cost data was compiled from 2 categories that included the personnel involved and operational costs from 2010 to 2011.
Author(s): Alberta M. Mirambeau, Guijing Wang, Laural Ruggles, Diane O. Dunet
Location: Journal of Community Health, 38(6), 1050–1057
Date: 12/2013
Type: Document
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Taking Innovation to Scale: Community Health Workers, Promotores and the Triple Aim: A Statewide Assessment of the Roles and Contributions of California’s Community Health Workers
An assessment of rural and urban California health centers that use CHWs in their practice identifying the common barriers, including a lack of reimbursement methods, restricted diagnostic ability and access to data linked to CHW services, and limited information of evidence-based practices.
Author(s): Kevin Barnett
Date: 12/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Public Health Institute
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The Evolution, Expansion, and Effectiveness of Community Health Workers
Reviews the development of Community Health Worker roles, accomplishments, and future contributions in rural and urban settings. Discusses the education and training of CHWs, and includes a detailed table of their activities in promoting prevention and well-being.
Author(s): Randall R . Bovbjerg, Lauren Eyster, Barbara A. Ormond, Theresa Anderson, Elizabeth Richardson
Date: 12/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Urban Institute
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Promising Approaches to Integrating Community Health Workers into Health Systems: Four Case Studies
Identifies the scope of practice, supervision, financing, and the workforce standards implemented by states and employers in the development of community health worker (CHW) programs. Four case studies that include rural counties illustrate the challenges and opportunities for integrating CHWs into health systems.
Author(s): Lauren Eyster, Randall R. Bovbjerg
Date: 12/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Urban Institute
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Improving Rural Health: State Policy Options
Discusses strategies that states have used to improve healthcare in rural communities. Covers workforce pipeline initiatives, long-term care services, behavioral health, emergency medical services, wellness and prevention, rural health clinics, school-based health centers, telehealth, recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals, loan repayment programs, and community health workers.
Author(s): Kristine Goodwin, Laura Tobler
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Conference of State Legislatures
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Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program in Public Health and Health Care Settings
Evaluates the effectiveness of a Community Health Worker system of care to help decrease coronary heart disease in primarily rural and frontier Colorado counties. Includes data and statistics broken down by age, race, risk factors, and geographic location.
Author(s): Mori J. Krantz, Stephanie M. Coronel, Elizabeth M. Whitley, et al.
Location: American Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 19-27
Date: 01/2013
Type: Document
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Promoting Community Health Workers to Reduce Health Disparities in Minnesota
Discusses impacts and outcomes from a program for community health worker (CHW) education in Minnesota. Summarizes past projects relating to CHWs, program results and lessons learned.
Author(s): Robert Crum
Date: 12/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
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Alliance Creates Community Health Workers’ Scope of Practice, Training Curriculum, Certificate Program, and Reimbursement Strategy, Expanding Their Integration Into the Health System to Reduce Health Disparities
Discusses how the Minnesota Community Health Worker Alliance (a broad-based, statewide consortium of community health workers, public agencies, and nonprofits) prioritizes building the community health worker field as a key strategy for addressing health disparities in the state.
Date: 09/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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Community Health Workers: A Front Line for Primary Care?
Examines what community health workers do, how they are trained, and how they can help provide healthcare services and health education.
Author(s): Lisa Sprague
Date: 09/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Health Policy Forum
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Community Health Worker Model for Care Coordination: A Promising Practice for Frontier Communities
Describes the Community Health Worker (CHW) model, current care coordination policies and applications, and the role CHWs can play in care coordination.
Author(s): Susan Wilger
Date: 08/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Frontier Communities
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Behavioral Health Aides: A Promising Practice for Frontier Communities
Provides information on the seven emerging BHA models: care coordinators and case managers; support workers; mental health first aid certified laypeople; peer counselors and peer specialists; promotoras with supplemental behavioral health training; Alaska’s BHA model; and behavioral health practitioners.
Author(s): Saskia van Hecke
Date: 08/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Frontier Communities
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Report on Community Health Worker Programs
Presents examples of Community Health Worker programs in numerous states. Gathers information to assist in establishing a CHW program in North Dakota. Includes CHW programs in Minnesota, Massachusetts, New Mexico, New York, Colorado, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Author(s): Lynette Dickson, Rachel M. Yahna
Date: 06/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of North Dakota Center for Rural Health
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Salud es Vida: Development of a Cervical Cancer Education Curriculum for Promotora Outreach With Latina Farmworkers in Rural Southern Georgia
Discusses the development and evaluation of a community health worker curriculum projected to inform Hispanic farmworker women about cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and the HPV vaccine.
Author(s): John S. Luque, Mondi Mason, Claudia Reyes-Garcia, et al.
Location: American Journal of Public Health, 101(12), 2233-2235
Date: 12/2011
Type: Document
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Four U.S. Border States' Community Health Worker Training Needs Assessment
An assessment study identifying the training needs of CHWs to help design effective training programs in the U.S.-Mexico border region.
Author(s): Howard J. Eng, Ana Celia Hernandez-Martinez, Jasmen Dorian
Date: 12/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Southwest Rural Health Research Center
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Promising Practices for Rural Community Health Worker Programs
Identifies six rural community health worker models in the literature and in practice: promotora, member of the care delivery team, care coordinator, health educator, outreach and enrollment agent, and community organizer and capacity builder.
Author(s): Alycia Infante, Alana Knudson, Alexa Brown
Date: 03/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: NORC Walsh Center for Rural Health Analysis
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Supervision Manual for Promotor(a) de Salud Programs
Provides basic guidelines to supervisors of promotor(a) de salud programs. Also available in Spanish.
Date: 2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: MHP Salud
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State Law Fact Sheet: A Summary of State Community Health Worker Laws
Details the state laws pertaining to Community Health Workers as of June 30, 2016. Includes laws defining scope of practice, team-based care models, reimbursement, and the core certification process.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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PubMed Search: Community Health Workers and Rural Health
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on the topics of community health workers and rural health.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: National Library of Medicine
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Community Health Workers Toolkit
Contains eight modules about community health worker programs, how the programs work and how to use community health workers in the local community.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Community Health Worker Evaluation Tool Kit
Guide to program evaluation for community health workers and community health worker programs.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health
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Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 12/11/2017