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Rural Pharmacy and Prescription Drugs – Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Pharmacy and Prescription Drugs.

It's Not Easy Being a Rural Pharmacy: Services, Payments, Closures, and Deserts
Webinar recording discusses the financial pressures facing rural pharmacies and the consequences of rural pharmacy closures. Explores pharmacy deserts as a barrier to rural healthcare. Features presentations from researchers from the RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis.
Additional links: Webinar Slides, Webinar Transcript
Date: 11/2022
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organizations: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis, Rural Health Research Gateway
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MedPAC Comment on CMS's Proposed Rule on the Payment Systems for Hospital Outpatient Departments and Ambulatory Surgical Centers for 2023
Comments on a July 26, 2022, Federal Register proposed rule revising the Medicare Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) and Medicare Ambulatory Surgical Center (ACS) payment system for calendar year 2023. Includes considerations for payment for 340B drugs, additional facility payments for Rural Emergency Hospitals, telehealth rehabilitation services beyond the COVID-19 public health emergency, and efforts for measuring equity and healthcare quality disparities.
Date: 09/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
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Update on Rural Independently Owned Pharmacy Closures in the United States, 2003-2021
Provides updated information on independently owned rural pharmacy closures from 2003 to 2021. Compares the annual retail pharmacy counts and percent change in the number of pharmacies by pharmacy type and metropolitan, micropolitan, and noncore county status. Builds on past publications from RUPRI regarding rural pharmacy closures.
Author(s): Edmer Lazaro, Fred Ullrich, Keith J. Mueller
Date: 08/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
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Availability of Pharmacies in Minoritized Racial/Ethnic Areas
Explores the availability of pharmacies nationwide across ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) categorized by rurality and racial and ethnic composition. Provides data on the the number of pharmacies per capita by ZCTA rurality and minoritized ethnic and racial group category and the distribution of urban and rural ZCTAs that do not have a pharmacy by ethnic and racial group.
Author(s): Whitney E. Zahnd, Gabriel Benavidez, Oyeleye Oyesode, et al.
Date: 08/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center (formerly the South Carolina Rural Health Research Center)
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Medicare Beneficiary Access to Prescription Drugs in Rural Areas
Policy brief identifying the types of pharmacies used by Medicare beneficiaries in rural areas with limited or no access to pharmacies, using data from July 2016 to December 2017. Features statistics on county and beneficiary characteristics and claim event counts, with breakdowns by county pharmacy cohort.
Author(s): Onyinye Oyeka, Fred Ullrich, Keith J. Mueller
Date: 08/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
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Rural and Urban Pharmacy Presence – Pharmacy Deserts
Uses data from the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs to explore the number of counties with no pharmacy presence between January - June 2022. Compares pharmacy absence and the characteristics of counties with no retail pharmacy across noncore, micropolitan, and metropolitan counties.
Author(s): Joanne Constantin, Fred Ullrich, Keith J. Mueller
Date: 08/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
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2021 340B Health Annual Survey: 340B Continues to Support Essential Programs and Services in the Face of Significant Financial Stress on Hospitals
Summarizes the results of an October - December 2021 survey of 510 hospitals, including small and rural hospitals, that participate in the 340B drug pricing program. Describes how these hospitals utilize their savings from the 340B program to benefit patients. Discusses the importance of the program to Critical Access Hospitals, Disproportionate Share Hospitals, and other safety-net facilities. Explores the potential effects of additional cuts to the 430B program.
Date: 04/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: 340B Health
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A Qualitative Study on Pharmacy Policies Toward Over-the-Counter Syringe Sales in a Rural Epicenter of US Drug-Related Epidemics
Examines pharmacy over-the-counter (OTC) policies and pharmacists' rationale for, and barriers and facilitators to, OTC syringe sales in a rural Appalachian Kentucky area hard hit by drug-related epidemics. Uses data collected from interviews with 14 pharmacists between February 2018 and January 2019.
Author(s): Monica Fadanelli, Hannah L. F. Cooper, Patricia R. Freeman, et al.
Citation: Harm Reduction Journal, 19(1)
Date: 01/2022
Type: Document
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Prescription Drug Affordability among Medicare Beneficiaries
Examines the affordability of prescription drugs among Medicare beneficiaries. Explores whether Medicare beneficiaries skipped doses, took less medication, delayed filling a prescription, or did not fill needed prescriptions due to cost concerns. Explores affordability concerns by race and ethnicity, sex, family income, urban versus rural counties, and presence of select chronic conditions.
Author(s): Wafa Tarazi, Kenneth Finegold, Steven Sheingold, Nancy De Lew, Benjamin D. Sommers
Date: 01/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
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Introducing Clinical Pharmacy Specialists into Interprofessional Primary Care Teams
Examines the integration of clinical pharmacy specialists as part of the interprofessional primary care team and in the Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Rural Veteran Access (CRVA) initiative to determine impacts on healthcare access for rural patients.
Author(s): Megan B. McCullough, Anna Zogas, Chris Gillespie, et al.
Citation: Medicine (Baltimore), 100(38), e26689
Date: 09/2021
Type: Document
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Last Updated: 11/18/2022