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Alabama covers 50,744 square miles, with a 2019 estimated population of 4,903,185 people - 1,135,428 of whom live in rural areas (USDA-ERS). The state capital is Montgomery and the largest cities are Birmingham, Montgomery, and Mobile. According to 2018 data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 69.1% of the state's population is white, 26.8% is African-American, 1.5% is Asian, 0.7% is American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.1% is Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 4.4% is of Hispanic or Latino origin.

Alabama Rural Healthcare Facilities

Alabama Rural Healthcare Facilities map

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According to, as of January 2020 Alabama had:

  • 5 Critical Access Hospitals
  • 117 Rural Health Clinics
  • 105 Federally Qualified Health Center sites located outside of Urbanized Areas
  • 48 short term hospitals located outside of Urbanized Areas

Selected Social Determinants of Health for Rural Alabama

10% of Alabama residents lack health insurance (Kaiser, 2017). According to the USDA Economic Research Service, the average per capita income for Alabama residents in 2018 was $42,238, although rural per capita income lagged at $35,765. The ERS reports, based on 2018 ACS data, that the poverty rate in rural Alabama is 20.6%, compared with 15.7% in urban areas of the state. 19.3% of the rural population has not completed high school, while 12.7% of the urban population lacks a high school diploma according to 2014-2018 ACS data reported by ERS. The unemployment rate in rural Alabama is 3.3%, while in urban Alabama it is 2.9% (USDA-ERS, 2019).

For a national comparison, please see an overview of the United States.

Data Sources
Kaiser Family Foundation State Health Facts; U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts; USDA Economic Research Service: State Fact Sheets


Alabama Office of Primary Care and Rural Health
Phone: 334.206.5396
Facilitates and supports activities which improve access to health care services for rural Alabamians, with special concern for children, the elderly, minorities and other medically underserved vulnerable populations. Part of the Alabama Department of Public Health.
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There are more organizations related to Alabama in the organizations section.

Last Reviewed: 1/8/2019