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Montana covers 145,552 square miles, with a 2019 estimated population of 1,068,778 people – 694,966 living in rural Montana (USDA-ERS). Helena, the capital, is located in the western region of the state. The state's largest cities are Billings, Missoula, and Great Falls. According to 2019 data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 88.9% of the state's population is white, 0.6% is African-American, 0.9% is Asian, 6.7% is American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.1% is Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 4.1% is of Hispanic or Latino origin.

Montana Rural Healthcare Facilities

Montana Rural Healthcare Facilities map

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According to, as of April 2021 Montana had:

  • 49 Critical Access Hospitals
  • 61 Rural Health Clinics
  • 57 Federally Qualified Health Center sites located outside of Urbanized Areas
  • 8 short term hospitals located outside of Urbanized Areas

Selected Social Determinants of Health for Rural Montana

8.3% of Montana residents lack health insurance (Kaiser, 2019). According to the USDA Economic Research Service, the average per capita income for Montanans in 2019 was $49,747, with the rural per capita income at $48,461. The ERS reports, based on 2019 ACS data, that the poverty rate in rural Montana is 12.8%, compared with 12.1% in urban areas. 6.7% of the rural population has not completed high school, and 5.9% of the urban population lacks a high school diploma according to 2015-2019 ACS data reported by ERS. The unemployment rate in rural Montana is 3.6%, while in urban Montana it is 3.2% (USDA-ERS, 2019).

For a national comparison, please see an overview of the United States.

Data Sources
Kaiser Family Foundation State Health Facts; U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts; USDA Economic Research Service: State Fact Sheets


Montana Office of Rural Health
Phone: 406.994.6001
Works to improve access to quality healthcare for rural Montana residents by providing leadership and resources to healthcare and community organizations. Focuses on recruitment and retention of health professionals into rural areas, provides technical assistance, and coordinates rural health interests and activities across the state.
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There are more organizations related to Montana in the organizations section.