Chronic Care Management
What is Chronic Care Management (CCM)?
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recognizes Chronic Care Management (CCM) as a critical
component of primary care that contributes to better health and care for individuals. CCM allows healthcare
professionals to be reimbursed for the time and resources used to manage Medicare patients’ health between
CCM services may be furnished for Medicare patients with two or more chronic conditions who are at significant
risk of death, acute exacerbation/decompensation, or functional decline.
CCM activities include those that support comprehensive care management for patients outside of the office
setting. Services include interactions with patients by telephone or secure email to review medical records and
test results or provide self-management education and support. Services also include interactions with the
patient’s other healthcare providers to exchange health information, as well as management of care transitions
and coordination of home- and community-based services. CCM requires that patients have 24/7 access to
physicians or other qualified healthcare professionals or clinical staff to address urgent needs.
In addition to physician offices, CCM services can be provided by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs),
Rural Health Clinics (RHCs), and Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs). The following healthcare professionals can
bill for CCM services:
Certified Nurse Midwives
Clinical Nurse Specialists
Only one practitioner/facility per patient may be paid for CCM services for a given calendar month. Services may
furnished by the billing healthcare professional as well as clinical staff that meet Medicare’s
“incident to” rules.
To initiate CCM services, the provider is required to complete an initial face-to-face visit, obtain verbal or
written consent of the patient, and develop a comprehensive care plan in the electronic health record (EHR).
Note that CCM services are subject to the usual Medicare Part B cost sharing requirement.
For more information, please review the following CMS resources:
Why provide CCM to patients?
Both patients and providers may benefit from CCM services. Providers may have previously provided CCM services
to patients; however, the CCM billing code allows for an opportunity to receive payment for these services.
Patients will receive a better coordinated team of healthcare professionals to help them stay healthy, a
comprehensive care plan to set and track progress towards health goals, and support between regular face-to-face
visits. Providers will not only receive payment for providing care coordination, but may also improve practice
efficiency, and patient compliance and satisfaction. CCM aligns well with the patient-centered medical home
(PCMH) model, accountable care organization (ACO), and other alternative payment models.
How do I identify patients who would benefit from CCM?
Your strategy for identifying patients who are eligible should be tailored to your practice processes. Some
providers identify patients who qualify for CCM during a regular office visit or Annual Wellness Visit (AWV).
Other providers and practices use their EHR to identify patients that qualify for CCM prior to a patient visit.
An AWV, Initial Preventive Physical Exam (IPPE), or other face-to-face visit with the billing practitioner can
be used to initiate CCM.
How can I educate patients about CCM and what to expect?
CCM requires patient consent be obtained, providing an opportunity to explain and engage the patient in the
goals and activities of CCM. When obtaining patient consent, the patient should be aware of the 20% cost sharing
requirement for each month of CCM service. Verbal or written consent must be documented in the EHR and include
CCM services are available and cost-sharing is applicable,
Only one of the patient’s providers can provide and bill for CCM services each month, and
The patient has the right to stop CCM services at any time.
Informed consent is only required once prior to initiating CCM services or if the patient chooses to change the
billing provider for CCM services.
What are the billing codes for CCM?
CCM requires an initiating visit with the billing provider. This visit includes most standard face-to-face
Evaluation and Management (E/M) visit codes, Annual Wellness Visit (AWV), or Initial Preventive Physical Exam
(IPPE). The initiating visit is only required for new patients or
patients not seen by the provider in the previous year. HCPCS Code G0506 is an add-on code to the CCM initiating
visit that describes the work of the billing practitioner in a comprehensive assessment and care planning to
patients outside of the usual effort described by the initiating visit code.
Once the initiating visit is complete, and the patient has consented to CCM, the following codes can be billed
for each month of service (see the Physician
Fee Schedule Search for the value of each code):
CPT Code 99490: At least 20 minutes of clinical staff time directed by a physician or other
healthcare professional per calendar month, spent on activities to manage and coordinate care for Medicare
and dual eligible beneficiaries with two or more chronic conditions that are expected to last at least 12
months or until death
CPT Code 99491: Chronic care management services, provided personally by a physician or other
QHP, at least 30 minutes of physician or other QHP time, per calendar month
CPT Code 99487: Complex CCM that requires an established, implemented, revised, or monitored
comprehensive care plan,
moderate or high complexity medical decision making, and 60 minutes of clinical staff time
CPT Code 99489: Add-on code to complex CCM (CPT 99487) for each additional 30 minutes of
HCPCS Code G0511: RHCs and FQHCs only should use this code for CCM when the requirements for
CPT codes 99490, 99487, 99491, or 99484 are met
HCPCS Code G0512: Psychiatric collaborative care model (CoCM) code for RHCs
CPT Code 99439 (NEW code for 2021, replaces HCPCS Code G2058): Chronic care management services, each
additional 20 minutes of clinical staff time directed by a physician or other qualified health care
professional, per calendar month. In the CY
2021 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Rule, CMS finalized that this code may be billed concurrently
with TCM when reasonable and necessary.
CCM requires cost sharing by the patient (about $8/month for CPT code 99490). Patients are responsible for the
usual Medicare Part
B cost sharing if they do not have a Medigap or other supplemental insurance plan that will cover 100% of Part B
cost sharing. Most Medicare-Medicaid dual eligible beneficiaries are exempt from cost sharing. Contact your
state Medicaid office for coverage information on deductibles/coinsurance for Medicare services for dual
How is CCM documented in an electronic health record (EHR)?
Documentation of time and furnished services are essential for billing. CMS requires structured recording of
patient health information; a certified EHR meets this requirement. The following should be documented in the
Comprehensive care plan, including, but not limited to, a problem list, measurable treatment goals, planned
interventions, medication management, and interaction and coordination with outside resources and
practitioners and providers, and
At least 20 minutes of non-face-to-face clinical staff time per month
Some practices have CCM documentation built into their EHR’s outpatient record. Other practices have implemented
specialized software to track time and ensure all of the required components for CCM billing are met. Some
software have the ability to not only track documentation, but also send reminders to the provider, patient, and
their caregivers. A few practices have chosen to track CCM manually.
Who in my practice should I engage when designing and implementing CCM?
Implementing CCM in your practice requires broad support, beginning with leadership and the medical
Successful implementation requires a cultural change and is supported by clearly defined roles and workflows for
everyone on the care team. Working with coding and billing staff before implementing CCM is
important for developing complete documentation and systems to bill for the service. Consider working with
health information technology staff to identify or develop how patient contacts will be captured in the
EHR. Engage other members of the care team, such as pharmacists, social workers, dietitians, nurses, and others
who will have contact with the patient.
How should I schedule staff to provide CCM services?
Physicians, Physician Assistants, Nurse Practitioners, Clinical Nurse Specialists, and Certified Nurse Midwives
can bill for CCM services. In addition, licensed clinical staff employed by the billing provider or practice
under general supervision of the provider can provide CCM services. These “incident to” requirements apply to
licensed clinical staff.
Practices have taken varied approaches to providing care
coordination. The decision to hire new staff for CCM depends on how many patients a practices determines
will likely elect CCM. First, the practice should determine how many patients are eligible for CCM. Next, the
practice should determine how many of those patients will realistically elect CCM. A smaller practice may choose
to assign existing staff to coordinate CCM. A larger practice may choose to hire a full-time staff member, such
as a registered nurse (RN) care coordinator, to manage CCM, along with other services such as Transitional Care
Management (TCM) and Annual Wellness Visits (AWVs). CCM services can be subcontracted to case management
companies, but the case management must meet “incident to” requirements and should be integrated with the
CCM requires 24/7 access to care. Practices have taken varied approaches to meeting this requirement. Many
practices with relationships to their local hospital use emergency department or inpatient staff to meet
after-hours needs. Independent practices have chosen to contract with 24/7 call services.
It should be noted that all care team members providing CCM services must have access to the electronic care
plan. For example, after-hours clinicians or locum tenens, who are not part of the practice must have access to
the care plan.
Are there care management services specific to behavioral health?
Under Medicare, CMS allows physicians, non-physician practitioners, RHCs, and FQHCs to bill for behavioral
health integration (BHI) services they furnish to beneficiaries over a calendar month. This includes both
General BHI and the Psychiatric Collaborative Care Model (CoCM). Psychiatric CoCM billing codes for physicians
and non-physician practitioners are CPT codes 99492, 99493, and 99494. RHCs and FQHCs can only bill HCPCS code
G0512 for Psychiatric CoCM. Physicians and non-physician practitioners may bill CPT code 99484 when meeting the
requirements for BHI not considered Psychiatric CoCM. RHCs and FQHCs can only bill HCPCS code G0511 for BHI.
Are there any special considerations for Rural Health Clinic (RHC) and Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC)
billing for CCM?
RHCs and FQHCs can only bill for CCM and General BHI using HCPCS Code G0511, either alone or with other payable
services. The payment amount for HCPCS Code G0511 is set at the average of the national non-facility PFS payment
rates for CCM, General BHI, and Principal Care Management (PCM). If CCM is billed with other payable services,
it is paid separately and not
factored into the RHC or FQHC payment rate.
Prior to 2022, RHCs and FQHCs could not bill for CCM and TCM services, or another program that provides
additional payment for care management services (outside of the RHC all-inclusive rate (AIR) or FQHC prospective
payment system (PPS) payment), for the same beneficiary during the same time period. For
calendar year 2022 and beyond, CMS will allow RHCs and FQHCs to bill concurrently for care
management services. This means that, going forward, RHCs and FQHCs can provide CCM, TCM, and other care
management services for the same beneficiary in the same service period.
Are there any special considerations for Critical Access Hospital (CAH) billing for CCM?
Critical Access Hospitals can bill for Medicare Part B for CCM services. The patient should be assigned to an
outpatient billing provider. All billing requirements remain.
Are there care management services for beneficiaries with one chronic condition?
Beginning in 2020, CMS is introducing Principal
Care Management (PCM) services to provide comprehensive care management for beneficiaries with a single,
high-risk condition. Other CCM codes continue to require that patients have two or more chronic conditions. In
rulemaking for calendar year 2020, CMS indicated that “A qualifying condition will typically be expected to
last between 3 months and 1 year, or until the death of the patient, may have led to a recent
hospitalization, and/or place the patient at significant risk of death, acute exacerbation/ decompensation,
or functional decline.” These services
are billable under CPT codes 99424-99427 and HCPCS code G0511 for RHCs and FQHCs.
Care Management Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, July 2019
Care Management (CCM) Services, Noridian Healthcare Solutions, June 2019
(CMS) Chronic Care Management Webinar, The Advisory Board, June 2017
Benefit Policy Manual - RHC and FQHC Update - Chapter 13, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid
Services, April 2021
Health Integration Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, March 2021
Last Reviewed: 1/5/2022