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California Resources

California Physician Supply and Distribution: Headed for a Drought?
Describes the physicians in California as of 2015, including number, practice activities, demographics, and geographical distribution. Uses data from the Medical Board of California's survey for relicensure and a voluntary supplemental survey. Includes recommendations for maximizing physician resources in rural and underserved areas.
Author(s): Janet M. Coffman, Margaret Fix, Michelle Ko
Date: 06/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Health Care Foundation
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Opportunities and Challenges to Utilizing Telehealth Technologies in the Provision of Medication Assisted Therapies in the Medi-Cal Program
Describes advantages and barriers to using telehealth for delivery of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) to California's Medicaid enrollees, especially those in rural and underserved areas. Includes recommendations for changes to California state laws in order to alleviate the challenges. Appendix C lists states allowing telehealth prescribing.
Date: 06/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Connected Health Policy: The National Telehealth Policy Resource Center
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Using Storytelling to Address Oral Health Knowledge in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities
Results of a study conducted in 3 northern California tribal locations to evaluate an intervention using storytelling to promote prevention of early childhood tooth decay. Participants were 53 women who were pregnant or who had children ages 6 or younger.
Author(s): Brenda Heaton, Christina Gebel, Andrew Crawford, et al.
Citation: Preventing Chronic Disease, 15
Date: 05/2018
Type: Document
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Is Bigger Better? Exploring the Impact of System Membership on Rural Hospitals
Describes how system membership affects financial performance and transfer patterns of rural hospitals in California. Shows what financial benefits are involved and examines whether membership increases or decreases likelihood of closure. Includes appendices with lists of system and nonsystem hospitals by county, and rural hospital intercompany transfer statistics from 2011-2015.
Author(s): Glenn Melnick, Katya Fonkych
Date: 05/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Health Care Foundation
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The Rural Inpatient Mortality Study: Does Urban-Rural County Classification Predict Hospital Mortality in California?
Highlights a study on the correlation between rural hospitals and higher rates of hospital mortality in California. Breaks down data by age, gender, Critical Access Hospital (CAH) classification, and NCHS rurality-based class.
Author(s): Daniel T Linnen, John Kornak, Caroline Stephens
Citation: The Permanente Journal, 22, 17-078
Date: 03/2018
Type: Document
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A Healthy Smile Never Gets Old: A California Report on the Oral Health of Older Adults
Highlights oral health status and key issues among older adults living in California. Compares rates of untreated tooth decay and complete tooth loss in urban and rural areas of the state.
Author(s): Sahiti Bhaskara, Conrado E. Barzaga
Date: 03/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Oral Health
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California County Fact Sheets: Treatment Gaps in Opioid-Agonist Medication Assisted Therapy (OA-MAT) and Estimates of How Many Additional Prescribers Are Needed
Presents county-level estimates of opioid use disorder rates and treatment needs in California. Features statistics from 2016 including opioid overdose deaths, buprenorphine prescriptions, numbers of methadone patients, and February 2018 estimates of buprenorphine-waivered prescribers.
Author(s): Lisa Clemans-Cope, Douglas A. Wissoker, Marni Epstein
Date: 03/2018
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Urban Institute
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California's Current and Future Behavioral Health Workforce
Compiles and synthesizes data on California's licensed behavioral health workforce and pipeline of trainees. Features county-level behavioral health-related maps showing ratios of various types of providers to population and geographic distribution of training programs, graphs showing projected supply and demand for various types of providers, and demographic statistics on California's behavioral health workforce.
Author(s): Janet Coffman, Timothy Bates, Igor Geyn, Joanne Spetz
Date: 02/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Healthforce Center at UCSF
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Selected Rural Healthcare Facilities in California
Shows the state’s Critical Access Hospitals and Rural Health Clinics, as well as Federally Qualified Health Centers located outside of urbanized areas.
Date: 01/2018
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Financing Project ECHO: Options for State Medicaid Programs
Outlines how four states - California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oregon - are using Medicaid funds to support Project ECHO and enhance services for rural and other at-risk populations. Also shares design considerations for specific delivery system environments, and ways to ensure long-term program sustainability.
Author(s): Greg Howe, Allison Hamblin, Lauren Moran
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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California Maps: How Many Primary Care and Specialist Physicians Are in Your County?
Maps showing the number of primary care and specialty care physicians providing 20 or more hours of patient care weekly in all 58 counties of California as of 2015. Includes the number of physicians per 100,000 people and total population.
Author(s): Robbin Gaines
Date: 08/2017
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: California Health Care Foundation
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Regulating Network Adequacy for Rural Populations: Perspectives of Five States
Policy brief describing a study exploring how California, Kentucky, Montana, Texas, and Wisconsin define insurance network adequacy and how much consideration is given to rural issues in regulating their networks. Features statistics including these states' rural population, rural percent of total population, rural area in square miles, number of marketplace networks, and percent that are narrow networks.
Author(s): Michelle Casey, Carrie Henning-Smith, Jean Abraham, Ira Moscovice
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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Advancing Payment Innovation within Federally Qualified Health Centers: Lessons from California
Provides an overview of the California Department of Health Care Services' proposed Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) alternative payment methodology (APM), details the APM's development process, and shares key lessons learned to date. The pilot project involves several rural health centers, and aims to give FQHCs more effective incentives to achieve the healthcare Triple Aim - better care, better health, and lower costs.
Author(s): Greg Howe, Kathy Moses, Tricia McGinnis
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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California’s Primary Care Workforce: Current Supply, Characteristics, and Pipeline of Trainees
Describes the supply, distribution, and characteristics of California's primary care clinicians with rural-relevant information included throughout. Addresses primary care residency program distribution and training.
Additional links: Executive Summary
Author(s): Janet Coffman, Igor Geyn, Kristine Himmerick
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Healthforce Center at UCSF
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Network Spotlight: North Coast Clinics Network
Highlights the Eureka, California based North Coast Clinics Network (NCCN), which works to improve efficiency and quality of care across its Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) members. Covers NCCN's characteristics, key learnings, accomplishments, and challenges faced through an interview with Director of Education and Innovation, Trisha Cooke, and Executive Director, Tim Rine.
Date: 10/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Resource Center
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Adolescent Births in California 2000-2014
A slide presentation providing statistics ranging from 2000 – 2014 on the number of births, and the number and age of females giving birth in California by race, ethnicity, and county.
Date: 08/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Department of Public Health
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Characteristics of Medicaid Beneficiaries Who Use Rural Health Clinics
Describes the population of Rural Health Clinic (RHC) users from North Carolina, Georgia, California, and Texas to assist in policy making and in research, using CMS Medicaid claim data from RHCs, or from healthcare providers practicing under the RHC program.
Author(s): Marisa Domino, Seth Tyree, Regina Rutledge, et al.
Date: 05/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program
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Colorectal Cancer Burden and Access to Federally Qualified Health Centers in California
Examines the geographic variation, distance to a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC), and poverty level of the patient population and their access to a private vehicle relative to the number of late-stage diagnosis of colorectal cancer in California.
Author(s): Brendan Darsie, Jennifer Rico, Madhurima Gadgil, Joshua Tootoo
Citation: Preventing Chronic Disease, 12
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
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Using Community Participation to Assess Acceptability of "Contra Caries", A Theory-Based, Promotora-led Oral Health Education Program for Rural Latino Parents: A Mixed Methods Study
Reports on a qualitative study of a promotora-led oral health education program for low-income, Spanish-speaking parents of children aged 1–5 years, conducted in a rural agricultural city in California.
Author(s): Kristin S. Hoeft, Sarah M. Rios, Estela Pantoja Guzman, Judith C. Barker
Citation: BMC Oral Health, 15(103)
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
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Lessons on Climate Change and Poverty From the California Drought
Examines the impact of climate change, specifically the current California drought, on vulnerable populations including low-income, agricultural communities and Native American populations within the state. Discusses drought-related health conditions and the drought's impact on food security, especially for agricultural workers. Offers recommendations to address the uneven impact of climate change, including emergency money for small and rural communities affected by the drought.
Author(s): Wendy Ortiz
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for American Progress
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Do Rural and Urban Women Experience Differing Rates of Maternal Rehospitalizations?
Compares rural and urban differences in maternal hospital readmission rates for women who delivered with minor assistance and for women who delivered by cesarean section, using data from the 2011 California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.
Author(s): Wei-Chen Lee, Charles Phillips, Robert Ohsfeldt
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 15, 3335
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
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Realizing the Promise of Telehealth for Children with Special Health Care Needs
Describes how telehealth can improve access for children with special healthcare needs in California, particularly those living in rural areas. Provides an overview of California's telehealth policies, and describes how telehealth is being used in the state to meet the needs of this population.
Author(s): Jacob Vigil, Jenny Kattlove, Rebecca Litman, et al.
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Children's Partnership
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The California Health Care Landscape
Fact sheet providing an overview of demographics, population health, health coverage, healthcare safety net, and Medi-Cal (Medicaid) managed care in urban and rural areas in California.
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Program on Medicaid and the Uninsured
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Community Health Centers and Telehealth: A Cost Analysis Report & Recommendations
Summarizes the findings from a study undertaken by 3 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and 2 Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) in California, to understand the costs and revenue sources for telehealth services. Includes a series of policy recommendations and suggestions for advancing the use of telehealth programs among community health centers (CHCs).
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Connected Health Policy: The National Telehealth Policy Resource Center
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Healthy Border 2020: A Prevention & Health Promotion Initiative
Reports on the prevailing public health issues occurring in U.S.-Mexico border populations. Identifies an agenda focused on health promotion and disease prevention and develops a strategy for implementing a coordinated public health response at the binational, state and local levels.
Date: 06/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: United States-México Border Health Commission
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Border Health Epidemiology Report 2015
An overview of the health status of the population living along the California border region that includes healthcare access, obesity, diabetes, mental health, tuberculosis, sexually transmissible infections, HIV/AIDS, immunizations, and vaccine preventable diseases.
Author(s): Maggie Santibáñez, Stephanie Yoon, Jennifer Britton, et al.
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: California Office of Binational Border Health, Maggie Santibáñez, Stephanie Yoon, et al.
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The Impact of Hospital Obstetric Volume on Maternal Outcomes in Term, Non-Low-Birthweight Pregnancies
Analyzes the impact of hospital obstetric volumes on maternal outcomes in low-risk women delivering non-low-birthweight infants at term. Includes hospital obstetric outcome data by rural and non-rural and hospital volume category. Covers a comparison of maternal outcomes by rural and non-rural hospitals and provides maternal characteristics by rural and non-rural.
Author(s): Jonathan M. Snowden, Yvonne W. Cheng, Cathy L. Emeis, CNM, Aaron B. Caughey
Citation: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 212(3), 380.e1-380.e9
Date: 03/2015
Type: Document
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Accountable Care Communities in Rural: Laying the Groundwork in Humboldt County, California
Describes how Accountable Care Communities (ACCs) employ a unified approach to improving the health of a population and reducing costs, by emphasizing preventive health and wellness efforts, as well as promoting collaboration among community-based organizations, social services, and the local health care system. Examines the ways in which the ACC model may help rural communities face challenges associated with poorer health outcomes, transportation difficulties, and shortages of healthcare providers.
Author(s): Paula Weigel, Chance Finegan, Jocelyn Richgels, et al.
Date: 03/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute Rural Health Panel
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Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program, Critical Access Hospital Designation Resource Guide 2014
Provides information and resources for rural hospitals participating in Medicare to convert into a Critical Access Hospital (CAH) status.
Date: 06/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California State Office of Rural Health
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Concentrations of the Urinary Pyrethroid Metabolite 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid in Farm Worker Families in the MICASA Study
Reports on a study of mothers and children within the Mexican immigrant population of California farm working families who are exposed to pyrethroid pesticides.
Author(s): Kelly J. Trunnelle, Deborah H. Bennett, Ki Chang Ahn, et al.
Citation: Environmental Research, 131, 153-159
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
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Nonmydriatic Fundus Photography for Teleophthalmology Diabetic Retinopathy Screening in Rural and Urban Clinics
Examines the diagnostic value of telehealth for eye exams to screen for diabetic retinopathy in remote California Native American Indian Reservations compared to patients seen in person at an urban University of California Davis medical clinic. Includes data and statistics for urban versus rural, ethnicity, and optic conditions present.
Author(s): Eric K. Chin, Bruna V. Ventura, Kai-Yin See, Joann Seibles, Susanna S. Park
Citation: Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 20(2),102-108
Date: 02/2014
Type: Document
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The CHANGE Study: A Healthy-Lifestyles Intervention to Improve Rural Children’s Diet Quality
Describes the Creating Healthy, Active and Nurturing Growing-Up Environments (CHANGE) study. CHANGE is a community- and school-based intervention used to assess the quality of students' diets with the goal of preventing unhealthy weight gain among rural school-aged children.
Author(s): Juliana F. W. Cohen, Vivica I. Kraak, Silvina F. Choumenkovitch, Raymond R. Hyatt, Christina D. Economos
Citation: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(1)
Date: 01/2014
Type: Document
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Taking Innovation to Scale: Community Health Workers, Promotores and the Triple Aim: A Statewide Assessment of the Roles and Contributions of California’s Community Health Workers
An assessment of rural and urban California health centers that use CHWs in their practice identifying the common barriers, including a lack of reimbursement methods, restricted diagnostic ability and access to data linked to CHW services, and limited information of evidence-based practices.
Author(s): Kevin Barnett
Date: 12/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Public Health Institute
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Causes and Consequences of Rural Pharmacy Closures: A Multi-Case Study
Identifies factors that contributed to the closing of six rural pharmacies in different states and describes how the affected communities adapted to losing locally based services.
Author(s): Kelli Todd, Katie Westfall, Bill Doucette, Fred Ullrich, Keith Mueller
Date: 08/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
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County Health Status Profiles 2013: 20th Anniversary Edition 1993-2013
Reports on health status indicators recommended by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services for monitoring state and local progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 goals for the state of California. Includes county specific information for cancer deaths, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and other health conditions.
Author(s): John Rudzinskas, Alicia Van Hoy, Scott Fujimoto, et al.
Date: 2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Department of Public Health
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California Rural Health Report 2012
Provides a variety of data that includes a rural/urban comparison on population trends, socio-economics, birth and death rates, health insurance, health status, preventive measures, and hospitals and clinics.
Date: 11/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California State Office of Rural Health
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Humboldt County, California: A Promising Model for Rural Human Services Integration for Transformation
Summarizes an assessment of Humboldt County, California's integrated health and human services delivery model. Analyzes operational structure and model elements that resulted in demonstrated effectiveness in serving a rural community.
Author(s): Mario Gutierrez, Kathleen Belanger, Jane Forrest Redfern, Larry Goolsby, Jocelyn Richgels
Date: 02/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute Rural Human Services Panel
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California’s Health Care Workforce: Readiness for the ACA Era
Examines the current and future capacity of California’s healthcare workforce to meet the increase in demand in rural and urban areas resulting from expanded insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Includes licensing and workforce data on numerous health care professions in California as well as policy recommendations for addressing workforce challenges.
Author(s): Tim Bates, Lisel Blash, Susan Chapman, Catherine Dower, Edward O’Neil
Date: 11/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Healthforce Center at UCSF
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Accountable Care Organizations in California: Programmatic and Legal Considerations
Summarizes discussion on policy and regulatory issues likely to arise in connection with the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP), Pioneer Program, and commercial Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) in California.
Author(s): William S. Bernstein, Jonah P. B. Frohlich, Francis J. LaPallo, Arun R. Patel, Martin J. Thompson
Date: 07/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Health Care Foundation
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The Health Status and Unique Health Challenges of Rural Older Adults in California
Examines the health of rural elders and their urban counterparts compared to suburban older adults. Covers geographical isolation, environmental and other risk factors to to be considered by policymakers working towards solutions.
Author(s): Eva M. Durazo, Melissa R. Jones, Steven P. Wallace, et al.
Date: 06/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research
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Designing Safety-Net Clinics for Innovative Care Delivery Models
Identifies key characteristics of physical, environment design for new care delivery models and to provide new design recommendations. Includes discussion related to improving telehealth and mobile healthcare delivery models.
Author(s): Xiaobo Quan, Anjali Joseph, Ellen Taylor, Amy Keller
Date: 03/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Health Care Foundation
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Advancing California’s Leadership in Telehealth Policy: A Telehealth Model Statute and Other Policy Recommendations
Describes model statute, a platform for the ideal California telehealth policy environment, developed by the Center for Connected Health Policy (CCHP). Includes discussion on the importance of telehealth delivery in rural settings.
Author(s): Bonnie Preston, Patricia E. Powers, Mei Wa Kwong
Date: 02/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Connected Health Policy: The National Telehealth Policy Resource Center
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Telehealth in Community Clinics: Three Case Studies in Implementation
Discusses experiences and lessons learned from the three community health organizations, in rural and urban settings, who planned and implemented telehealth programs. Includes facilitators and barriers to telehealth program implementation and operation and discusses patient and provider satisfaction.
Author(s): Christine Duclos, Julie M. Hook, Michael P. Rodriguez
Date: 11/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Health Care Foundation
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Outside the Box: Case Studies in Creative Clinic Design
Examines the need for and role of well-conceived facilities within the safety net system. Highlights two rural California clinics that used outside-the-box thinking to create buildings that support new models of care.
Author(s): Dana Dubbs
Date: 06/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Health Care Foundation
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The Financial Health of California's Critical Access Hospitals
Examines the financial health of California's Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) by looking at their performance over the past six years and comparing it with all of the state's acute care hospitals on a number of measures. Also examines the before-and-after financial experience of hospitals that converted to CAH status in 2005.
Additional links: Snapshot
Author(s): Shelley Oberlin, Brian Thygesen, Scott Walters
Date: 02/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Health Care Foundation
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Improving Access to Care for Medically Underserved Californians: Securing Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) Designations
Describes an initiative to increase healthcare provider capacity in medically underserved areas throughout the service areas of the North Coast Clinics Network (NCCN) made up of four Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and one community clinic. Discusses issues recruiting healthcare providers to rural areas.
Author(s): Annette L. Gardner, Tina Tvedt
Date: 01/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Endowment
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School-Based Telehealth: An Innovative Approach to Meet the Health Care Needs of California's Children
Describes telehealth in schools is emerging as a way to complement and expand the capacity of schools to meet the healthcare needs of children, specifically children from low-income families and living in medically underserved areas including rural.
Date: 10/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Children's Partnership
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Critical Access Hospital Profiles
Profiles California's Critical Access Hospitals, including the number of beds and information on the services they provide.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: California Critical Access Hospital Network
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California Health and Human Services Open Data Portal
Provides over 150 downloadable spreadsheets with county-level data on the healthcare workforce, mortality rates and causes, demographics, facilities and services, diseases and conditions, and more for California.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: California Department of Health Care Services
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Cancer-Rates.info
Contains cancer incidence and mortality data for a number of states, with the option to view data by county, cancer type, gender, race and ethnicity, and in most cases, rural/urban geography.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: University of Kentucky
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Rural Border Health Topic Guide
Information and resources about U.S.-Mexico border health issues.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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California Health Centers Research & Data
Provides maps of Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) locations and communities experiencing shortages of primary care physicians. Also includes information on the populations served by health centers, services provided, staff, patient visits, costs of care, and use of electronic health information.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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ERS State Fact Sheet: California
State-level data on population, poverty, food security, educational attainment, employment, and income. Includes data for rural areas, urban areas, and the state as a whole.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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California KIDS COUNT Data Center (KCDC)
Provides data on child well-being for the state. Covers demographics, economic well-being, education, family and community, health, and safety and risky behaviors. Some data available by county.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Annie E. Casey Foundation
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California QuickFacts
State-level data on demographics, housing, income, and other social determinants of health, with the option to add data for counties and cities and towns with a population of 5,000 or more. Includes information from multiple U.S. Census Bureau censuses, surveys, and programs.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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California State Health Facts
State-level data on demographics, health status, healthcare costs and access, healthcare providers, and more.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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Rural Migration News
Summarizes and analyzes the most important migration-related issues affecting immigrant farm workers in California and the United States. Published quarterly.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
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Additional resources are available. See a full list of California Resources.


Last Updated: 8/17/2018