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Community Vitality and Rural Healthcare Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Community Vitality and Rural Healthcare.

Tackling Poverty in Rural Communities
Discusses the Intergenerational Poverty Initiative in Weber County, UT. Details efforts to support health and well-being, access, resiliency, and dignity through mentors and role models in order to promote self-determination in impoverished youth.
Additional links: Webinar Links, Webinar Slides
Date: 09/2017
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: County Health Rankings & Roadmaps
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Pine Ridge Agriculture Economy (PRAE)
Describes the initiative on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation to enhance the economy of the reservation through job creation. Initiative was designed to help families achieve an acceptable standard of living while utilizing technology and effective value-added techniques, to incorporate sustainable and natural resource conservation, attract individuals to agriculture, and support self-sufficiency, while also creating a sustainable and healthy food supply for the community.
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Agriculture
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USDA Rural Development: 2016 Progress Report
Highlights the investments U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development (RD) has made to promote community and economic development in 2016, many of which impact the overall health and safety of rural Americans. Provides state-by-state statistics, funding totals for RD programs, and highlights a specific RD program from each state. Includes information on RD funding for Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Western Pacific.
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Rural Development
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Considering Culture: Building the Best Evidence-Based Practices for Children of Color
A case study examining how culture impacts the effectiveness of evidence-based practices in communities of color, suggestions for how that efficacy may be improved, and options beyond the traditional programs that are proving to be valuable for the children in those communities. A specific discussion (pages 6-7) of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program in Georgia gives a rural perspective to the issue.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Annie E. Casey Foundation
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Improving Community Health through Hospital Community Benefit Spending: Charting a Path to Reform
Provides background on the origin and importance of nonprofit hospital community benefit spending, and explains the difference between community building and community benefit activities. Also examines policy options that the IRS could use to enhance community benefit spending focused on improving health community-wide. Includes rural-specific statistics, and multiple comparisons of items identified in community health needs assessments (CHNAs).
Author(s): Sara Rosenbaum, Maureen Byrnes, Sara Rothenberg, Rachel Gunsalus
Date: 12/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: George Washington University Department of Health Policy and Management, Milken Institute School of Public Health
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Exploring Transit’s Contribution to Livability in Rural Communities: Case Study of Valley City, ND, and Dickinson, ND
Examines the connection between transit and rural livability by conducting surveys and interviews in 2 rural North Dakota communities: Valley City and Dickinson. Criteria for the survey included rider diversity, trip purpose, transit utilization, transit patronage, service variety, and ease of outreach. Discussion covers several factors of livability including access to quality healthcare.
Author(s): Ranjit Godavarthy, Jeremy Mattson
Date: 11/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute
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Measuring Rural Wealth Creation: A Guide for Regional Development Organizations
Presents concepts and samples to create a development plan for measuring progress in rural wealth creation for rural development organizations (RDOs) involved in community and economic development. Specifically identifies 8 forms of capital measures useful to evaluate progress in rural wealth creation including the skills, understanding, physical health and mental wellness of the individuals within the community.
Author(s): Carrie Kissel
Date: 11/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Development Organizations
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Comparing the Community Benefit Spending of Critical Access, Other Rural, and Urban Hospitals
Examines the levels and types of community benefit spending by Critical Access, rural, and urban hospitals, and compares the spending by percentage of total expenses, as well as by category - direct patient care versus community-building activities.
Author(s): John Gale, Zach Croll, Andrew Coburn, Jamar Croom
Date: 11/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Flex Monitoring Team
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Economic Impact of a Critical Access Hospital on a Rural Community
Estimates the economic impact of a Critical Access Hospital (CAH) on a rural community. Uses data collected from 2012 to 2016, representing 91 CAHs across 18 states. Discusses direct impacts, such as employee wages and benefits, as well as secondary benefits such as construction activity and retail spending.
Author(s): Gerald A. Doeksen, Cheryl F. St. Clair, Fred C. Eilrich
Date: 10/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Estimate the Economic Impact of a Rural Primary Care Physician
Provides estimates of, and the methodology used to determine the economic impact of a primary care physician on a rural community. Shows that the economic impact is greater in communities that have a local hospital, where the physician can refer patients and provide inpatient services.
Author(s): Fred C Eilrich, Gerald A. Doeksen, Cheryl F. St. Clair
Date: 10/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Economic Impact of Rural Health Care
Presents the economic impacts that various healthcare components have on rural communities. Covers topics such as Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), rural hospital closures, prospective payment system (PPS) hospitals, Rural Health Clinics (RHCs), primary care physicians, and more.
Author(s): Gerald A. Doeksen, Cheryl F. St. Clair, Fred C. Eilrich
Date: 10/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Estimate the Annual Economic Impact of an Independent Rural Health Clinic
Study featuring two scenarios, the first exploring average economic employment and labor income impacts of an independent rural health clinic, and the second looking at the same scenario without direct physician employment.
Author(s): Fred C. Eilrich, Gerald A. Doeksen, Cheryl F. St. Clair
Date: 10/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Broadband Planning Primer and Toolkit
Provides information, tools and resources on broadband technology and planning for the development of Internet service in the Appalachian region. Focuses on identifying the unserved demand for broadband, developing partnerships, and reducing barriers for broadband providers to develop technology in underserved areas. Priorities of this primer are to reduce isolation, support economic development, increase educational opportunities, improve healthcare including telehealth, and enhance community capacity within the region.
Author(s): Jane Smith Patterson, Deborah T. Watts, Brian Rathbone, Stephanie Jane Edwards
Date: 08/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Appalachian Regional Commission
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Vulnerable Rural Counties: The Changing Rural Landscape, 2000-2010
A study of how rural counties were impacted by the 2008 recession, specifically focused on an increase in poverty levels, shifts in population, and loss or reduction of healthcare services and facilities. Includes county-by-county maps with data such as poverty and unemployment rates, elderly population, educational level, non-white population, health insurance coverage, availability of primary care and other specialties, and change in number of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Appendices include tables comparing urban and rural/remote county statistics.
Additional links: Fact Sheet
Author(s): Kevin J. Bennett, Yu-Hsiu Lin, Matthew Yuen, Deshia Leonhirth, Janice C. Probst
Date: 07/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
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The Economic Impact of Rural Broadband
Provides an estimate of the direct and indirect economic activities of the rural broadband industry on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and their effect on other rural industries, including healthcare.
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Hudson Institute
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Beyond Rural Walls: Identifying Impacts and Interdependencies Among Rural and Urban Spaces - A Survey of Literature
Discusses the economic benefits of broadband distribution and usage in business, education, healthcare, and public safety in rural and urban areas. Describes the interdependencies between rural and urban broadband, and the impact of rural broadband utilization on urban areas.
Author(s): Joshua Seidemann
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: NTCA: The Rural Broadband Association
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The Economic Impacts of 26-50 Bed PPS Hospitals & 51-100 Bed PPS Hospitals on the Local Economies
Discusses the key characteristics of rural prospective payment system (PPS) hospitals and how they impact the economies of the communities where they are located. Uses data from the American Hospital Association (AHA) database, and analyzes the employment and labor income of two size categories of hospitals - 26 to 50 beds, and 51 to 100 beds. Includes a template for PPS hospitals to estimate their economic impact.
Author(s): Gerald A. Doeksen, Cheryl F. St. Clair, Fred C. Eilrich
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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The Economic Impact of Recent Hospital Closures on Rural Communities
Estimates the direct and secondary economic impacts of recent hospital closures on rural communities, focusing on labor (wages, salaries, benefits) and employment (jobs) income. Uses data collected from 16 hospitals, representing 13 states, that have closed since 2010, of which 9 were designated as Critical Access Hospitals.
Author(s): Fred C Eilrich, Gerald A. Doeksen, Cheryl F. St. Clair
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Creating Opportunity and Prosperity Through Strengthening Rural-Urban Connections
Highlights examples in which regional development organizations can benefit from linking rural regions with urban centers. Includes information on broadband development and its implication for improving access to healthcare services.
Author(s): Brian Dabson, Erin Meyers
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Development Organizations
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Rural Economic Development
A policy brief identifying the critical elements - community development, diversified economic development plan, educational opportunities, and healthcare workforce development - for addressing the quality of life challenges faced by rural communities.
Author(s): Alison F. Davis
Date: 02/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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An Overview of Nursing Homes and the Economic Impact of Rural Nursing Homes
Discusses the projected national total health expenditures and national nursing home expenditures that are affected by the aging population of the U.S. and increased life expectancies. Identifies how nursing homes contribute economically to the community through wages, salaries and benefits.
Author(s): Cheryl F. St. Clair, Gerald A. Doeksen, Fred C. Eilrich
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Cultivating a Competitive Advantage: How Rural Counties Are Growing Economies with Local Assets and Regional Partners
Case studies of rural counties using creative methods to improve their economies. Includes examples that involve the healthcare sector and address issues that impact health.
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Counties
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Models to Estimate the Economic Impact of a Rural Nurse Practitioner or Physician Assistant
Discusses the advantages of using nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) for the provision of primary care services to meet the workforce challenges in rural settings and how they contribute economically to the community.
Author(s): Fred C. Eilrich, Gerald A. Doeksen, Cheryl F. St. Clair,
Date: 08/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Keeping Rural Communities Healthy
Recognizes that keeping rural communities healthy is vital to the U.S. economy. Provides an overview of characteristics of rural populations, rural health statistics, barriers to healthcare in rural areas, economic implications of rural healthcare, and relevant policy actions to keep rural America healthy.
Author(s): U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee Democratic Staff
Date: 07/2014
Type: Document
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Middle-Skill Jobs Remain More Common Among Rural Workers
Explores employment trends among middle-skill jobs including the healthcare sector and the recession’s impact on middle-skill workers in rural compared to urban areas.
Author(s): Justin R. Young
Date: 06/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Creating Equitable, Healthy, and Sustainable Communities: Strategies for Advancing Smart Growth, Environmental Justice, and Equitable Development
Identifies strategies that tribal areas, rural communities, suburbs and cities can use to build healthy, sustainable, and inclusive communities. Strategies involve culture, public health, infrastructure, economics, housing, transportation, and schools.
Author(s): Megan McConville, Heather Case, Susan Conbere, et al.
Date: 02/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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Estimating the Need for a General Surgeon Based on the Demand for Primary Care Practitioners in the Medical Service Area
Provides a methodology to estimate the need for rural general surgery based on available primary care services.
Author(s): Fred C. Eilrich, Jonathan C. Sprague, Cheryl F. St. Clair, Gerald A Doeksen
Date: 09/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Regional Health Needs Assessment Project: The Economic Impact of Ohio’s Critical Access Hospitals in 2010
Describes the economic impact of Ohio’s 34 Critical Access Hospitals. Developed as part of the Regional Community Health Needs Assessments Project conducted for four regions across Ohio between November 2011 and May 2012.
Date: 05/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Ohio Department of Health
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Regional Resilience: Research and Policy Brief
Summarizes research on disaster resiliency. Provides a framework for assessing current policy and practice as it relates to regional resilience. Includes rural areas.
Author(s): Brian Dabson, Colleen M. Heflin, Kathleen K. Miller
Date: 02/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute
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Dynamics of Sustainability: A Primer for Rural Health Organizations
Provides information and case studies on sustainability for rural organizations that are starting new programs.
Date: 02/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Community Health Centers and the Economy: Assessing Centers’ Role in Immediate Job Creation Efforts
Examines the economic benefits and jobs creation opportunities in rural and urban communities as a result of investments in community health centers.
Author(s): Sara Rosenbaum, Peter Shin
Date: 09/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: George Washington University Department of Health Policy and Management
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The Power of Trails for Promoting Physical Activity in Communities
Highlights findings on specific trail characteristics that appear to attract regular users and examines how trails influence physical activity among various populations. Includes evidence from two studies of adults living in rural Missouri.
Author(s): Philip J. Troped, Heather A. Whitcomb
Date: 01/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Active Living Research
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Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities
Identifies how federal agencies can work together to help rural areas to be economically vibrant, environmentally sustainable and promote healthy living.
Date: 2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Agriculture
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The Economic Impact of a Rural General Surgeon and Model for Forecasting Need
Identifies the economic benefits of a general surgeon and offers a methodology to estimate the need for a rural general surgeon.
Author(s): Fred Eilrich, Jonathan Sprague, Brian Whitacre, et al.
Date: 09/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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The Importance of Community Health Centers: Engines of Economic Activity and Job Creation
Examines the role of community health centers and their potential to deliver jobs and economic growth in rural and urban communities.
Author(s): Ellen-Marie Whelan
Date: 08/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for American Progress
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Parks, Playgrounds and Active Living
Summarizes the growing body of evidence concerning the role of urban and rural parks in shaping active lifestyles across a variety of study populations, including children, seniors, lower-income families, specific racial and ethnic groups and other populations at high risk of being inactive.
Date: 02/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Active Living Research
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Putting Smart Growth to Work in Rural Communities
Report focuses on smart growth strategies that can help guide growth in rural areas while protecting natural and working lands and preserving the rural character of existing communities. Includes strategies related to public health goals, such as walkability and parks.
Author(s): Nadejda Mishkovsky, Matthew Dalbey, Stephanie Bertaina, Anna Read, Tad McGalliard
Date: 2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: International City/County Management Association
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Broadband Internet Service Helping Create a Rural Digital Economy
Discusses the benefits of broadband high speed Internet service in rural communities, including the use of telehealth.
Author(s): Peter Stenberg, Mitch Morehart, John Cromartie
Location: Amber Waves
Date: 09/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Economic Loss to Community from Primary Care Practitioner Shortage
Provides detailed information on the costs to a community if the local health care system is experiencing a shortage of primary care practitioners.
Date: 05/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Building the Capacity of Drinking Water Systems
Resources and information to support small water systems, serving 10,000 or fewer people. Topics addressed include capacity-building, regulation compliance, and funding.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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Smart Rural Community
Resources focused on broadband availability and implementation, designating towns as a "Smart Rural Community." Includes white papers, videos, webcasts, and access to models that can be followed to create your own rural telecommunications hub.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: NTCA: The Rural Broadband Association
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PubMed Search: Community and Economic Development and Rural Health
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on the topics of community and economic development and rural health.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: National Library of Medicine
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Rural Health Works: Health Care's Economic Impact
A tool developed to help rural communities in Minnesota assess the economic impact of health services in their communities and engage in community planning that will strengthen and preserve health services.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Minnesota Department of Health - Office of Rural Health and Primary Care
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CDBG Program Contacts
Directory of Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program state contacts.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
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Rural e-News
Provides a compilation of funding opportunities, training and new information on relevant topics for rural economic development, community development and education.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
Sponsoring organization: Rural Local Initiatives Support Corporation
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Sustainability Planning Tools
Collection of resources to help consider long-term program sustainability plans that address community needs and engage partners and stakeholders in the process.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Georgia Health Policy Center
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Economic Impact: Tools and Templates
Access tools and templates for studying the economic impact, in rural areas, of FQHCs, Critical Access Hospitals, different health care providers, the social service sector, Medicaid, medical schools, and telemedicine.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Community Commons
An interactive mapping tool that provides access to data from a wide range of sources on topics that include demographics, social and economic factors, education, health issues, and the environment.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Center for Applied Research and Environmental Systems
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County Health Rankings and Roadmaps
County-by-county information on health outcomes and health factors. Each county is ranked within its state. Includes data related to length of life, quality of life, clinical care, health behaviors, social and economic factors that impact health, and the physical environment. State Health Gaps reports explore differences in health among counties for each state. Also includes examples of how the rankings have been used and of effective programs and policies to improve health.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
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Rural Connections
Published twice a year, each issue focuses on a particular topic of interest to residents in the Western U.S. Contributors include researchers, faculty, and professionals throughout the nation. Examples of past topics include health communities, water, food security, sustainability, renewable energy, and emergency preparedness.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
Sponsoring organization: Western Rural Development Center
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Economic Impact Analysis Tool
Generates summary reports detailing how grant spending can benefit a local, rural economy. Reports can reflect past, current, and future grant spending. Tool can be used by any rural community health organization wanting to know how their activities economic impact their community.
Type: Tool
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA) Tools
A set of tools to assess the physical environment features and amenities, town characteristics, community programs, and policies that can affect physical activity among rural residents.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Active Living Research
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USDA Service Centers: Rural Development
Provides contact information for USDA Rural Development service centers by state and county.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Agriculture
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Center for Rural Affairs Newsletter
Monthly publication that surveys national events affecting rural America.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
Sponsoring organization: Center for Rural Affairs
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Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 12/15/2017