Rural Long-Term Care Facilities
Long-term care facilities provide residential living arrangements and a variety of services for people who are unable to live at home and may need help with:
- Activities of daily living
- Chronic healthcare needs
- Mental or physical rehabilitation
- Nutritional programs and services
- Occupational and physical therapy
- Skilled nursing care
Rural long-term care facilities may include:
- Nursing homes – Provide residential accommodations, help with activities of daily living, and 24-hour skilled nursing care.
- Assisted living facilities – Provide housing and services to people who need assistance but do not require round-the-clock skilled nursing care. Support may include help with activities of daily living, meals, housekeeping, medication management, transportation, and social and wellness programs.
- Residential services for people with developmental or other disabilities – Provide housing and nonmedical care and services for children or adults with disabilities or functional limitations. Many different names are used for facilities of this type, including assisted living, adult living facilities, group homes, developmental homes, and others.
A lack of long-term care facilities in rural communities can cause hardship and difficult choices. In such cases, people who need long-term care must decide, in consultation with their families and other caregivers, if home care is possible or if relocation to a facility outside of their community is necessary. A move to another community can be stressful, and family members might not be able to visit as often as they would like. Communities also experience economic loss and diminished social connections when people leave.
Frequently Asked Questions
- What services do rural long-term care facilities provide?
- What are characteristics of residents of rural long-term care facilities?
- Where are long-term care facilities located?
- How is long-term care paid for?
- How does the lack of home and community-based services affect utilization of assisted living and nursing homes in rural areas?
- How prevalent is the provision of long-term care services by Critical Access Hospitals?
- What effect do assisted living facilities and nursing homes have on the local economy?
- What types of workforce issues do rural long-term care facilities face?
- What mental health needs exist in rural long-term care facilities and how can they be addressed?
- How does the quality of care of rural long-term care facilities compare with other facilities?
- What type of funding is available to build long-term care facilities in rural areas?
- How is technology/telehealth used to meet the needs of those living in long-term care facilities in rural areas?
- What is the role of rural nursing homes in providing post-acute care?
What services do rural long-term care facilities provide?
There is a range of services provided by residential care facilities, depending on the needs of the residents at a particular institution. Basic services include living space, food services, housekeeping services, supervised care, and health management. Some also provide physical, occupational, or music therapy, and social programs and activities.
What are characteristics of residents of rural long-term care facilities?
Some residents of rural nursing homes simply need help performing activities of daily living, such as dressing, eating, toileting, and bathing, while others require a higher level of care. According to the University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center's 2017 policy brief Medical Barriers to Nursing Home Care for Rural Residents, patients in long-term care facilities may suffer from complex medical problems such as obesity, dementia, high blood pressure, and behavioral or psychiatric disorders. In order to address these issues adequately, nursing homes may require extra equipment and staff members who have received advanced training. The researchers found that other possible solutions to these challenges include increased funding, more beds, and elimination of the current Medicare requirement of a three-night inpatient hospital stay.
Where are long-term care facilities located?
This map shows locations of one type of long-term care facility, dually certified Skilled Nursing Facilities, in rural areas of the United States, as of December 2016:
How is long-term care paid for?
Long-term care can be financed through various public and private sources, each with its own rules on what services are and aren't covered:
Pays for a large share of long-term care services. Patient's income must be below a certain level and must meet state eligibility requirements related to the amount of assistance needed.
The resident and his or her family pay for services, using sources such as:
- Personal savings
- Social security income
- Family donations
- Long-term care insurance
- Reverse mortgages
- Annuities, pensions, and life insurance options
Veterans are eligible for medical benefits services, which may include long-term care. For specific information, visit the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Geriatrics and Extended Care: Paying for Long Term Care website.
Medicare provides only short-term reimbursement for care in long-term facilities, and does not cover non-skilled services related to activities of daily living. It pays for skilled nursing facility care or rehabilitation services within 30 days following a 3-day hospital inpatient stay, for a maximum of 100 days per benefit period.
For more information on Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance), see Medicare.gov: Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Care.
May provide reimbursement for short-term, skilled, medically necessary care in a long-term care facility.
How does the lack of home and community-based services affect utilization of assisted living and nursing homes in rural areas?
In recent years, there has been more emphasis on home and community-based services that can allow older adults and people with disabilities to remain in their homes. However, in rural areas, adequate services may not be available. According to the National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services' 2010 report,
“The greater supply of nursing homes in rural areas, along with a lack of home and community-based options for rural seniors, may result in increased nursing home placements.”
How prevalent is the provision of long-term care services by Critical Access Hospitals?
In rural communities, Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) play a vital role in providing long-term care services.
In Provision of Long Term Care Services by Critical Access Hospitals: Are Things Changing?, March 2011, rural hospitals were studied to assess whether and how the provision of long-term care services by CAHs has changed and how their involvement with long-term care services compares with other hospitals. The study showed that, as of 2008, CAHs were more likely than other rural hospitals to provide core long-term care services, although provision of long-term care services by all rural hospitals had declined in recent years, likely due to reimbursement changes. The publication states that in 2008, 42.4% of CAHs provided Skilled Nursing Facility care, 17.1% offered intermediate care, and 25.4% had a separate nursing home-type long-term care unit.
What effect do assisted living facilities and nursing homes have on the local economy?
Assisted living facilities and nursing homes not only serve patients and their families, but also help rural communities, where they can be a major source of jobs. These facilities and their employees contribute to the local economy through local spending for supplies and services. Visitors to the facilities make purchases in the community and also contribute to the local economy.
According to the National Center for Rural Health Works' 2014 document An Overview of Nursing Homes and the Economic Impact of Rural Nursing Homes,
“[A] rural nursing home may have employment impact from 65 to 137 employees, with wages, salaries and benefits (labor income) impact from $3.0 million to $6.7 million.”
What types of workforce issues do rural long-term care facilities face?
The National Direct Service Workforce Resource Center's 2011 document Strengthening the Direct Service Workforce in Rural Areas notes that rural long-term care facilities face unique workforce challenges. These include:
- Geographic isolation
- Transportation limitations
- Lack of opportunities for training and continuing education
- Chronic provider shortages
What mental health needs exist in rural long-term care facilities and how can they be addressed?
A 2013 study noted that over the previous twenty years there had been an increase in the number of nursing home residents who suffer from severe mental illness. Many have been diagnosed with dementia, depression, or schizophrenia, and there is a great need for onsite mental health services in long-term care facilities.
This high level of need among nursing home residents is a particular challenge for rural facilities, where there is often a lack of basic mental health infrastructure and significant shortages of mental health professionals.
In Mental Health Services in Rural Long-term Care: Challenges and Opportunities for Improvement, the authors propose methods for increasing the rural mental health workforce as well as using training programs delivered by telemedicine to build competencies of existing members of the rural health workforce. Using tele-mental health to provide services to rural nursing home residents is another key suggestion. For one example, see the University of Vermont Medical Center's telepsychiatry consultation service for rural nursing homes.
How does the quality of care of rural long-term care facilities compare with other facilities?
According to the University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center's 2015 policy brief Nurse Staffing Levels and Quality of Care in Rural Nursing Homes, although federal regulations specify minimum staffing levels for certified nursing homes, there is considerable variation in state-level requirements. Researchers found that facilities with higher proportions of RNs in their nursing staffs tended to have a higher quality of care. However, many rural areas have a shortage of RNs and a greater number of older adults within their populations.
A 2013 journal article, Nursing Home Quality: A Comparative Analysis Using CMS Nursing Home Compare Data to Examine Differences Between Rural and Nonrural Facilities, compared the quality of rural and nonrural nursing facilities, using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Nursing Home Compare data. Of the 15,177 nursing homes sampled, 69.2% were located in non-rural areas and 30.8% in rural. The study tested the overall, health inspection, staffing, and quality measure ratings, and found that rural nursing homes performed better in overall ratings and health inspections.
What type of funding is available to build long-term care facilities in rural areas?
The U.S. Department of Agriculture offers a variety of funding opportunities, including direct loans and grants, for construction in rural communities. The Strategic Economic and Community Development Program makes it possible for the USDA to put priority on projects that promote regional economic development, through several funding programs. These include:
- Community Facilities Direct Loan and Grant Program
- Community Facilities Guaranteed Loan Program
- Business and Industry Loan Guarantee Program
- Rural Business Development Grants
How is technology/telehealth used to meet the needs of those living in long-term care facilities in rural areas?
Nursing homes in rural areas often do not have 24-hour coverage by physicians, and as a result, patients may sometimes be transferred to a hospital unnecessarily if intervention is needed at a time when a physician is not present. This can result in higher costs and a greater risk of medical complications for patients. However, when telemedicine is used for consultation with off-site medical professionals, the cost is typically lower and patients may have better outcomes.
A 2014 Health Affairs article examined the use of telemedicine in 11 nursing homes, and found that there is considerable variation in the amount of engagement with telemedicine services—possibly due to the fact that although the nursing homes pay for the technology, it is often Medicare that reaps the cost savings for patient care. The authors conclude that policy changes may be necessary in order for long-term care facilities to engage fully with telemedicine services that will benefit both patients and institutions. For one example of a successful model, see the SD eResidential Facilities Healthcare Services Access Project.
What is the role of rural nursing homes in providing post-acute care?
Patients who need extra help when recuperating after hospital discharge often find that a temporary stay in a nursing home is ideal for their needs. They may require wound care, IV medications, feeding tubes, dialysis, rehabilitation or occupational therapy after joint replacement, or other specialized care. In this situation, the expectation would be that the nursing home stay would be of limited duration, and the patient would return to his or her previous living situation after healing and regaining strength.
Last Reviewed: 8/3/2017