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Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and the Health Center Program – Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and the Health Center Program.

Community Health Centers Continue Steady Growth, But Challenges Loom
An overview of the performance of community health centers (CHCs) compiled from current and past data reported annually to the federal government through the Uniform Data System (UDS). Data includes the total number of CHCs nationwide and in rural areas, patient demographics, patient volume, health insurance coverage, types of services rendered, number of health center staff, and health center revenue. Discusses the impact of growth on CHCs particularly in Medicaid expansion states.
Author(s): Jessica Sharac, Peter Shin, Sara Rosenbaum, et al.
Date: 09/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Geiger Gibson Program, Milken Institute School of Public Health at George Washington University, RCHN Community Health Foundation
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Community Health Centers Meeting Rural Health Needs
Discusses the barriers to receiving and providing healthcare in rural communities, and highlights with data how community health centers are addressing barriers, delivering needed services, and improving health outcomes.
Date: 08/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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A Change-Management Approach to Closing Care Gaps in a Federally Qualified Health Center: A Rural Kentucky Case Study
Case study focused on application of the proactive office encounter (POE) model to understand how a rural Appalachian Kentucky Federally Qualified Health Center implemented changes to improve delivery of preventive care services, close care gaps, and reduce health disparities among patients.
Author(s): Angela L. Carman, Robin C. Vanderpool, Lindsay R. Stradtman, Emily A. Edmiston
Citation: Preventing Chronic Disease, 16
Date: 08/2019
Type: Document
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Accelerating Value-Based Payment in California's Federally Qualified Health Centers: Options for Medicaid Health Plans
Highlights examples of value-based payment (VBP) models for Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), including a rural Hawaii model and a Colorado model that incorporates rural FQHCs. Covers Accountable Care Organization (ACO) models, state-led Capitated Alternative Payment Models (APMs), state-led quality payment adjustments, and Medicaid shared savings ACO models. Addresses how FQHCs and health plans can overcome challenges when launching new VBP models and offers recommendations for California's health plans.
Date: 08/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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Federally Qualified Health Center Sites Outside of Urbanized Areas
Printable map that shows the location of Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) sites that are located outside of urbanized areas by state. Data source: data.HRSA.gov, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Date: 07/2019
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Geographic Expansion of Federally Qualified Health Centers 2007-2014
Details a study on the geographic distribution of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) from 2007-2014. Looks at the percentage of FQHCs in rural and high poverty areas.
Author(s): Chiang-Hua Chang, Julie PW Bynum, Jon D. Lurie
Citation: Journal of Rural Health, 35(3), 385-394
Date: 06/2019
Type: Document
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Cost-Sharing as a Barrier to Accessing Care at FQHCs and RHCs for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries
Results of a national study investigating cost barriers, using data acquired after enactment of the Affordable Care Act and viewed from perspectives other than ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations. Features statistics including descriptive data of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) from the study sample, with breakdowns by rural and urban location.
Author(s): Alex R. Schulte, George H. Pink, Mark Holmes, Denise Kirk
Date: 06/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program
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Identification of High-Need Rural Counties to Assist in Resource Location Planning for Primary Care
Demonstrates a selection process to sort counties by health and healthcare needs, and to identify areas with poor health outcomes and limited access to Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Features statistics and county-level maps showing distribution of safety net providers in rural counties, distribution of average decile scores for health outcomes, socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors, access to healthcare, and physical environment, among rural counties without an RHC and an FQHC.
Author(s): Charity B. Breneman, Jan M. Eberth, Janice C. Probst
Date: 05/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center
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Identification of High-Need Rural Counties to Assist in Resource Location Planning
Demonstrates a technique for identifying rural counties that are at risk for poor health outcomes and have few or no Rural Health Clinics, Federally Qualified Health Centers, or Critical Access Hospitals. Features statistics and county-level maps showing distribution of safety net providers in rural counties, and distribution of average decile scores for health outcomes, socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors, access to health care, and physical environment, among rural counties lacking a core safety net provider
Author(s): Charity B. Breneman, Jan M. Eberth, Janice C. Probst
Date: 05/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center
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Health Center Program Site Visit Protocol
Standardized review instrument to conduct operational site visits at health centers in rural and urban areas. Can be used to assess health centers' compliance with federal program requirements and to identify clinical and financial performance improvement areas.
Date: 04/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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National Health Service Corps Site Reference Guide
Provides clarification for National Health Service Corps (NHSC) sites regarding eligibility requirements, qualification factors, compliance, roles and responsibilities, and other factors for becoming as NHSC approved site. Acts as a supplemental resource to the information provided in the online NHSC Site Application.
Date: 04/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Facility-Based Ambulatory Care Provided to Rural Medicare Beneficiaries in 2014
Chartbook describing claims, costs, and common diagnoses in facility-based ambulatory care provided to rural Medicare patients. Features statistics in various categories with breakdowns by Federally Qualified Health Centers in rural and urban areas, Rural Health Clinics, Critical Access Hospitals, and Prospective Payment Systems in rural and urban areas.
Author(s): Alex R. Schulte, Denise A. Kirk, Kristie W. Thompson, George H. Pink
Date: 03/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program
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Identifying Safety-Net Resources at Health Centers to Prevent Infectious Disease Transmission Resulting from the Opioid Epidemic
Examines challenges faced and strategies used by Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases in relation to opioid use. Focuses on treatment of people with opioid use disorder; prevention of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) transmission; integration of substance use services with mental health and primary care; information sharing among health centers and Ryan White Part C providers; and challenges related to staffing, administration, finances, and social stigma. Identifies 7 facilitators of successful programs.
Date: 03/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, RAND Corporation
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Case Studies of 6 Safety Net Organizations That Integrate Oral and Mental/Behavioral Health With Primary Care Services
Features an analysis of 6 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) integrating oral health and behavioral health with primary care across the country. Features one rural example.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): M. Langelier, S. Surdu, N. Goodwin
Date: 02/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Oral Health Workforce Research Center
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Community Health Center Chartbook, 2019
Features graphs, figures, and maps to document services provided by health centers, characteristics of the patients served, and progress made in improving access to healthcare, including in rural areas. Reports on health centers' financial health, workforce status, economic impact, challenges to meeting the demand for healthcare needs, and more. Includes statistics on telehealth service offerings with breakdowns by urban or rural status.
Date: 01/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Access to Care: Health Centers and Providers in Underserved Communities
Recording of a January 29, 2019 Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions hearing on the importance of community health centers and National Health Service Corps providers in helping to address issues of access to primary care for rural and urban underserved communities.
Additional links: Andrea Anderson Testimony, Dennis Freeman, Cherokee Health Systems Testimony, John B. Waits, Cahaba Medical Care FQHC Testimony
Date: 01/2019
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions
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Eye Health Needs: Preserving the Eyesight of Rural and Underserved Populations
Explains the importance of vision care in health and describes how rural vision care can be improved to increase quality of life and prevent disability in rural patients. Features a rural Federally Qualified Health Center that has added eye care to its services and a vision van that provides care in underserved communities.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 01/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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HUD Policy Brief: Understanding the Impact and Potential for Health Centers - Rural Homelessness
Provides information to help health centers connect people experiencing rural homelessness with housing and services. Summarizes challenges to ending rural homelessness and efforts of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) addressing rural homelessness.
Date: 2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Corporation for Supportive Housing
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Experiences of Medicaid Programs and Health Centers in Implementing Telehealth
Examines the experiences of 19 rural and urban Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and 7 state Medicaid programs with supporting and delivering telehealth. Addresses state Medicaid policies, telehealth models and types, barriers and facilitators for telehealth, and future plans. Identifies considerations for payers, policymakers, and FQHCs interested in telehealth implementation.
Date: 2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, RAND Corporation
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Care Management Services in Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs): Frequently Asked Questions
Provides general information about care management services, specific program requirements, detailed descriptions of billing, claims processing, and payment rules, and requirements for people who are considered part of a care management team for Rural Health Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers.
Date: 12/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Medicare Benefit Policy Manual: Chapter 13 - Rural Health Clinic (RHC) and Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) Services
Current regulations, as of December 2018, regarding Medicare payment policies for Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs).
Date: 12/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Developing Telemental Health Partnerships Between State Medical Schools and Federally Qualified Health Centers: Navigating the Regulatory Landscape and Policy Recommendations
Provides recommendations for overcoming barriers to promoting telemental health services partnerships between medical schools and health centers. Discusses rural-urban disparities in provision of mental health services, credentialing, remote electronic health records access, insurance issues, and billing.
Author(s): John C. Fortney, Richard C. Veith, Amy M. Bauer, et al.
Citation: The Journal of Rural Health
Date: 10/2018
Type: Document
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How to Become a Health Center
Provides information on becoming a Health Center Program awardee or look-alike. Includes details on applying for health center program funding and the benefits of look-alike designation, including Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) reimbursement from Medicare and Medicaid.
Date: 09/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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Policy Landscape for Community Health Center Integration of Behavioral Health & SUD/OUD Services
Presents the findings from an analysis of community health centers (CHCs) in each state to evaluate the services they offer, and recognize the barriers preventing CHCs from implementing, developing, and sustaining the integration of behavioral health and substance abuse disorder services.
Author(s): Kima Taylor
Date: 08/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Emerging Strategies to Ensure Access to Health Care Services: Rural Hospital-Health Clinic Integration
Provides an overview of the benefits of sharing resources between rural hospitals and clinics, including Federally Qualified Health Centers. Offers suggestions for federal policy solutions and actions for hospital and health system to deploy.
Date: 08/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association
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Health Center Program Fact Sheet
Brief overview of the Health Center Program, focusing on the goals of increasing access to care, improving health outcomes, and reducing healthcare costs. Provides a graph illustrating program growth over the 15-year period from 2001-2017.
Date: 08/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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Medicaid Expansion and Community Health Centers: Care Quality and Service Use Increased for Rural Patients
Reports on a study to assess the impact of Medicaid expansion on quality of care and insurance coverage in rural and urban community health centers (CHCs), and to examine the impact of expansion on the volume of healthcare services provided by CHCs. Uses data from the 2011-15 or 2012-15 Uniform Data System collected by the Bureau of Primary Health Care of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
Author(s): Megan B. Cole, Brad Wright, Ira B. Wilson, Omar Galárraga, Amal N. Trivedi
Citation: Health Affairs, 37(6), 900-907
Date: 06/2018
Type: Document
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Conducting a Randomized Trial in Rural and Urban Safety-Net Health Centers: Added Value of Community-Based Participatory Research
Results of a colorectal cancer screening study using data from two health networks comprising 11 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in metropolitan St. Louis and rural Missouri. Examines characteristics of the 483 participants and differences between the rural and urban health centers where the screenings took place. Features demographic statistics.
Author(s): Meera Muthukrishnan, Siobhan Sutcliffe, Jean M. Hunleth, et al.
Citation: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 10, 29-35
Date: 06/2018
Type: Document
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Toolkit: State Strategies to Develop Value-Based Payment Methodologies for Federally Qualified Health Centers
Designed to help policymakers implement Medicaid value-based payment (VBP) methodologies by providing background information, key considerations, and state strategies. Table 1 in the Payment Methodologies section gives an overview of select state VBP methodologies for Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Addresses challenges for small and rural FQHCs.
Author(s): Rachel Donlon, Hannah Dorr, Kitty Purington
Date: 05/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Academy for State Health Policy
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Telehealth and Health Centers
Discusses Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and their increased use of telehealth to provide healthcare services in underserved areas. Covers Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement policies and provides federal and state policy recommendations.
Date: 04/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Community Health Centers and Family Planning in an Era of Policy Uncertainty
Report discusses a study assessing community health centers' role in providing access to contraception and family planning services in rural and underserved areas. Details the role of the Title X family planning program and Medicaid in providing access.
Author(s): Susan F. Wood, Julia Strasser, Jessica Sharac, et al.
Date: 03/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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The Health Center Program Is Increasing Access to Care Through Telehealth
Provides a snapshot showing how community health centers utilize telehealth to expand access to quality healthcare. Includes data comparing how rural and urban health centers use telehealth to provide different types of healthcare services.
Date: 02/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Trends in the Provision of Oral Health Services by Federally Qualified Health Centers
Summarizes trends in recent years and factors that predict likelihood of a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) providing general or specialty oral health services. Features statistics including breakdowns by percentage of population living in rural areas.
Author(s): Simona Surdu, Margaret Langelier
Date: 01/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Health Center-Based Medical-Legal Partnerships: Where They Are, How They Work, and How They Are Funded
Describes the recent, rapid expansion of medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) among America's health centers. Highlights programs in four states - Colorado, Oregon, Indiana, and California - and explains how MLPs operate, how they are financed, and how state primary care associations are supporting them. Briefly describes the reasons MLPs are more prevalent in urban areas than in rural areas.
Author(s): Alanna Williamson, Jennifer Trott, Marsha Regenstein
Date: 01/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership
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Medicaid Payment Policy for Federally Qualified Health Centers
Describes the role of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in Medicaid, and highlights current policy issues related to Medicaid FQHC payment. Also discusses the Medicaid FQHC prospective payment system (PPS), alternative payment methodologies, how FQHCs participate in managed care networks, and states' desire for increased flexibility in setting FQHC payment rates.
Date: 12/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission
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Innovations in Rural Health System Development: Federally Qualified Health Center Initiatives
Reports on Maine's Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Discusses strategies for workforce recruitment and retention, serving high-need patient populations, addressing critical community needs, and providing services that address the social determinants of health. Provides various examples of programs from across the state.
Author(s): Sara Kahn-Troster, Amanda Burgess, Andrew Coburn
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Maine Health Access Foundation, Muskie School of Public Service Cutler Institute for Health and Social Policy
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Federally Qualified Health Center Remote Patient Monitoring Toolkit
Toolkit developed for Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) implementing a remote patient monitoring program. Provides guidance for FQHCs and offers program considerations regarding administration, program sustainability, electronic health records (EHR) integration, communications, equipment, training, and examples of measurable outcomes for patients and providers.
Additional links: PowerPoint, Remote Patient Monitoring Toolkit Website, Webinar
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Consortium of Telehealth Resource Centers
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Advancing Payment Innovation within Federally Qualified Health Centers: Lessons from California
Provides an overview of the California Department of Health Care Services' proposed Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) alternative payment methodology (APM), details the APM's development process, and shares key lessons learned to date. The pilot project involves several rural health centers and aims to give FQHCs more effective incentives to achieve the healthcare Triple Aim - better care, better health, and lower costs.
Author(s): Greg Howe, Kathy Moses, Tricia McGinnis
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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Federal Health Centers: An Overview
Explains the Federal Health Center program, with information relating to the statutory authority, program requirements, funding, location, patient populations, health outcomes, and more. Also discusses the Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) designation, and how this designation affects Medicare and Medicaid payment levels.
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Congressional Research Service
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Projected Financial Losses Experienced by Community Health Centers under a Scenario of Major Cuts in Key Sources of Federal Funding: 2018-2022
Simulates the potential financial impacts on health centers and communities if the following congressional proposals are implemented: cuts to federal funding for Medicaid expansion, cuts to federal funding for Marketplace subsidies, and expiration of the Community Health Centers Fund. Also assesses the implications for other state and federal programs that may be required to help fill the resulting service and funding gaps.
Author(s): Avi Dor, Eric Luo, Ali Moghtaderi, Anne Rossier Markus
Date: 04/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: George Washington University Department of Health Policy and Management
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How Could Repealing Key Provisions of the Affordable Care Act Affect Community Health Centers and Their Patients?
Analyzes and estimates the potential effects of repealing certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), focusing primarily on the implications for community health centers located in medically underserved communities. Examines how each of the following actions may affect health centers and primary healthcare access: ending the Health Centers Fund, ending health insurance subsidies, and ending expanded Medicaid coverage.
Author(s): Sara J. Rosenbaum, Jessica Sharac, Thao-Chi Tran, et al.
Date: 03/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: George Washington University Department of Health Policy and Management
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Strengthening the Safety Net: Community Health Centers on the Front Lines of American Health Care
Highlights community health centers as an integral part of the U.S. healthcare delivery system. Explains how health centers are able to improve access to care, deliver value, serve communities, and respond to emerging challenges. Provides stories about health centers that currently serve rural communities, and presents policy priorities that will help health centers succeed in the future, particularly in relation to Medicaid.
Date: 03/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Community Health Centers: Recent Growth and the Role of the ACA
Uses 2015 federal data on health centers and survey results from the 2016 Survey of Health Centers' Experiences and Activities to provide an overview of health centers and their patients. Compares health centers in Medicaid expansion and non-expansion states, covering topics such as revenue sources, service capacity, patient demographics, patient health coverage, and more. Also discusses the distribution and impact of health centers in rural and medically underserved communities.
Author(s): Sara Rosenbaum, Julia Paradise, Anne Markus, et al.
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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The Impact of State Health Policies on Integrated Care at Health Centers
Examines the opportunities and challenges at the federal, state, payer, and provider levels regarding the adoption of an integrated healthcare model focusing on the coordination of medical care and behavioral health in rural and urban community health centers (CHCs). Describes specific state initiatives that have supported or inhibited this coordinated approach.
Date: 10/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Improving the Care of Dual Eligible Patients in Rural Federally Qualified Health Centers: The Impact of Care Coordinators and Clinical Pharmacists
Discusses a care coordination project that included 3 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and 502 patients in rural West Virginia and a tertiary care referral hospital in southern West Virginia to determine if expanded use of care coordinators and clinical pharmacists could improve the care experience and healthcare outcome of dual eligible patients.
Author(s): Daniel Doyle, Mary Emmett, Amber Crist, Craig Robinson, Michael Grome
Citation: Journal of Primary Care and Community Health, 7(2) 118-121
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
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Grandfathered Tribal (GFT) Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) Training: Overview of Requirements and Policies
Provides a summary of the requirements and policies, effective January 1, 2016, for Indian Health Services (IHS), and tribal facilities and organizations when a change in status may allow the healthcare facility to become certified as a Grandfathered Tribal FQHC.
Date: 12/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Medicare Claims Processing Manual: Chapter 9 - Rural Health Clinics/Federally Qualified Health Centers
Describes the differences between Rural Health Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers. Identifies the rules and regulations for processing Medicare claims.
Date: 12/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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So You Want to Start a Health Center...?
Provides guidance for planning and implementing a new health center that meets Section 330 of the U.S. Public Health Service Act requirements. Includes instructions and links to tools that can be helpful when applying for federal funding and health center status. Requires free registration to login and view the resource.
Author(s): Warren J. Brodine
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Performance Measurement for Rural Low-Volume Providers: Final Report
Identifies challenges to measuring healthcare performance among low-volume rural providers, and presents recommendations to meet these challenges. Primary focus is on finding appropriate quality measures for use within Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) pay-for-performance programs and encouraging rural participation in CMS quality improvement initiatives.
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Quality Forum
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State Trends that Impact the Use of Telehealth at Health Centers: Store-and-Forward and Remote Patient Monitoring
Discusses several state policies and legislative activity regarding telehealth services involving asynchronous encounters. Includes information on store-an-forward methods where data is transferred between a patient and provider, or provider to provider, and remote patient monitoring (RPM) that uses two-way video, remote measurements, and phone-based systems to manage patient care.
Author(s): Heidi Emerson
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Decreased Cancer Mortality-to-Incidence Ratios with Increased Accessibility of Federally Qualified Health Centers
Explores associations between access, for example one or more facilities, to Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and cancer mortality-to-incidence ratios in every county in the United States using 2006-2010 data from the National Cancer Institute State Cancer Profile. Examines breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Data is broken down by cancer type, rural versus urban, Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation, and race.
Author(s): Swann Arp Adams, Seul Ki Choi, Leepao Khang, et al.
Citation: Journal of Community Health, 40(4), 633-641
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
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Technology Stemming from Tragedy
Describes how Finger Lakes Community Health (FLCH), a rural Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC), developed an open access telehealth network in response to two separate traffic accidents involving FLCH providers.
Author(s): Kate Menzies
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Evaluation of CMS's Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) Advanced Primary Care Practice (APCP) Demonstration
Reports on a 3 year demonstration project regarding the change of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) into advanced primary care practices (APCPs) that provide comprehensive patient-centered healthcare for Medicare beneficiaries. Examines the processes and challenges involved in this change and the effects of the APCP model on access, quality and cost of care delivered to Medicare and Medicaid patients. Includes a rural/urban comparison of findings and data.
Author(s): Katherine L. Kahn, Justin W. Timbie, Mark W. Friedberg, et al.
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RAND Corporation
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Qualified Health Plans & Health Centers: A Primer
Provides an overview of how Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) can act as the contracted essential community provider (ECP) for health plans sold through the Health Insurance Marketplace, thus providing low-income and medically underserved patients with consistent healthcare during times when their incomes and personal circumstances change.
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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The Role of Health Centers in Lowering Preventable Emergency Department Use
Discusses the effectiveness of health centers, including community and migrant health centers, providing high quality and timely primary care and reducing the use of emergency departments by patients who have limited access to healthcare, such as low-income, uninsured, and those residing in rural communities.
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Funded! Now What?
Provides a step-by-step guide for section 330 grantees who have recently been funded. Covers governance, administration, recruitment, finance, clinical, operations, information technology, facilities management, and risk management.
Author(s): Henson, Ted
Date: 06/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Cost Effectiveness of On-site versus Off-site Depression Collaborative Care in Rural Federally Qualified Health Centers
Highlights a study on the cost-effectiveness of on-site versus a telehealth-based collaborative care when treating depression in a rural Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). Considers variable, fixed, inpatient, and outpatient costs, among others.
Author(s): Jeffrey M. Pyne, John C. Fortney, Sip Mouden, et al.
Citation: Psychiatric Services, 66(5), 491-499
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
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Mobile Health and Patient Engagement in the Safety Net: A Survey of Community Health Centers and Clinics
Discusses the results of a survey of rural and urban community health clinics and other clinics to evaluate the use of cell phones to engage patients in their healthcare. Highlights areas where the use of cell phones has shown to be successful in chronic disease management.
Author(s): Andrew Broderick, Farshid Haque
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Commonwealth Fund
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42 CFR Part 491, Subpart A - Rural Health Clinics: Conditions for Certification; and FQHCs Conditions for Coverage
Establishes the conditions Rural Health Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers must meet to qualify for reimbursement under Medicare, as well as those that Rural Health Clinics must meet to qualify for reimbursement under Medicaid.
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System for FQHCs; Changes to Contracting Policies for RHCs; and Changes to Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 Enforcement Actions for Proficiency Testing Referral
The final rule with comment period that implements the methodology and payment rates for a prospective payment system (PPS) for Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) services beginning October 1, 2014 under Medicare Part B, in compliance with the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Identifies the policy allowing Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) to contract with nonphysician practitioners when statutory requirements for employment of nurse practitioners and physician assistants are met, and incorporated other technical changes to FQHC and RHC regulations. Changes to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 enforcement actions for proficiency testing referral are included.
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Safety Net Clinics Serving the Elderly in Rural Areas: Rural Health Clinic Patients Compared to Federally Qualified Health Center Patients
Compares the distribution of Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and nonmetro Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Looks at how the Medicare populations served by these types of facilities differ, including their age distribution.
Author(s): Andrea D. Radford, Victoria A. Freeman, Denise A. Kirk, Hilda A. Howard, Mark Holmes
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program
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Building Research Partnerships with Community Health Centers: A Toolkit for Academics
Toolkit to help academics and external researchers understand the health center model and its unique structure, including community-based research and participation. Provides guidance to help develop more equitable and sustainable relationships with health centers. Approximately half of all health center patients live in rural areas.
Author(s): Michelle Jester, Michelle Proser, Peter Shin
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Access Is the Answer: Community Health Centers, Primary Care & the Future of American Health Care
Discusses the importance of access to primary care providers, not just health insurance coverage. Includes maps showing primary care physician shortages by county and highlights the importance of community health centers in increasing access to healthcare.
Date: 03/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Health Care for Rural Veterans: The Example of Federally Qualified Health Centers
Reports that among veterans enrolled in VA healthcare, 41% reside in rural or highly rural communities. Discusses access to healthcare for rural veterans, policy considerations to encourage improved collaboration between the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), and highlights how FQHCs can provide healthcare services to veterans.
Author(s): Elayne J. Heisler, Sidath Viranga Panangala, Erin Bagalman
Date: 01/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Congressional Research Service
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Effects of Patient-Centered Medical Home Attributes on Patients' Perceptions of Quality in Federally Supported Health Centers
Analyzes patient survey results that rated the quality of care and the patient-centered medical home attributes provided at federally supported health centers in rural and urban locations.
Author(s): Lydie A. Lebrun-Harris, Leiyu Shi, Jinsheng Zhu, et al.
Citation: Annals of Family Medicine, 11(6), 508-516
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
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Removing Barriers to Care: Community Health Centers in Rural Areas
Discusses access to care in rural areas and community health centers located in rural and frontier areas. Includes information on rural community health center patients and services.
Date: 10/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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A Medical Home Framework for Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Rates: Best Practices for FQHCs
Features lessons and best practices from 14 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) selected across 7 states with leading rates for cervical cancer screening. Incorporates the rural perspective and offers a case study from rural Maine.
Author(s): Christina Miller, Mary Takach
Date: 08/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Academy for State Health Policy
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Essential Guides to Sustainability, Succession and Transition Planning
Provides training and technical assistance to rural and urban health centers on the importance of leadership succession planning. Consists of three guides: 1) Organizational Sustainability Planning; 2) Executive Succession Planning; and 3) Executive Transition Management. Requires free registration to login and view resources.
Date: 08/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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A Needs-Based Method for Estimating the Behavioral Health Staff Needs of Community Health Centers
Analyzes data, from the 2010 Uniform Data System and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, to estimate the number of full time behavioral health providers are needed to serve the health centers' growing patient population in rural and urban areas.
Author(s): Bridget Teevan Burke, Benjamin F. Miller, Michelle Proser, et al.
Citation: BMC Health Services Research, 13, 245
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
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Health Centers' Role in Reducing Health Disparities Among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders
Describes disparities among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islanders in rural and urban communities and how health centers can address these disparities.
Date: 05/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations, National Association of Community Health Centers
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Increasing Access to Behavioral Health Care Through Technology
Presents insights on establishing a telebehavioral health program shared at a meeting convened by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) Office of Special Health Affairs with participants from HRSA-funded health centers in urban and rural areas.
Date: 02/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Compendium of Rural Best Practices/Models: Innovations to Strengthen Rural Health Care: Technology, Quality Improvement, Collaboration, and Training
Summarizes innovative programs occurring in rural areas, featuring a medical home model, a Lean/Six Sigma hospital program, a community health center telehealth program, and a statewide behavioral health network.
Date: 2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Assessing Community Health Center (CHC) Assets and Capabilities for Recruiting Physicians: The CHC Community Apgar Questionnaire
Describes the evaluation instrument, CHC Community Apgar Questionnaire (CHC CAQ), developed for Idaho CHCs to use in physician recruitment with a focus on rural areas.
Author(s): Edward Baker, David Schmitz, Sean Wasden, Lisa MacKenzie
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 12(4), 2179
Date: 12/2012
Type: Document
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Community Health Centers and the Economy: Assessing Centers' Role in Immediate Job Creation Efforts
Examines the economic benefits and job creation opportunities in rural and urban communities resulting from investments in community health centers.
Author(s): Sara Rosenbaum, Peter Shin
Date: 09/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: George Washington University Department of Health Policy and Management
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Collaboration and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC)
Provides non-FQHC health care providers, including Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), with an understanding of motivating factors for FQHCs to expand the number of service sites and provide non-FQHC reimbursed services, such as laboratory and other diagnostic services.
Date: 03/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Stroudwater Associates
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Health Center Data Comparisons
Provides the ability to compare health center data at a state and national level for patient characteristics, services provided, and patients served.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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Health Center Data & Reporting
Website providing data on Health Center Program awardees and look-alikes. Includes links to Uniform Data System (UDS) resources, awardee and look-alike data, and research articles.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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Health Center Resource Clearinghouse
Identifies resources and information to support the work of community health centers, including websites, publications, databases, and other materials. Featured topics include diabetes, behavioral health, and substance use disorders. Provides information on how to access technical assistance from organizations funded to support health centers.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Care Coordination Services and Payment for Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Federally-Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs)
Provides instructions for payment to Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) billing under the all-inclusive rate and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) billing under the prospective payment system for care coordination services provided to Medicare beneficiaries on or after January 1, 2018.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Code of Federal Regulations: Title 42 Public Health, Chapter 4, Subchapter G, Part 425: Medicare Shared Savings Program
Details and describes the regulations for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) to participate in the Medicare Shared Savings Program. Provides information on eligibility, application procedures, reporting requirements, and special assignment conditions for Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs).
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Health Center Program Compliance Manual
Identifies and explains key requirements of HRSA's Health Center Program. Designed to help health centers understand and demonstrate compliance with the Health Center Program requirements. Applies to all health centers that apply to or receive federal funds under the Health Center Program, authorized by section 330 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, and organizations designated as look-alikes.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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Chronic Care Management (CCM) Services for Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs)
Provides instructions for Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) on how to submit claims for chronic care management services according to the RHC All-Inclusive Rate and the FQHC Prospective Payment System, effective January 1, 2016.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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CMS State Operations Manual (SOM)
Provides guidance to state agencies that survey healthcare facilities and providers to determine if they are in compliance with the Medicare Conditions of Participation (CoP). Includes appendices with regulatory information specific to Critical Access Hospitals (Appendix W), and Federally Qualified Health Centers/Rural Health Clinics (Appendix G). Can be used by healthcare facilities as a tool to self-evaluate their compliance with Medicare CoP.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Calendar Year (CY) 2015 Rural Health Clinic (RHC) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) Updates: Payment Rate Increases for RHCs and FQHCs Billing Under the All-Inclusive Rate System (AIR), and Urban and Rural Designations for FQHCs Billing Under
Provides updates for RHCs and FQHCs that are submitting claims to Medicare Administrative Contractors (MACs) for services to Medicare beneficiaries.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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ICD-10 Toolkit
Provides guidance and assistance to rural healthcare providers in making the transition from ICD-9 to ICD-10. This toolkit is designed to be used in conjunction with any coder or physician training that a rural hospital or clinic may be doing.
Type: Tool
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Resource Center
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Health Center Service Delivery and Look–Alike Sites
Provides downloadable files listing Health Center Program awardees and look-alikes. Includes location fields for states and counties.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Shortage Designation Scoring Criteria
Provides an overview of the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation scoring criteria. Covers additional criteria and guidelines specific to each of the three types of designations: primary care, dental and mental health. Also covers scoring criteria for the Medically Underserved Area and Medically Underserved Population (MUA/P) designation.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Find Shortage Areas by Address
Searchable tool for identifying Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) and Medically Underserved Areas/Populations (MUA/P) by street address, city, and state or a street address and zip code.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) Billing Guide
Describes the information Federally Qualified Health Centers are required to submit for a Prospective Payment System, and explains how Rural Health Clinics should bill for certain preventive services under the Affordable Care Act.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Medicare Learning Network: Billing Information for Rural Providers and Suppliers
Provides Medicare billing information by provider type and type of service, including information on where to submit claims. Includes information for Critical Access Hospitals, Rural Health Clinics (RHCs), Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), Skilled Nursing Facilities, Home Health Agencies, and Swing Bed services.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Medicare Learning Network: Federally Qualified Health Center
Provides a general overview of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and includes a list of helpful rural health resources and websites.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Economic Impact: Tools and Templates
Access tools and templates for studying the economic impact, in rural areas, of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), Critical Access Hospitals, different health care providers, the social service sector, Medicaid, medical schools, and telemedicine.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Community Health Centers Leveraging the Social Determinants of Health
Provides an overview of how community health centers (CHCs) are working to address the social, economic, and physical conditions that impact their patients' health. Presents 10 case studies, including several rural examples, of CHCs addressing the social determinants of health.
Additional links: Full Report, 2012
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Institute for Alternative Futures
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Federal Tort Claims Act
Information on the application and reporting processes for HRSA-supported health centers with malpractice insurance through the Federal Tort Claims Act.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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Uniform Data System (UDS) Mapper
Illustrates the geographic reach, penetration, and growth of the Section 330-funded Health Center Program (HCP) and its relationship to other federally-linked health resources. Provides data on health centers and their service areas, as well as population indicators. Includes access to Mapping Areas of Priority for Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAP for MAT), with data identifying areas of high need and services available related to the opioid epidemic. Free, but registration is required.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organizations: American Academy of Family Physicians, Robert Graham Center
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CHroniCles: The Community Health Center Story
Presents and preserves the history of community health centers (CHCs) in rural and underserved areas. Highlights CHCs original contributions and stories. Includes a list of stories, maps, profiles, and a timeline.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: RCHN Community Health Foundation
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PubMed Search: Federally Qualified Health Centers
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on the topic of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) published in the U.S.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: U.S. National Library of Medicine
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Health Center Program Requirements
Provides links to key health center program requirements, links to relevant regulations, and the health center program compliance manual.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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State Level Health Center Data and Maps
Provides state-level data on the number of grantees and delivery sites, health center patients, staff, and patient visits.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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CMS Medicare Administrative Contractors
Provides information and resources concerning the Part A/Part B Medicare Administrative Contractors (MACs).
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Health Center Program Look-Alikes
Information on Health Center Program look-alikes, including an overview of the purpose and benefits, as well as information on how to apply and resources for current Health Center Program look-alikes.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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CMS Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) Center
Provides links to manuals, billing codes, enrollment and certification information, legislation, regulations, and contacts related to Medicare and Medicaid services in Federally Qualified Health Centers.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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NHSC Sliding Fee Discount Program Information Package
Basic information for clinics and health centers about developing and implementing a sliding fee schedule for low-income populations. Serves as guidance on the requirements related to sliding fee schedules for National Health Service Corps-approved sites and sites interested in applying to be NHSC sites.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Health Service Corps
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State Primary Care Offices Directory
Contact information for state Primary Care Offices (PCOs). These offices can provide shortage designation application help and shortage information, as well as information on the Conrad 30 J-1 Visa Waiver program, loan repayment programs, and recruitment and retention.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Health Workforce
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State and Regional Primary Care Associations Listing
Directory listing address, phone, email, and web addresses for state and regional Primary Care Associations (PCAs). PCAs work to promote, expand, and optimize access to primary care.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Public Health Service Act, Section 330
Section 330 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act defines the requirements for Health Centers. Title 42 of the U.S. Code, Chapter 6A is the Public Health Service Act, and section 254b is the equivalent of Section 330 of the PHS Act.
Type: Document
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Health Center Program Policies
Links to current Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC) Program Information Notices (PINs) defining policies and procedures Section 330 funded health center grantees must follow, and provides links to Program Assistance Letters (PALs) summarizing program activities, newly enacted laws, and final regulations of interest to health centers.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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Find a Health Center
Allows users to search for community health centers, including Federally Qualified Health Centers and other Bureau of Primary Health Care service delivery sites, by location. These health centers provide free and low-cost health services such as: primary medical, obstetrical and gynecological, dental, mental health, and substance abuse care.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Primary Health Care
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MUA Find
Search for Medically Underserved Areas and Populations (MUAs/MUPs). Allows searching by state, county, or ID number. Includes designation status and date.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 11/1/2019