Skip to main content
Rural Health Information Hub

Rural Healthcare Payment and Reimbursement – Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Healthcare Payment and Reimbursement.

2018‐23 Profitability of Rural and Urban Hospitals by Medicare Payment Designation
Examines the profitability of rural and urban hospitals according to special Medicare payment designations, including: Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), Prospective Payment System (PPS) hospitals, Medicare Dependent Hospitals (MDHs), Sole Community Hospitals (SCHs), Rural Referral Centers (RRCs), and Essential Access Community Hospitals (EAC). Utilizes 2018-2023 data to analyze hospital profitability by rural versus urban status and facility/payment type.
Author(s): Sruthi Malavika Srinivasan, Kristie Thompson, George Pink
Date: 06/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program
view details
Five Things to Know About Medicare Site-Neutral Payment Reforms
Discusses site-neutral payment reforms that seek to align Medicare payments with outpatient services in different settings. Examines benefits and drawbacks of the policy and discusses how the policy would impact rural hospitals.
Author(s): Zachary Levinson, Tricia Neuman, Scott Hulver
Date: 06/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: KFF
view details
MedPAC Report to the Congress: Medicare and the Health Care Delivery System, June 2024
Evaluates Medicare payment issues and provides recommendations to the U.S. Congress. Covers approaches for updating fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare's physician fee schedule (PFS) payments and incentivizing participation in alternative payment models; provider networks and prior authorization in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans; an assessment of the relative completeness of MA encounter data and other data sources; Medicare coverage and payments for medical software; alternate approaches to lower Medicare payment rates for select conditions in inpatient rehabilitation facilities; and Medicare's Acute Hospital Care at Home program. Includes rural references throughout.
Additional links: Executive Summary
Date: 06/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
view details
MedPAC Comment on CMS's Proposed Rule on the Hospital Inpatient PPS and the Long-term Care Hospital PPS for FY 2025
Comments on a May 2, 2024, Federal Register proposed rule revising the hospital inpatient and long-term care hospital (LTCH) prospective payment systems (PPS). Discusses proposals on rate-setting in both the inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) and LTCH PPS; the Transforming Episode Accountability Model (TEAM), including the definition of rural hospitals eligible to participate in a lower-risk track; new payments to small, independent hospitals that establish and maintain a 6-month buffer supply of essential medicines; updates to wage index values and policies; and updates to outlier reconciliation thresholds.
Date: 06/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
view details
Sources of Federal Funding for Health Care Facilities: Frequently Asked Questions
Provides an overview of how the federal government supports healthcare facilities, with a focus on hospitals. Discusses how Medicare and Medicaid pay acute care hospitals and for services rendered to beneficiaries and enrollees, as well as other payments these programs make. Identifies federal grants, loans, and technical assistance programs that can support health facilities. Describes how federal agencies, including the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), have supported healthcare facilities during emergencies.
Date: 06/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Congressional Research Service
view details
Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS): Traditional MIPS Scoring Guide for the 2024 Performance Year
Provides details on how scores are calculated for the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS), one of two tracks under the Medicare Quality Payment Program. Explains the four performance categories that affect Medicare Physician Fee Schedule payments: quality, cost, improvement activities, and promoting interoperability. Includes information for small practices.
Date: 06/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
view details
CMS Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Advanced Model: Fifth Annual Evaluation Report
Fifth annual report of the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Advanced (BPCI Advanced) Model, which tests whether linking payments for a clinical episode of care can reduce Medicare expenditures while maintaining or improving the quality of care. Explores the impact of BPCI Advanced on episode payments, utilization, and quality of care, as well as estimates of Medicare program savings in Model Year 4. Describes changes to the model that were implemented in Model Year 4 and how BPCI Advanced relates to Medicare Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). Analyzes BPCI Advanced outcomes for beneficiaries from populations that have been historically underserved. Includes rural references throughout.
Additional links: Appendices, Executive Summary, Findings at a Glance
Author(s): The Lewin Group, Abt Associates, GDIT, Telligen
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
view details
Quality Payment Program (QPP) 2022: Participation and Payment Results At-a-Glance
Provides an overview of the results of the Quality Payment Program (QPP) for the 2022 performance year. Highlights the percentage of small and rural providers receiving negative, neutral, and positive payment adjustments for 2024.
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
view details
2022 Quality Payment Program Experience Report
Reports on the clinician experience for those participating in the Quality Payment Program in 2022. Presents data on Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligibility and participation rates for clinicians in small practices and rural areas, mean and median final scores for 2022 and 2024 payment adjustments, and payment adjustment trends from 2019 through 2022.
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
view details
Creating a Sustainable Future for Value-Based Care: A Playbook of Voluntary Best Practices for VBC Payment Arrangements
Describes themes that emerged from workgroup meetings regarding the implementation of value-based care (VBC) models, with a focus on total cost of care arrangements. Outlines voluntary best practices and domains within VBC payment arrangements for health plans, facilities, clinicians, and VBC entities to consider during the design, implementation, and evaluation of VBC participation. Includes rural information and considerations throughout.
Date: 04/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: AHIP, American Medical Association, National Association of ACOs
view details

Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 6/25/2024