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Rural Health Information Hub

Rural Healthcare Payment and Reimbursement – Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Healthcare Payment and Reimbursement.

Medicare: Information on Geographic Adjustments to Physician Payments for Physicians' Time, Skills, and Effort
Provides an overview of the work geographic practice cost indices (GPCI), which the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services uses to adjust Medicare physician payments to account for differences in the costs of providing care across various geographic locations. Examines the extent to which the work GPCI accounts for geographic variation in physician earnings and how Medicare payments could change under potential modifications to the work GPCI.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Medicare and Beneficiaries Pay More for Preadmission Services at Affiliated Hospitals Than at Wholly Owned Settings
Provides an overview of the Medicare diagnosis-related group (DRG) window policy. Examines how much Medicare and Medicare beneficiaries paid affiliated settings, including Critical Access Hospitals, for admission-related outpatient services in 2019 that would have otherwise been covered by the DRG policy at wholly-owned hospitals. Offers recommendations to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) for updating the DRG policy.
Date: 12/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Office of Inspector General (HHS)
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Medicare: Information on the Transition to Alternative Payment Models by Providers in Rural, Health Professional Shortage, or Underserved Areas
Describes the participation of providers in rural and health professional shortage areas in Advanced APMs from 2017 through 2019. Discusses challenges providers in rural, shortage, and underserved areas face in transitioning to APMs, as well as actions CMS takes to help these providers transition to APMs. Includes data by practice and provider type.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 11/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Driving Health System Transformation - A Strategy for the CMS Innovation Center's Second Decade
White paper describing the new vision and strategic objectives for the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMS Innovation Center) for the next 10 years that seeks to achieve equitable health outcomes through the provision of high-quality, affordable, person-centered care. Shares beneficiary and healthcare provider goals for each strategic objective in Table 2. Strategic objectives include: driving accountable care, advancing health equity, supporting innovation, addressing affordability, and partnering to achieve healthcare system transformation. Includes discussion on models focused on improving rural health and ways of increasing participation in those models for rural and underserved populations.
Additional links: At a Glance
Date: 10/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Medicare: Provider Performance and Experiences Under the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System
Examines Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) data on Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) performance category scores, final scores, and payment adjustments from performance years 2017 through 2019. Summarizes interviews with 11 stakeholder groups and identifies strengths and challenges of the MIPS program. Presents data on MIPS performance scores and related payment adjustments by practice size, geographic location, method of participation, and specialty.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 10/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Air Ambulance Use and Surprise Billing
Provides an overview of air ambulance services, including the types and number of air ambulance providers and suppliers, utilization rates by patients, average costs, and the potential for balance billing for air ambulance transport. Summarizes key policies and legislation related to air ambulances, including the No Surprises Act. Presents data on air ambulance utilization by rurality between 2014-2018.
Author(s): Gina Turrini, Joel Ruhter, Andre R. Chappel, Nancy De Lew
Date: 09/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
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Medicare Covers a Lower Percentage of Outpatient Costs in Hospitals Located in Rural Areas
Policy brief describing differences in Medicare Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) payments between urban and rural hospitals. Features statistics on OPPS payments as a percent of total net patient revenue, as a percent of Medicare outpatient cost by hospital payment classification, and as a percent of Medicare outpatient cost by number of acute beds, with breakdowns by urban and rural location.
Author(s): Pranathi Sana, George H. Pink
Date: 09/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program
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Understanding the Rural Swing Bed: More than Just a Reimbursement Policy
Provides an overview of the swing bed program and its role as a patient-centric post-acute care solution that helps rural hospitals serve their communities. Discusses the impact of the program, reimbursement, quality measures, and more.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 08/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Basics of Value-based Care and Payment
Slides presented to the Rural Healthcare Provider Transition Project (RHPTP) providing an overview of value-based care and payment models. Includes examples of rural providers addressing patient social needs, tackling local health issues, and aligning services with community needs.
Author(s): Jennifer P. Lundblad
Date: 06/2021
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Value
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Medicaid and Rural Health
Provides an overview of rural residents, including socioeconomic characteristics, insurance status, and health status. Explores the availability of healthcare providers in rural areas, with a focus on primary care providers and hospitals. Discusses the role of Medicaid in rural health, as well as Medicaid policies and services that are important for providing healthcare in rural communities.
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission
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Last Updated: 3/25/2024