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Transportation to Support Rural Healthcare Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Transportation to Support Rural Healthcare.

Social Determinants of Health Series: Transportation and the Role of Hospitals
Presents a report on the role of hospitals in providing health-based transportation services. Features case studies of 4 different hospital programs' approach to addressing their patients' lack of access to reliable transit.
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association
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Rural Transportation: Challenges and Opportunities
Policy brief discusses a study on the challenges of implementing rural transportation services and their implication on transportation policy. Analyzes infrastructure, geography, funding, accessibility, support and public awareness, and socio-demographics as barriers to rural transportation systems.
Author(s): Carrie Henning-Smith, Alex Evenson, Amanda Corbett, Katy Kozhimannil, Ira Moscovice
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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A Public Health Perspective to Rural Transportation Safety
Webinar recording discusses a public health approach to motor vehicle related injury and death prevention. Details public health policy interventions that aim to prevent injury, such as primary seat belt laws, speed and red light cameras, and sobriety checkpoints, among others.
Additional links: Webinar Slides
Author(s): Laurie Beck
Date: 10/2017
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Road Safety
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Rural Transit Fact Book 2017
Provides national, state-level, and county-level statistics and information on rural transit in America. Includes data regarding transit trips for medical purposes with an urban/rural comparison. Also, covers financial and operating statistics for agencies receiving section 5311 funding. Includes a section on tribal transit.
Author(s): Jeremy Mattson
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute
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Aging in Rural America: Transportation: A Rural Imperative
Presentation slides discuss aging and rural transportation from the 2017 GIA annual conference. Includes presentations by Rural Philanthropic Analysis at Campbell University, the National Aging & Disability Transportation Center, the Maricopa Association of Governments, and NORC’s Walsh Center for Rural Health Analysis.
Author(s): Allen Smart, Carol Wright Kenderdine, Amy St. Peter, Alana Knudson
Date: 10/2017
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: Grantmakers In Aging
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Toolkit for Operating a Rural Transportation Voucher Program
Discusses elements needed for a transportation voucher program. Identifies key players, examines ways to develop partnerships, acquire funding, develop policies, and publicize programs. Includes appendices with statistics on sample programs in 10 states, policy guidelines, a sample workbook, and transportation resources.
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of Programs for Rural Independent Living
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Aging in Place in Small Urban and Rural Communities
Examines the current state of aging in place, including cost benefits of rural residents living independently and using home health services and public transportation, rather than relocating to assisted living facilities. Includes statistics on costs of various types of senior living situations in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Wisconsin, Mississippi, Maine, New Mexico, and Montana, and aging in place cost savings forecasts for these states.
Additional links: Executive Summary
Author(s): Del Peterson, Ted Rieck
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute
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Regional Transportation Planning Organization Peer Exchange Summary
Summarizes a September 2016 peer learning exchange of eleven rural regional transportation planning representatives. Discusses the role of rural clinics and senior centers as gathering places for public engagement related to transportation. Describes public health involvement in safety planning, with Eagle County, Colorado as an example.
Author(s): Carrie Kissel
Date: 03/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Development Organizations
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Non-Emergency Medical Transportation Needs of Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Rural-Urban Comparison in Delaware, USA
A comparison of transportation patterns and costs for middle-aged and older adult Medicaid patients for medical care in rural versus urban Delaware. These patients were eligible for Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) services. Discusses transportation barriers to care for rural residents, including cost, availability, and accessibility and suggests solutions for connecting residents to needed services.
Author(s): Matthew Lee Smith, Thomas R. Prohaska, Kara E. MacLeod, et al.
Location: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(2)
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
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2016 Transportation Trends: A Look at the Year’s Top Mobility Challenges & Opportunities
Identifies issues affecting the availability of accessible transportation for older adults and people with disabilities. Includes examples of programs underway in rural and frontier areas to address transportation needs.
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Aging and Disability Transportation Center
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Disruptive Innovation in Medicaid Non-Emergency Transportation
Discusses the current state of Medicaid's non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) benefit, focusing on challenges, potential improvements, and state-level reforms. Includes an overview and table of NEMT service models by state, and touches on the structural inefficiencies faced by rural communities.
Author(s): Adam Ganuza, Rachel Davis
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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Public Transportation Guidebook for Small- and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships
Documents successful small and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) transit initiatives throughout the U.S. Designed to serve as a guide for American public transit agencies as they plan, initiate, implement, and evaluate P3 transit initiatives. Discussion of the small P3 marketing agreement between the Ark-Tex Council of Government's regional rural transit system (TRAX) and Paris Regional Medical Center (PRMC) begins on document page number 65.
Author(s): Nathan Macek, Elizabeth Neely, Ella Claney
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Transportation Research Board
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Best Practices in Rural Regional Mobility
Details a report on the best practices of state transit programs that fill the gaps between intercity and rural public transportation. Highlights effective program case studies from across the country and presents a detailed toolkit for program development.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board
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Public Transportation’s Impact on Rural and Small Towns: A Vital Mobility Link
Presents a report on rural and small-town public transportation. Looks at specific groups of non-drivers that require some form of public transportation, as well as the different types of transit and the advantages they present to small, rural communities. Provides several case studies and discusses a number of myths about public transportation in rural areas.
Author(s): Todd Litman
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Public Transportation Association
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Rides to Wellness Community Scan Project
Presents a national project report on the impact of transportation barriers on healthcare costs as well as highlighting existing patient-centered transportation solutions. Summarizes the results of a national survey of health centers and private providers regarding transportation, as well as several profiles of communities, both rural and urban, regarding the transportation barriers and solutions within them.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Outreach Partners
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Exploring Transit’s Contribution to Livability in Rural Communities: Case Study of Valley City, ND, and Dickinson, ND
Examines the connection between transit and rural livability by conducting surveys and interviews in 2 rural North Dakota communities: Valley City and Dickinson. Criteria for the survey included rider diversity, trip purpose, transit utilization, transit patronage, service variety, and ease of outreach. Discussion covers several factors of livability including access to quality healthcare.
Author(s): Ranjit Godavarthy, Jeremy Mattson
Date: 11/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute
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The Hidden Traffic Safety Solution: Public Transportation
Explores the impact that public transportation has on safety and public health in rural and urban communities. Includes policies and recommendations to improve and encourage public transit travel, and create more transit-oriented communities.
Date: 09/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Public Transportation Association
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Planning for Transportation Together: Collaborating to Address Transportation and Economic Resilience
This report expands on the definition of economic development in transportation, and provides case studies demonstrating how state agencies, regional and rural planning and development organizations can work together to develop transportation facilities, infrastructure, and services to create jobs, improve access to employment, education, and community services including healthcare.
Author(s): Carrie Kissel, Brett Schwartz, Sara James, Susan Dyer
Date: 07/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Development Organizations
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Medical Transportation Service is a Lifesaver for Rural Missourians
Shares the stories of two Missouri veterans who rely on the HealthTran non-emergent transportation service to access healthcare. Provides an overview of how the service meets the needs of rural residents.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Location: Rural Monitor
Date: 01/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Aging in Place, Stuck without Options: Fixing the Mobility Crisis Threatening the Baby Boom Generation
Reports on the state of transportation access for members of the baby boom generation who are currently aging in place. Breaks down geographic distribution of Americans age 65 and older in rural, suburban, and metro areas and discusses the transportation options available to them. Presents detailed maps of several small metro areas.
Author(s): Kevin DeGood, David Goldberg, Nick Donohue, Lilly Shoup
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Transportation for America
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Exploring Data and Metrics of Value at the Intersection of Health Care and Transportation: Proceedings of a Workshop
Summarizes a June 2016 joint workshop focused on healthcare and transportation. Includes information on cross-sector collaboration to provide transportation in rural settings. Identifies data sources for understanding health-related transportation needs.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Transportation Research Board
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Planning for Transportation After Medical Services Pocket Guide, Rural Edition
Guide to help rural patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers consider transportation options after medical treatment.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Easter Seals Project ACTION, National Aging and Disability Transportation Center
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Developing a Method for Assessing National Demand-Response Transit Level of Service
Results of a study based on survey data from 65 agencies in North Dakota and Florida, to determine appropriate levels of transportation coverage for older adults and people with disabilities in urban and rural areas in the U.S. Includes a mobility needs index identifying areas with the greatest need for services. Also, provides county-level maps of North Dakota and Florida displaying statistics showing existing level of service, frequency and type of service, and minimum advance reservation time. Provides a framework for identifying communities where improvements in service are needed.
Author(s): Ranjit Godavarthy, Jeremy Mattson, Patrick Nichols, Del Peterson, Jill Hough
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute
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OIG Advisory Opinion No. 15-13
Advisory opinion from the Office of Inspector General (OIG) concerning a proposal for free transportation services between certain medical facilities as a part of an integrated health system.
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Office of Inspector General (HHS)
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Transportation Update: Where We've Gone and What We've Learned
Update to the 2005 report, The Current State of Transportation for People with Disabilities in the United States. Chapter 7 discusses the gaps and barriers in transit services in rural areas, and identifies funding sources for rural transportation and effective strategies to help the rural population of people with disabilities access healthcare, employment and participate in the community.
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Council on Disability
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Transportation Disadvantaged Populations: Nonemergency Medical Transportation Not Well Coordinated, and Additional Federal Leadership Needed
Discusses the federal programs that support nonemergency medical transportation (NEMT) and how coordination of these programs between federal agencies is limited. Coordination between state and local level NEMT services and the challenges that accompany NEMT coordination are reviewed.
Date: 12/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Integrating Safety in the Rural Transportation Planning Process
Provides techniques for integrating safety into the planning and program process at the local and state level to assure rural roads are safe and accessible for a variety of multimodal needs including emergency medical services, and use by fire departments and law enforcement.
Author(s): Nicole Waldheim, Susan Herbel, Ph.D., Carrie Kissel
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Federal Transit Administration
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ADA Guide for Rural Demand-Response Transportation Service Providers
A guide to help demand-response transportation service providers serving rural areas understand and apply the federal requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) when meeting the transportation needs of people with disabilities. Explains ADA regulations for vehicles, service policies, and etiquette for smaller, rural operators.
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Easter Seals Project ACTION, National Aging and Disability Transportation Center
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Public Transportation: Federal Role Key to Rural and Tribal Transit
Examines the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) funding, oversight, and other support for the rural transit program; changes in services, ridership, and costs since 2009; and challenges that rural and tribal transit providers face and possible actions to address them. FTA's Formula Grants for Rural Areas Program (rural transit program) is FTA's only dedicated grant program for rural and tribal transit.
Date: 06/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Aging in Every Place: Supportive Service Programs for High and Low Density Communities
Identifies noteworthy programs in rural places that offer transportation to medical services, shopping and social activities, or bring services to the homes of older adults who are unable to travel, with the goal of keeping them in their homes as they age.
Author(s): Janet Viveiros, Maya Brennan
Date: 03/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Housing Conference - Center for Housing Policy
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Medicaid Expansion and Premium Assistance: The Importance of Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) To Coordinated Care for Chronically Ill Patients
Highlights the importance of the Medicaid and non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) benefit to access life sustaining healthcare services and treatments for patients impacted by limited transportation options prevalent in rural environments.
Date: 03/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Community Transportation Association of America
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Overcoming Obstacles to Health Care: Transportation Models that Work
Describes effective patient-centered transportation models, provides guidance on advancing healthcare access and addresses transportation barriers among people living in rural areas, children and the elderly, and low-income populations. Identifies recommendations and strategies that may influence state and federal transportation polices.
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Outreach Partners
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Medical Transportation in an Era of Change
Discusses how medical transportation for patients is more than a health access issue and becoming an integral component of disease management, especially for those residing in rural areas far from their medical providers.
Author(s): Dale J. Marsico
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Community Transportation Association of America
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Weaving it Together: A Tapestry of Transportation Funding for Older Adults
Identifies major sources of federal funding that support transportation projects, including healthcare accessibility, that are geared toward older adults and adults with physical disabilities. Includes several case studies describing transportation programs that are diverse in geography and institutional structure in rural and urban areas.
Author(s): Jana Lynott, Wendy Fox-Grage, Shannon Guzman
Date: 04/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: AARP Public Policy Institute
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Federal Resources for Sustainable Rural Communities
Outlines federal programs that support rural community and economic development, including programs that support hospitals, healthy homes, water quality, and nutrition. Covers programs from the USDA, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Department of Transportation, and the Environmental Protection Agency.
Date: 07/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Partnership for Sustainable Communities
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Meeting Older Adults’ Mobility Needs: Health Care and Transportation in Rural Communities
Discusses the obstacles older adults living in rural communities face in accessing needed medical services due to long distances and lack of public transit options.
Date: 03/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: AARP
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Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook
Offers guidance about the various steps for planning and implementing a tribal transit system to assist with a variety of needs including clients with special needs in employment, education, healthcare, and other human services.
Date: 2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Transportation Research Board
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The Health Transportation Shortage Index: The Development and Validation of a New Tool to Identify Underserved Communities
A tool to identify areas and communities, both rural and urban, where fewer transportation resources make it difficult to access healthcare.
Author(s): Roy Grant, Dennis Johnson, Stephen Borders, Delaney Gracy, Irwin Redlener
Date: 2012
Type: Document
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Aging in Place: A State Survey of Livability Policies and Practices
Examines state policies regarding land use, transportation, and housing in relation to the ability of older adults to live in their home and community safety, independently, and comfortably. Includes rural access and transportation issues older adults encounter.
Author(s): Nicholas Farber, Douglas Shinkle, Jana Lynott, Wendy Fox-Grage, Rodney Harrell
Date: 12/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: AARP Public Policy Institute, National Conference of State Legislatures
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Transportation for America’s Veterans and Their Families
Discusses the challenges veterans face affecting their transportation options in rural and urban areas to access health and human service centers. Describes programs implemented to assist rural, disabled and homeless veterans access healthcare at VA facilities.
Date: 11/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Community Transportation Association of America
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Rethinking Federal Investments in Rural Transportation: Rural Considerations Regarding Reauthorization of the Surface Transportation Act
Report shows that a variety of transportation investments are essential for providing accessibility to jobs, services, education, and healthcare in rural communities.
Author(s): Brian Dabson, Thomas G. Johnson, Charles W. Fluharty
Date: 04/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute
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Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas
Highlights a survey studying the impacts of transportation and geography on health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Included individuals aged 60 or older living in the rural Upper Great Plains states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming.
Author(s): Jeremy Mattson
Date: 11/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Federal Transit Administration
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Crossing Great Divides: A Guide to Elder Mobility Resources and Solutions in Indian Country
Discusses the impact of transportation services on healthcare access for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian older adults. Provides information about transportation funding opportunities to meet the needs of elders living on reservations. Describes Title VI Aging Services and Tribal Transit Programs.
Date: 2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Aging and Disability Transportation Center
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At the Intersection of Public Health and Transportation: Promoting Healthy Transportation Policy
Provides evidence-based information about how transportation policy and practice in suburban, urban and rural communities affect public health.
Date: 2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Public Health Association
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The Transportation Prescription: Bold New Ideas for Healthy, Equitable Transportation Reform in America
Identifies opportunities for creating transportation systems that promote health and equity in rural and urban communities.
Author(s): Judith Bell, Larry Cohen
Date: 2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Healthy Eating Active Living Convergence Partnership
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Rural Transportation Toolkit
Resources and best practices to help communities develop transportation programs for rural residents to access healthcare and meet other health-related needs. Identifies program models and examples, and discusses implementation, evaluation, sustainability, and dissemination of program results.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Principles for Sound Rural Transportation Policy
Outlines rural transportation policy priorities, and provides specific federal policy recommendations designed to strengthen and support America's rural communities and Native American tribes. Discusses how access to transportation in rural areas is necessary for reducing barriers to essential services such as healthcare.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Assembly
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ADA Toolkit
Provides information and links to resources for local and rural transit managers identifying what is required under ADA regulations based on the type of transit service that is developed.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Transit Assistance Program
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Directory of State RTAP Managers
Directory listing by state of the Rural Transit Program managers.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Transit Assistance Program
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PubMed Search: Rural Transportation and Rural Health Services
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on the topic of transportation and rural health.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: National Library of Medicine
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Rural Communities: Expanding Horizons
Discusses the benefits of implementing public transportation options in rural communities, including access to local healthcare services.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Public Transportation Association
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Community Transportation Assistance Program (CTAP)
A network of transportation professionals providing human service organizations, planners, funders, and individuals with expertise, training, and support with community transportation projects.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Community Transportation Association of America
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VirtualCAP
Provides information and resources that can be used by Community Action Agencies and others to help low-income persons and families move toward self-sufficiency and to reduce poverty in communities across the United States. Offers program models, best practices information, funding opportunities, and more. Includes a local community action agency directory.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Ohio Association of Community Action Agencies
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APTA: U.S. Local and State Transit Links
Provides a list of all transit agencies and their local links (if available) by state, county, and city.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: American Public Transportation Association
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Medical Transportation: Toolkit and Best Practices
Designed to help medical organizations and institutions better serve their clients' medical transportation needs. Outlines how community transportation can assist health organizations, explains Medicaid's role in medical transportation, inventories non-Medicaid funding possibilities and describes how to make use of existing transit first. Includes information specific to rural transit.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Community Transportation Association of America
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RuralTransportation.org
Designed to serve rural transportation stakeholders, including local elected officials and regional development professionals. Includes links to publications and resources, examples of state models for rural transportation planning, and more.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Development Organizations
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Medicaid Benefits: Non-Emergency Medical Transportation Services
Offers a state-by-state listing of non-emergency transportation coverage for Medicaid recipients.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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National Rural Transit Assistance Programs (RTAP)
Serves as a federal-state-local partnership providing training and technical assistance products and services for distribution and replication by the states' rural transit agencies and operators. Website offers access to information and expertise, including a list of state Rural Transit Assistance Program (RTAP) contacts.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Federal Transit Administration
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FHWA Rural & Small Community Transportation Planning
Provides information resources to support transportation planning in small and rural communities.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Federal Highway Administration
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Community Transportation Magazine
Covers the field of public and community transportation service, and the people and communities it serves.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
Sponsoring organization: Community Transportation Association of America
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Last Updated: 12/11/2017