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Washington Resources

Pacific County, Wash.: Connection to Services Through Jail Screening and Referral
Describes efforts of a rural Washington State community to address the number of people with mental illnesses in their jail, as part of the national "Stepping Up" initiative. Examines the process of screening and providing connections to community-based providers.
Author(s): Nastassia Walsh
Date: 09/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Counties
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Medicaid Real-Time Eligibility Determinations and Automated Renewals: Lessons for Medi-Cal from Colorado and Washington
Explores strategies used in Colorado and Washington to increase administrative efficiencies and reduce barriers for consumers renewing enrollment in or applying for state Medicaid programs. Includes special considerations for rural populations enrolling in Medicaid. Designed to inform the thinking of California policymakers and stakeholders as they implement changes to the state's Medicaid program.
Author(s): Jane Wishner, Ian Hill, Jeremy Marks, Sarah Thornburgh
Date: 08/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Urban Institute
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A Model for Internal Medicine Physicians in a Small Rural Hospital
Describes a provider staffing model for rural hospitals that uses internal medicine physicians to provide inpatient care and to consult on outpatient care in Washington state. Describes the hospital setting, staffing needs, and lesson learned.
Author(s): Paul Bunge
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 18, 4419
Date: 08/2018
Type: Document
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Behavioral Health Integration and Workforce Development
Issue brief examining the need for states to assess behavioral health integration (BHI) workforce needs, identify legal and policy barriers to practice, and effectively train and retain BHI practitioners, especially in underserved areas. Includes case studies of programs in Washington, Nebraska, and Michigan, and lists of resources.
Author(s): Rachel Block
Date: 05/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Milbank Memorial Fund
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Emergency Medical and Fire Services Volunteering: Tom Smith
A video describing the benefits of working as an emergency paramedic in a rural location. Includes a testimonial from a paramedic provider working in rural Washington. Length: 4:55
Date: 04/2018
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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The Continuum of Rural Medical Education
Slide presentations from the RTT Collaborative 2018 Annual Meeting, on the topics of Undergraduate Medical Education, Rural-Based Graduate Medical Education in Eastern Washington from 1985-2018, and University of Washington School of Medicine Residency Network. Includes statistics and maps showing locations of rural programs in Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.
Author(s): John F. McCarthy, Robert K. Maudlin, Frederick Chen
Date: 04/2018
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: RTT Collaborative
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Selected Rural Healthcare Facilities in Washington
Shows the state’s Critical Access Hospitals and Rural Health Clinics, as well as Federally Qualified Health Centers located outside of urbanized areas.
Date: 04/2018
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Washington Program Trains Dental Super-Generalists to Serve Rural Communities
Features the University of Washington School of Dentistry's Regional Initiatives in Dental Education (RIDE) program. Describes how the program is structured to create a “super-generalist” able to meet oral health needs in rural and underserved areas. Discusses the program's success placing graduates in rural locations.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Date: 03/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Washington State Behavioral Health Workforce Assessment
Details the results of a study analyzing the occupations, roles, size, distribution, career pathways, demand, policy, and practice issues for the behavioral health workforce in the state of Washington. Includes recommendations to address workforce-related barriers, improve access to behavioral healthcare, and rural specific information.
Author(s): Nova E. Gattman, Rachelle L. McCarty, Agnes Balassa, Susan M. Skillman
Date: 12/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies, Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board
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Assessing the Impact of Washington State’s Oral Health Workforce on Patient Access to Care
Study of the oral health workforce and access to oral care in Washington state. Includes information on workforce demographics, rural and urban distribution of oral health providers, and difficulty recruiting dental hygienists and assistants in rural areas. Provides recommendations, policy changes, and potential solutions offered by oral health workforce interviewees.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, C. Holly A. Andrilla, Malaika R. Schwartz, Lisa Hager, Susan M. Skillman
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Emergency Medical & Fire Services: Volunteering
A video describing the benefits of working as a volunteer emergency medical technician and firefighter in a rural location, including testimonials from individuals working in rural Washington. Length: 4:50
Date: 08/2017
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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Medicaid Expansion: Behavioral Health Treatment Use in Selected States in 2014
Report to Congress describing the population of Medicaid expansion enrollees with behavioral health diagnoses in 2014, and the use of behavioral health treatment among the enrolled population. Results are based on the experience of four states: Iowa, New York, Washington, and West Virginia. Includes a discussion on rural/urban geographic distribution of enrollees and the barriers to accessing treatment for enrollees living in rural areas.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 06/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Network Spotlight: Northwest Rural Health Network
Presents information from an interview with Jac Davies, executive director of the Northwest Rural Health Network based in Spokane, Washington. The Northwest Rural Health Network supports its members by sharing information and promoting efficient models of integrated care. Discussion covers member benefits, challenges faced, advantages of working in a rural environment, advice for developing rural health networks, and more.
Date: 04/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Resource Center
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Washington State's Physician Workforce in 2016
Findings brief describing size, distribution, and education history of the physician workforce in Washington. Features statistics on various specialties with breakdowns by urban, overall rural, large rural, small rural, and isolated small rural areas.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Arati Dahal
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies, WWAMI Area Health Education Center Network
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Assessing Differences in the Availability of Opioid Addiction Therapy Options: Rural Versus Urban and American Indian Reservation Versus Non-Reservation
Examines differences in the number of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) facilities and physicians with Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) waivers in the state of Washington. Includes rural versus urban and tribal land versus non-tribal land comparisons.
Author(s): Katherine A. Hirchak, Sean M. Murphy
Citation: Journal of Rural Health, 33(1), 102-109
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
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Growing the Dental Workforce to Serve Rural Communities: University of Washington’s RIDE Program
Discusses oral health disparities in rural areas and how the University of Washington School of Dentistry’s Regional Initiatives in Dental Education (RIDE) program works to encourage dental students to work in less populated places. Also, highlights how the program is successful in serving rural patients with complex needs and is effective in recruiting and retaining dentists in rural areas.
Author(s): Frank A. Roberts, Arthur C. DiMarco, Susan M. Skillman, Wendy E. Mouradian
Date: 11/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Society on Aging
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Evaluation of Policy Options for Increasing the Availability of Primary Care Services in Rural Washington State
Analyzes policy options that the Washington state legislature has considered to address a perceived shortage of primary care physicians in rural Washington. Provides background on the rural primary care workforce within the state, and projects the impacts each policy option would have through 2025. Policy options considered include opening a new medical school at Washington State University (WSU), increasing the number of residency positions in the state, increasing loan repayment incentives to encourage rural practice, increasing Medicaid payment rates for rural physicians, and encouraging the use of alternative primary care models.
Additional links: Summary and Key Findings
Author(s): Mark W. Friedberg, Grant R. Martsolf, Chapin White, et al.
Date: 11/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RAND Corporation
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Findings from the Field: Medicaid Delivery Systems and Access to Care in Four States in Year Three of the ACA
Explores the experiences of four states that participated in Medicaid expansion as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Colorado, Connecticut, Kentucky, and Washington. Examines what each state is doing to transition from outreach and enrollment activities to improving delivery systems and access to care. Contains rural-specific content and information on how the states are dealing with the expanded Medicaid population.
Date: 09/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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Working in Rural Health
A video describing the benefits of working as a healthcare provider in a rural location, including testimonials from providers working in rural Washington. Length: 4:25
Date: 07/2016
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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Proactively Pursuing Value-Based Payment
Profiles a program developed at a Critical Access Hospital (CAH) located in rural Washington that is transitioning from volume- to value-based care. The CEO of the hospital is working with payers to design a value-based payment contract to help the facility fund the continued transition to value-based care and hopefully create a payment model other CAHs in the state can adopt.
Date: 05/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Value
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State Variations in the Rural Obstetric Workforce
Illustrates the challenges affecting the obstetric workforce in Critical Access Hospitals and other rural hospitals having at least 10 births in 2010 using data derived from a telephone survey conducted in 9 states. Includes data for each state on hospital and provider characteristics and services provided for labor and delivery.
Author(s): Peiyin Hung, Katy B. Kozhimannil, Michelle M. Casey, Carrie Henning-Smith, Shailendra Prasad
Date: 05/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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Washington State Data Snapshot: Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioners (ARNPs)
Highlights data and characteristics for advanced registered nurse practitioners (ARNPs) in rural and urban Washington State.
Additional links: Supplemental Data
Author(s): Holly Andrilla, Susan Skillman, Bev Marshall
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Washington State Data Snapshot: Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs)
Highlights data and characteristics for licensed practical nurses (LPNs) in rural and urban Washington State.
Additional links: Supplemental Data
Author(s): Holly Andrilla, Susan Skillman, Bev Marshall
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Washington State Data Snapshot: Registered Nurses (RNs)
Highlights data and characteristics for registered nurses (RNs) in rural and urban Washington State.
Additional links: Supplemental Data
Author(s): Holly Andrilla, Susan Skillman, Bev Marshall
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Washington State Injury and Violence Prevention Guide
Examines the burden of seven of the most common types of unintentional and intentional injuries in rural and urban areas of the state of Washington. Includes injury data, risk and protective factors, and evidence-based or promising prevention strategies for each of the seven types.
Date: 01/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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Washington State Suicide Prevention Plan
A statewide suicide prevention plan for rural and urban individuals, families, and communities based on the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention to prevent suicide and make accessible treatment and support services. Includes statistics on suicide rates by age, race, and rural or urban location.
Date: 01/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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Travel Distance Study for Rural/Competitive Bid Area/Neither Rural nor CBA Census Tracts to Hospitals and Home Medical Equipment Suppliers: Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin
Measures rural populations' proximity to hospitals and home medical equipment (HME) suppliers in Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin in comparison with their urban counterparts.
Date: 12/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Northern Iowa Geoinformatics Training, Research, Education, and Extension (GeoTREE) Center
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Statement by Julie Petersen, PMH Medical Center, before the Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies
Testimony presented at a May 7, 2015 Labor-HHS Subcommittee hearing on rural health. Provides an overview of rural healthcare innovations in Washington State. Discusses challenges facing the state's Critical Access Hospitals and other small rural hospitals.
Author(s): Julie Petersen
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Senate Committee on Appropriations
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The New Blue H: A Report on the Findings of the 2014 Rural Health Workgroup, a Partner Project Between the Washington State Department of Health and the Washington State Hospital Association
A comprehensive proposal addressing access to healthcare for rural populations in the State of Washington. Considers the entire continuum of care from wellness and prevention to acute and long-term care with a focus on hospitals and new models of healthcare delivery.
Date: 08/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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Barriers to Primary Care Physicians Prescribing Buprenorphine
Reports on a study of physicians in the State of Washington who participated in a Rural Opioid Addiction Management Project on the use of buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of opioid use disorders. Study determined the percentage of physicians who prescribed this treatment, the characteristics associated with the prescribing physicians, the number of patients treated, and the barriers found when integrating this treatment into their outreach practice.
Author(s): Eliza Hutchinson, Mary Catlin, C. Holly A. Andrilla, et al.
Citation: Annals of Family Medicine, 12(2), 128-133
Date: 03/2014
Type: Document
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The Future of the Frontier Extended Stay Clinic
Describes the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) Frontier Extended Stay Clinic (FESC) demonstration project. Identifies the successes and challenges, and discusses the financial sustainability of the FESC model. Includes policy recommendations and lessons learned.
Author(s): Susan Wilger, Saskia Van Hecke
Date: 02/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Promoviendo Pasos a la Salud (Promoting Steps to Wellness): A Lifestyle Improvement Program
Describes the development and implementation of a 12-week program focused on promoting health and well-being by providing education on nutrition, physical activity, and stress reduction to low income, rural residents in Wasco and Hood River counties in Oregon and Klickitat and Skamania counties in Washington.
Author(s): Bianca Fernandez
Date: 01/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Farmworker Health
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Evaluation of the Medicare Frontier Extended Stay Clinic Demonstration: Report to Congress
Reports on the results of a Medicare Frontier Extended Stay Clinic (FESC) demonstration project that used an enhanced clinic model in frontier areas to address the needs of seriously ill or injured patients who could not be transferred to a hospital or needed monitoring and observation for a limited period of time. Includes an overview of the demonstration and key findings from the project.
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Identification of Barriers to the Prevention and Treatment of Heat-Related Illness in Latino Farmworkers Using Activity-Oriented, Participatory Rural Appraisal Focus Group Methods
Examines the barriers to prevent and provide treatment for heat-related illness (HRI) for Latino farmworkers in Central Washington State. Research was conducted through interviews, and by examining transcripts, field notes and investigator triangulation.
Author(s): Michelle Lam, Jennifer Krenz, Pablo Palmández, et al.
Citation: BMC Public Health, 3,1004
Date: 10/2013
Type: Document
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Health Workforce Demand in Washington State: Employers’ Current and Expected Needs for Home Care Aides, Medical Assistants, Nursing Assistants Certified, Licensed Practical Nurses, Associate’s Degree Registered Nurses
Provides an overview of current and expected employer demands for key entry level healthcare occupations in the Washington State.
Author(s): Lorella Palazzo, Susan M. Skillman, Anne Basye, Caitlin C. Morrison
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Health Workforce Assessment: Tools for Policymakers and Planners
Provides information and statistics on the rural healthcare workforce, assessments, and other factors affecting the delivery of healthcare in Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Davis G. Patterson, Denise M. Lishner, Mark P. Doescher, C. Holly A. Andrilla
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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What Is Rural in the WWAMI States? Why Definitions Matter
Discusses the multiple definitions of rural. Describes the impacts of using differing definitions in Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Davis G. Patterson, Denise M. Lishner, Mark P. Doescher, Meredith A. Fordyce
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Building and Maintaining the Rural Health Workforce: Resources and Strategies
Provides examples of national and regional programs in Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Focuses on programs that support the education, recruitment, and retention of the rural healthcare workforce.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Denise M. Lishner, Susan M. Skillman, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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The Rural Health Workforce in the WWAMI States: By the Numbers
Provides statistics on healthcare professionals in rural and urban areas of Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Susan M. Skillman, C. Holly A. Andrilla, Denise M. Lishner, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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The Rural Health Workforce: Challenges and Opportunities
Describes characteristics and challenges of the rural healthcare workforce in Washing, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Covers factors affecting delivery of healthcare in rural areas.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Davis G. Patterson, Denise M. Lishner, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Trends and Correlates of Child Passenger Restraint Use in 6 Northwest Tribes: The Native Children Always Ride Safe (Native CARS) Project
Examines the use of proper child restraints in vehicles and the additional risk factors present with improper restraint in American Indian tribes in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, including statistics that compare results from 2003 and 2009. Focuses on a community-based program among tribes to increase child safety.
Author(s): Jodi A. Lapidus, Nicole Holdaway Smith, Tam Lutz, Beth E. Ebel
Citation: American Journal of Public Health, 103(2), 355-361
Date: 02/2013
Type: Document
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Washington State Primary Care Workforce: Summary of Physician Focus Group Findings
Findings from five focus groups consisting of primary care physicians in five areas of Washington State conducted by the Washington State Office of Financial Management. Assesses physicians’ perspectives of factors affecting access to primary care, especially for Medicaid patients, and how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will change the primary care physician’s role in the health delivery system.
Author(s): Barbara Matthews, Thea Mounts
Date: 08/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Rural Health Care: A Strategic Plan for Washington State
Explores ways to transform the rural healthcare system in Washington State. Describes the challenges that rural communities face. Provides rural versus urban statistics on reimbursement and special programs.
Date: 2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Hospital Association
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Washington Tracking Network (WTN)
Provides interactive maps, charts and graphs on a wide range of data by county for Washington State. Includes content on health and climate, community and population characteristics, transportation, the environment, and exposure to toxic substances. Covers several health topics including access to care, hospitalizations, incidence of cancer, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, and opioid use, misuse, and related deaths. The Information by Location tool allows users to see rankings for health disparities, and social and economic determinants of health by county.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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Washington State Local Health Departments and Districts
Access websites for each of Washington's local and regional health departments.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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Federally Designated Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) – Washington State
Alphabetical listing of federally designated Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) in Washington State by county.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Washington State Department of Health
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Washington Health Centers: Data and Maps
Provides maps of Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) locations and communities experiencing shortages of primary care physicians. Also includes information on the populations served by health centers, services provided, staff, and patient visits.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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ERS State Fact Sheet: Washington
State-level data on population, poverty, food security, educational attainment, employment, and income. Includes data for rural areas, urban areas, and the state as a whole.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Washington KIDS COUNT Data Center (KCDC)
Provides data on child well-being for the state. Covers demographics, economic well-being, education, family and community, health, and safety and risky behaviors. Some data available by county.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Annie E. Casey Foundation
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Washington QuickFacts
State-level data on demographics, housing, income, and other social determinants of health, with the option to add data for counties and cities and towns with a population of 5,000 or more. Includes information from multiple U.S. Census Bureau censuses, surveys, and programs.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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Washington State Health Facts
State-level data on demographics, health status, healthcare costs and access, healthcare providers, and more.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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Additional resources are available. See a full list of Washington Resources.


Last Updated: 10/16/2018