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Rural Hospitals – Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Hospitals.

Changes in Service Offerings Post-System Affiliation in Rural Hospitals
Explores the effects of joining or leaving a regional or national healthcare system on 62 service offerings at rural prospective payment system (PPS) hospitals and Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) between 2008 through 2020. Compares services offered at hospitals that joined a system, left a system, were always in a system during the study period, and were never is a system during the study period.
Date: 01/2023
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
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Evaluation of the Rural Community Hospital Demonstration: Interim Report Two (Covering 2016-2018)
Provides an overview of the Rural Community Hospital Demonstration (RCHD). Describes the characteristics of RCHD participants as of fiscal year 2018, the Medicare payments received under the program, and the impact of the RCHD on hospital financial measures. Examines whether hospitals that continued to participate in the RCHD under the 21st Century Cures Act (CCA) extension experienced additional changes to their financial condition, as well as the impact of the program on hospitals that joined the demonstration for the first time under the CCA extension.
Additional links: Findings at a Glance
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: American Institutes for Research, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2020 Emergency Department Summary Tables
Provides data on ambulatory care emergency department (ED) hospital visits. Table 1 provides metropolitan/nonmetropolitan ED visit data based on hospital location.
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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The Evolution of Hospital Designations and Payment in the U.S.: Implications for Rural Hospitals
Provides a history and overview of Medicare hospital payment polices as well as alternative payment models and their impact on rural facilities. Discusses the context in which rural hospitals serve patients, rural hospital payment provisions and designations, and current federal payment models that impact rural hospitals.
Author(s): Onyinye Oyeka, Clinton MacKinney, Keith J. Mueller
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute Rural Health Panel
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Characteristics of Rural Hospitals Eligible for Conversion to Rural Emergency Hospitals and Three Rural Hospitals Considering Conversion
Findings brief presenting updated data for Rural Emergency Hospital (REH)-eligible hospitals. Compares financial and operational measures of 3 rural hospitals that have expressed interest in REH conversion with those of all 1,787 REH-eligible hospitals. Also discusses what factors may determine the number of rural hospitals that convert to REH, including risk of permanent closure.
Author(s): George Pink, Susie Gurzenda, Kristie Thompson, Ann Howard
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program
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Racial and Ethnic Differences in Emergency Department Visits Related to Substance Use Disorders, 2019
Explores emergency department (ED) visits related to substance use disorders (SUD) using data from the 2019 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). Presents the number and percentage of SUD-related ED visits by race and ethnicity for selected patient characteristics, including sex, age group, rural/urban location, and the social vulnerability of the county in which the individual resides.
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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Community Sociodemographics and Rural Hospital Survival
Explores differences in specific community-level sociodemographic factors associated with the survival or closure of rural hospitals at risk of financial distress between 2010 and 2019. Examines the relationship between the risk of hospital closure and median family income, unemployment rate, uninsured rate, education, race, and more.
Author(s): Claudia A. Rhoades, Brian E. Whitacre, Alison F. Davis
Citation: Journal of Rural Health, 2022
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
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Federal Support for Financially Distressed Hospitals
Provides an overview of Medicare hospital payments and federal funding opportunities to assist financially distressed hospitals. Includes information on COVID-19 relief funding targeted to rural and safety net hospitals.
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Congressional Research Service
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System-Affiliated U.S. Rural Hospitals
Infographic presenting data on rural hospital and Critical Access Hospital (CAH) system affiliation using data from the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey Database for fiscal years 2016 through 2021. Includes information on investor-owned and non-government, nonprofit hospitals.
Date: 11/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association
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Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; Organ Acquisition; Rural Emergency Hospitals: Payment Policies, Conditions of Participation, Provider Enrollment, Physician Self-Referral; New Service Category for Hospital Outpatient Department Prior Authorization Process; Overall Hospital Quality Star Rating; COVID-19
Establishes the Rural Emergency Hospital (REH) provider type. Outlines REH payment policy, Conditions of Participation (CoPs), quality measures, and enrollment policy. Outlines changes to the Critical Access Hospitals (CAH) CoPs regarding location and distance requirements, patient's rights requirements, and flexibilities for CAHs that are part of a larger health system. Among other things, this rule also revises the Medicare Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) and Medicare Ambulatory Surgical Center (ACS) payment system for calendar year 2023 and finalizes provisions included in the COVID-19 interim final rules.
Additional links: Fact Sheet
Date: 11/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Last Updated: 1/24/2023