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Rural Long-Term Care Facilities Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Long-Term Care Facilities.

Medicare Learning Network: Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System
Provides an overview of Long-Term Care Hospital (LTCH) certification, along with information on patient classification, payment rates and adjustments, and quality reporting requirements. Includes a list of additional resources and helpful websites.
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Electronic Health Record Adoption and Interoperability among U.S. Skilled Nursing Facilities in 2016
Presents the results of a 2016 survey of skilled nursing facilities related to the adoption and interoperability of electronic health records (EHRs) with data broken down by facility size, profit status, and rural/urban comparison.
Author(s): Carla S. Alvarado, Kathleen Zook, JaWanna Henry
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology
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Medical Barriers to Nursing Home Care for Rural Residents
Explores challenges faced by rural people seeking placement in nursing homes, especially those with behavioral or psychiatric conditions, complex care needs, dementia, or obesity, and identifies possible solutions through policy changes. Uses data from telephone interviews with 23 discharge planners from rural hospitals in Georgia, Idaho, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Author(s): Carrie Henning-Smith, Michelle Casey, Shailendra Prasad, Katy Kozhimannil
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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Hurricane Response: CMS Waivers and Exceptions for Facilities
Outlines the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' response to Hurricanes Nate, Maria, Irma, and Harvey. The actions are focused on maintaining access to care for affected Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. Includes information about administrative actions and waivers for Critical Access Hospitals, Medicare-dependent small rural hospitals, low-volume providers, and other participating facilities.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Animals Help People Heal in Rural Areas
Discusses the role of service and therapy animals in rural communities. Features service dogs of Hawaii, therapeutic riding horses of Wyoming, and a Florida skilled nursing facility with a therapy pig and tortoise.
Author(s): Allee Mead
Location: Rural Monitor
Date: 12/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Nonmetropolitan Skilled Nursing Facilities - Dually Certified
Printable map that shows the location of nonmetropolitan skilled nursing facilities and nursing facilities that are dually certified nationwide by state. Data source: HRSA Data Warehouse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, December 2016.
Date: 12/2016
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Are Rural Older Adults Benefiting from Increased State Spending on Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services?
Discusses the availability and use of home and community-based services (HCBS) by rural and urban elderly receiving Medicaid funding for long term services and supports (LTSS) using national Medicaid Analytical Extract claims data.
Author(s): Andrew F. Coburn, Eileen Griffin, Deborah Thayer, Zachariah Croll, Erika C. Ziller
Date: 06/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Maine Rural Health Research Center
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Older Americans Act
Official compilation of the Older Americans Act of 1965, as amended through P.L. 114-144, enacted April 19, 2016. Provides federal funding for programs that support services for older adults. Includes provisions to strengthen the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program and elder abuse screening and prevention efforts. Supports evidence-based programs, such as falls prevention and chronic disease self-management programs. Includes discussion of services to help rural older adults.
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
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Long-Term Care Providers and Services Users in the United States: Data From the National Study of Long-Term Care Providers, 2013-2014
Presents the most current results from the National Study of Long-Term Care Providers (NSLTCP). Features information on the supply, staffing, and services offered by paid, regulated providers of long-term care services, and demographics on the users of these services. Includes statistics showing the distribution of providers among metropolitan, micropolitan, and non-metropolitan areas by type of service: adult day services, home health, hospice, nursing home, and residential care community.
Author(s): Lauren Harris-Kojetin, Manisha Sengupta, Eunice Park-Lee, et al.
Date: 02/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Adults Using Long Term Services and Supports: Population and Service Use Trends in Maine, State Fiscal Year 2014
A chartbook discussing demographic trends regarding disability, poverty, housing, work status, and other useful characteristics about adults and elders living in Maine who have used nursing facilities, residential care, home and community based services during the fiscal year 2014.
Author(s): Kimberly I. Snow, et al.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Muskie School of Public Service Institute for Health Policy
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The Need to Reform Medicare’s Payments to Skilled Nursing Facilities Is as Strong as Ever
Compares payments made to Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs) and costs over time to see if changes made by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to the payment system have improved payment accuracy. Table 3 and Table 4 compare healthcare facility characteristics, including rural.
Author(s): Carol Carter, Bowen Garrett, Doug Wissoker
Date: 01/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
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Nurse Staffing Levels and Quality of Care in Rural Nursing Homes
Examines the relationship between nurse staffing levels (registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, and certified nurse aide hours per resident per day) and the quality of care in rural nursing homes. Includes data for hospital-based facilities and freestanding nursing homes.
Author(s): Peiyin Hung, Michelle Casey, Ira Moscovice
Date: 01/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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An Overview of Nursing Homes and the Economic Impact of Rural Nursing Homes
Discusses the projected national total health expenditures and national nursing home expenditures that are affected by the aging population of the U.S. and increased life expectancies. Identifies how nursing homes contribute economically to the community through wages, salaries and benefits.
Author(s): Cheryl F. St. Clair, Gerald A. Doeksen, Fred C. Eilrich
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Housing an Aging Rural America: Rural Seniors and Their Homes
Discusses housing options to help rural seniors age in place. Topics covered include assisted living, home modification, transportation and other supportive services. Also addresses housing quality and affordability.
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Housing Assistance Council
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Profile of Rural Residential Care Facilities: A Chartbook
Presents information on rural residential care facilities. Survey results identify important national and regional differences between rural and urban residential care facilities (RCFs), focusing on the facility, resident and service characteristics of RCFs and their ability to meet the needs of residents. Rural RCFs are more likely to have private pay patients compared to urban facilities and their residents have fewer disabilities as measured by their functional assistance needs. Compared to urban facilities, the policies of rural RCFs appear less likely to support aging-in-place.
Author(s): Jennifer D. Lenardson, Eileen Griffin, Zach Croll, Erika C. Ziller, Andrew F. Coburn
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Maine Rural Health Research Center
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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: Impacts on Rural People, Places, and Providers: A Second Look
Addresses the impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on rural communities including the issues of health insurance coverage, Medicare and Medicaid payment, quality and delivery system reform, public health, healthcare workforce, and long-term care.
Author(s): Andrew F. Coburn, Jennifer P. Lundblad, A. Clinton MacKinney, et al.
Date: 04/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute Rural Health Panel
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2014 Quality Report
Provides an overview of latest trends in quality for skilled nursing facilities and highlights efforts to improve quality care through specific programs and initiatives. Includes statistics on urban or rural location, improvement in rehospitalization rate from 2011-2014 by state, and reduction in off-label use of antipsychotics by state.
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Health Care Association
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Long-Term Care Services in the United States: 2013 Overview
Presents descriptive results from the first findings of the National Study of Long-Term Care Providers (NSLTCP). Provides information on the supply, staffing, and services offered by providers of long-term care services; and the demographic, health, and users of these services. Figure 2 shows the distribution of providers among metropolitan, micropolitan, and non-metro areas by type of service: adult day services, home health, hospice, nursing home, and residential care community.
Author(s): Lauren Harris-Kojetin, Manisha Sengupta, Eunice Park-Lee, Roberto Valverde
Date: 12/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Mental Health Services in Rural Long-Term Care: Challenges and Opportunities for Improvement
This research and policy brief examines promising practices for enhancing mental health services to the elderly living in rural long-term care facilities or in their own homes.
Author(s): Jean A. Talbot, Andrew F. Coburn
Date: 06/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Maine Rural Health Research Center
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Challenges and Opportunities for Improving Mental Health Services in Rural Long-Term Care
Explores practices for increasing the quality, quantity, and accessibility of mental health services in rural long-term care.
Author(s): Jean A. Talbot, Andrew F. Coburn
Date: 06/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Maine Rural Health Research Center
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Design and Operation of the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities
An overview of the NSRCF that was conducted between March and November 2010. Includes residential care facilities consisting of assisted living residences, board and care homes, congregate care, enriched housing programs, homes for the aged, personal care homes, and shared housing establishments. National data was collected on 2,302 facilities and 8,094 current residents.
Date: 11/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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The State Long-Term Health Care Sector: Characteristics, Utilization, and Government Funding: 2011 Update
Examines long-term care by state. Presents statistics on Medicare and Medicaid expenditures, and characteristics of nursing facilities. Includes factors such as number of residents, beds, staff, nurses, nurses aides, economic impact, and demographics for rural, urban, freestanding, and hospital-based facilities.
Date: 09/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Health Care Association
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Home and Community-Based Services: Meeting the Long-Term Care Needs of Rural Seniors
Describes health care needs that seniors face when long-term care and health care services are not available. Issues include provider shortages, travel distances, migration and rural population, Medicaid, and home and community-based services.
Author(s): Joshua Ewing
Date: 08/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Conference of State Legislatures
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Report to Congress: Evaluation of the Rural PACE Provider Grant Program
Evaluates rural Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) pilot sites. Discusses PACE participants, enrollment, successes and failures, and future expansion of PACE in rural communities.
Author(s): Karyn Kai Anderson
Date: 2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: Impacts on Rural People, Places, and Providers: A First Look
Summarizes six issue areas of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and discusses implications for access to services and improving the health status of rural residents. These issue areas are: health insurance coverage; Medicare and Medicaid payment; quality, financing, and delivery system reform; public health; healthcare workforce; and long-term care.
Author(s): Andrew F. Coburn, Jennifer P. Lundblad, A. Clinton MacKinney, Timothy D. McBride, Keith J. Mueller
Date: 09/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute Rural Health Panel
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Systems of Care: Environmental Scan of Medicaid-Funded Long-Term Supports and Services
Part of the Medicaid Continuum of Care series, developed to help state and federal policymakers identify strategies for addressing clinical and long-term supports and services needs of Medicaid beneficiaries. Provides an overview of the current status of the publicly funded long-term care delivery system. Discusses rural vs. urban infrastructure.
Author(s): Gretchen Engquist, Cyndy Johnson, William Courtland Johnson
Date: 05/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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Medicaid-Funded Long-Term Supports and Services: Snapshots of Innovation
Identifies high-quality and cost-effective strategies for urban and rural areas when addressing the full range of clinical and long-term supports and services needs of Medicaid beneficiaries. Mentions reimbursement issues for Telehealth services in rural areas.
Author(s): Gretchen Engquist, Cyndy Johnson, William Courtland Johnson
Date: 05/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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Medicaid-Funded Long-Term Care: Toward More Home-and Community-Based Options
Outlines initial federal policy suggestions for reforming the nation’s Medicaid-funded LTSS system.
Author(s): Gretchen Engquist, Cyndy Johnson, Alice Lind, Lindsay Palmer Barnette,
Date: 05/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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Expanding Rural Elder Care Options: Models That Work
Proceedings from the 2008 Rural Long Term Care Access and Options Workshop, which discussed model options for home, community, and facility-based care by care coordination systems that enhance autonomy and quality of life for rural elders.
Author(s): Peter Fitzgerald, Andy Coburn, Sharon K. Dwyer
Date: 06/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National PACE Association
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Long-Term Care: Consumers, Providers, Payers, and Programs
Discusses selected characteristics of long-term care consumers and providers and describes payers and selected programs that finance long-term care services.
Author(s): Carol O'Shaughnessy, Julie Stone, Thomas Gabe, Laura B. Shrestha
Date: 03/2007
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Congressional Research Service
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List of Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Federal Regulations
Lists federal regulations and notices related to the Prospective Payment System (PPS) for Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs), including information on annual payment rate updates. Contains copies of proposed and final rules, along with any relevant corrections, as published in the Federal Register.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Swing Bed Reimbursement in Critical Access Hospitals
March 2015 webinar discussion in response to the release of a report from the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) on the value of swing bed programs vs. skilled nursing facilities (SNF) in Critical Access Hospitals. Covers the major components of the swing bed program, reviews the report, and provides an example of a successful program in Kentucky. Presented by Brock Slabach, National Rural Health Association; Kristin L. Reiter, Associate Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Research Fellow at the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research; and Susan Starling, CEO/President at Marcum and Wallace Memorial Hospital. 60 minutes.
Additional links: Transcript
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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National Study of Long-Term Care Providers (NSLTCP)
Monitors trends in the major sectors of paid, regulated long-term care services providers. Includes data and reports related to residential care communities, adult day services centers, home health agencies, nursing homes, and hospices.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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PubMed Search: Rural Long-Term Care Facilities
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on topics related to rural long-term care.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: National Library of Medicine
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Caring for the Ages
Published monthly. Contains information for long-term care practitioners including clinical, policy, research, risk management, infection control, quality of care, and systems management. Includes some articles specific to rural long-term care.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
Sponsoring organization: American Medical Directors Association
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Provider Magazine
Published monthly. Contains information for long-term care professionals including upcoming legislation, regulations, quality care, and improving operating efficiencies. Includes some articles specific to rural long-term care.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
Sponsoring organization: American Health Care Association
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Nursing Home Compare
Provides detailed information about the past performance of every Medicare and Medicaid certified nursing home in the country.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 12/13/2017