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Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Appalachia

Ohio Health Policy Brief: Connections Between Water Quality and Health
Examines water quality in Ohio, the health impacts of polluted water, and water policy to address potential harm. Provides data on harmful algal bloom, percent of households without complete plumbing facilities by county type, per capita H2Ohio funding for lead service line replacements by county type, and counties with drinking water violations. Includes discussion about environmental health disparities in disadvantaged populations, such as Appalachian and rural.
Author(s): Lexi Chirakos, Robin Blair-Ackison, Tonni Oberly, Jacob Santiago, Anna Sheeran
Date: 03/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Policy Institute of Ohio
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Kentucky Outreach Service Kiosk (KyOSK) Study Protocol: A Community-Level, Controlled Quasi-Experimental, Type 1 Hybrid Effectiveness Study to Assess Implementation, Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of a Community-Tailored Harm Reduction Kiosk on HIV, HCV and Overdose Risk in Rural Appalachia
Reports on study design and implementation of a kiosk-based harm reduction intervention focused on HIV, hepatitis C, and overdose risk in rural Appalachia. Describes characteristics of two selected Appalachian Kentucky counties, eligibility criteria, data collection procedures, and study outcome measurement.
Author(s): April M Young, Jennifer R Havens, Hannah L F Cooper, et al.
Citation: BMJ Open, 14(3), e083983
Date: 03/2024
Type: Document
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Testing the Feasibility of the QuitAid Smoking Cessation Intervention in a Randomized Factorial Design in an Independent, Rural Community Pharmacy
Examines a pharmacist-delivered smoking cessation intervention in rural Appalachia. Analyzes an ask-advise-connect model conducted with 24 adult smokers between September and November 2021, observing recruitment, retention, treatment adherence, and fidelity. Includes data on participant demographics, participant satisfaction, and pharmacist perceptions.
Author(s): Melissa A. Little, Taylor Reid, Matthew Moncrief, et al.
Citation: Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 10(41)
Date: 02/2024
Type: Document
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Net Migration Spurs Renewed Growth in Rural Areas of the United States
Discusses population migration data showing trends in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan population migration between 2019 and 2022 and within rural regions across the country. Notes impact of COVID-19 on trends.
Author(s): John Cromartie
Date: 02/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Geographic Differences in Preconception Health Indicators Among Ohio Women Who Delivered Live Births, 2019–2021
Examines preconception health indicators in Ohio women based on geographical differences. Utilizes data from the 2019–2021 Ohio Pregnancy Assessment Survey to analyze indicators such as health behaviors and conditions, substance use, and wanted versus unwanted pregnancy according to metropolitan, Appalachian, rural non-Appalachian, and suburban location.
Author(s): Natalie DiPietro Mager, Michelle Menegay, Connie Bish, Reena Oza-Frank
Citation: Preventing Chronic Disease, 21
Date: 02/2024
Type: Document
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The Impact of Fentanyl on State- and County-Level Psychostimulant and Cocaine Overdose Death Rates by Race in Ohio from 2010 to 2020: A Time Series and Spatiotemporal Analysis
Analyzes the role of fentanyl in overdose deaths in Ohio. Examines 2010-2020 state- and county-level overdose mortality rates with data further broken down by drug type and race/ethnicity. Discusses related geographical factors such as rurality and Appalachian region.
Author(s): Angela T. Estadt, Brian N. White, JaNelle M. Ricks, et al.
Citation: Harm Reduction Journal, 21, 13
Date: 01/2024
Type: Document
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Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in South Central Appalachia
Analyzes factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy from a survey of 181 Appalachian adults from February to June of 2021. Provides data on correlations between vaccine hesitancy and vaccine-related beliefs, attitudes toward COVID risk, adherence to prevention measures, and demographics. Highlights participants' geography and discusses disparities in rural Appalachia.
Author(s): Florence M. Weierbach, Rebecca Adkins Fletcher, Ingrid E. Luffman, et al.
Citation: Journal of Appalachian Health, 5(3), 71-84
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
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Changes in Perceptions of First Responders after Witnessing a Drug Overdose: Individual and Contextual Variations among People Who Use Opioids in West Virginia
Evaluates changes in attitude toward first responders among people who witnessed an overdose and stayed until first responders arrived. Utilizes interview data from 50 nonmedical users of prescription opioids from 3 rural Appalachian West Virginia counties. Identifies personal and contextual factors associated with changed perceptions of first responders.
Author(s): Kathleen L. Egan, Kelly Gurka, Alexandria Macmadu, Herb Linn
Citation: Journal of Appalachian Health, 5(3), 22-37
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
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Disparities in Mortality Between Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Regions of Kentucky
Compares all-cause, drug-related, and opioid-related mortality in Kentucky, with breakdowns by metropolitan/nonmetropolitan and Appalachian/non-Appalachian counties. Utilizes 2000-2019 CDC WONDER mortality data. Identifies mortality trends, and discusses related demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors.
Author(s): Sonali S. Salunkhe, Sahal Alzahrani, Beatrice Ugiliweneza
Citation: Journal of Appalachian Health, 5(3), 38-52
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
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High-Risk Individuals and Naloxone Use: Implications for THN Programs in Rural Appalachian Communities
Presents thematic analysis of factors influencing opioid overdose and naloxone use from interviews with 16 people who use opioid drugs in 4 rural, Appalachian Pennsylvania counties. Identifies opioid overdose risk factors, including substance use habits, as well as factors facilitating or preventing effective naloxone interventions. Covers naloxone access and knowledge, experiences, attitudes toward first responders, and disconnects between naloxone intervention and opioid dependence treatment.
Author(s): Victor Garcia, Lisa McCann, Erick Lauber, et al.
Citation: Journal of Appalachian Health, 5(3), 9-21
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
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