Community Paramedicine Models for Referrals for Social Services
In addition to performing critical primary care functions, community paramedics often provide support to
patients through care navigation and linkage to the social services sector. Because community paramedics are in
the patient's home, they can ask questions or identify issues that are otherwise not visible to a provider in a
clinic but which may have an impact on the patient's health and well-being. Community paramedics can be the
“eyes and ears” of the healthcare system within a patient's home. In addition, for homebound or
socially isolated people, community paramedics can be an important connection to the outside world.
Community paramedics can build relationships with other human and social services organizations in the community
and develop detailed lists of contacts, referral options, and resources. Because of their deep understanding of
the local social services landscape, community paramedics may be able to leverage their relationships with these
organizations to help their clients secure services. They may also be able to provide support navigating
eligibility requirements or applications for services, which can be particularly difficult for people with poor
internet connectivity, low literacy skills, or limited English proficiency.
Depending on patient need and the availability of community services, community paramedics may be able to offer
a variety of referrals to services, including:
Nutrition – Meals on Wheels, food pantries, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Substance use treatment or support groups
Medical or non-medical transportation
Older adult services – Area Agency on Aging, Alzheimer's support groups, senior centers
Healthcare coverage, such as applications for Medicaid
For more information about addressing social determinants of health in rural communities, please visit the Social Determinants of Health in Rural Communities Toolkit.
Examples of Referrals for Social Services from Rural Community Paramedicine Programs
Health Care EMS in Wadena, Minnesota, provides home visits to patients at high risk of readmissions
and works with clients who are frequent emergency medical service users. The program also receives referrals
from providers who have identified patients needing additional support obtaining health resources. Every two
weeks, program clients receive a visit from a multi-disciplinary team that includes a social worker, who is
able to further tailor their care plan or make additional referrals as needed.
The Flagler County Fire Rescue Community
Paramedicine Program works with Access Flagler First, a community coordinating entity, to develop
and update detailed
lists of available resources in their community. These directories can be used to provide referrals
to clients with human or social services needs. Partnerships with these organizations are strengthened
through regular, quarterly meetings to share experiences, update one another on new programs or resources,
and case-conference about shared clients.
Considerations for Implementation
Compared to urban areas, rural communities have a limited
human or social services sector, though need is still often present for supports that help people live
healthier and more productive lives. Community paramedics can be important advocates for their clients to access
limited resources, making strong relationships with human and social services organizations very beneficial.
If possible, EMS agencies should participate in or convene meetings of key local stakeholders. Case conferencing
and regular partner meetings can be particularly useful for linking individual patients to needed resources and
identifying gaps in care.
In rural areas, faith-based organizations are often
important stakeholders and provide many social and community services. Community paramedicine programs
can partner with other non-traditional organizations that may facilitate access to resources for their patients.
Program Clearinghouse Examples
Resources to Learn More
Health and Wellbeing Questionnaire
An initial intake form listing a variety of social services needs related to mental health, social isolation,
substance use, and ability to accomplish activities of daily living. Patients can select areas for which they
need assistance and community paramedics can use the form for developing a case management plan. Form can be
modified to reflect available services in the target community.
Organization(s): Cranberry Township EMS (CTEMS)