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Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Emergency medical services

SAMHSA Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
Provides strategies for healthcare providers, communities, and local governments to help prevent opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Includes facts for community members, essential steps for first responders, information for prescribers, safety advice for patients and family members, and resources for overdose survivors and their families.
Date: 06/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
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EMS Services in Rural America: Challenges and Opportunities
Policy brief describing challenges for rural EMS providers, including workforce shortages and inconsistent funding. Features statistics including percentage of potentially excess deaths for 5 leading causes of death, with breakdowns by metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, and average EMS call time response and distribution of all-volunteer and all-paid staff EMS agencies, with breakdowns by 4 levels of population density. Discusses effects of the opioid crisis and Critical Access Hospital closures on provision of EMS services.
Author(s): Nikki King, Marcus Pigman, Sarah Huling, Brian Hanson
Date: 05/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Hospital Closure: Does It Affect Patient Time in an Ambulance?
Presentation slides from the 2018 National Rural Health Association (NRHA) annual conference describing a study analyzing the potential impact of hospital closures on ambulances transporting patient to emergency departments (EDs). Includes information on rural and urban hospital closures from 2011 to 2014, and hospital and ambulance characteristics.
Author(s): SuZanne Troske, Alison Davis
Date: 05/2018
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Underserved Health Research Center
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Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-123): Brief Summary of Division E--The Advancing Chronic Care, Extenders, and Social Services (ACCESS) Act
Brief summary of ACCESS Act provisions, and names of experts knowledgeable about each point. Topics include Medicare, Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), public health, child and family services, foster care, social impact partnerships, child support enforcement, and prison data reporting. Features provisions specific to institutions and services in rural areas, including hospitals, home health, and ambulance services.
Date: 03/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Congressional Research Service
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Recruitment and Retention: Overcoming the Rural EMS Dilemma
Reports on rural emergency medical services (EMS) workforce challenges and identifies innovative approaches to meet these challenges, highlighting programs in several states. Includes a list of 4 EMS recruitment and retention tactics for rural communities.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 02/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Traffic Safety Facts 2016
Presents rural and urban fatal crash data and reports average emergency medical service (EMS) response times at the state-level. Includes rural fatal crash data by roadway function, crash type, speed limit, and more.
Date: 2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
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State Flex Program Rural Emergency Medical Services Assessment Strategies
Policy brief describing the emergency medical service (EMS) assessment projects and tools implemented by five State Flex Programs in Arizona, California, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Wisconsin to improve the integration of EMS into rural systems of care. Identifies differences in EMS focused State Flex activities and collaborations to improve local and regional EMS capacity and performance.
Author(s): Karen Pearson, John Gale, Sara Kahn-Troster, Andrew Coburn
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Flex Monitoring Team
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Medicare Payment Basics: Ambulance Services Payment System
Provides an overview of Medicare payments for ambulance services. Discusses rural counties including rural and super-rural zip codes, metropolitan statistical areas, rural add-on payments, ambulance fee schedules, and payment rates.
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
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FirstNet: Efforts to Establish the Public-Safety Broadband Network
Testimony describing the First Responder Network Authority's (FirstNet) efforts as it works to establish a reliable, secure, and interoperable national public-safety broadband network. Includes a discussion on the challenges associated with providing coverage in rural areas, and addresses concerns about inadequate communication with tribal stakeholders.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Ambulance Services for Medicare Beneficiaries: State Differences in Usage, 2012-2014
Policy brief analyzing how ambulance use varies among U.S. communities. Features state-level statistics including number of Medicare patients transported by ambulance, miles transported, and number of days ambulance transport was used per patient. Compares mean characteristics of states by census division, including percentage of population living in rural areas.
Author(s): SuZanne Troske, Alison Davis
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural & Underserved Health Research Center
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