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Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Emergency medical services

Population-Based Trauma Outcomes
Final report of an expert committee funded by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to identify measure concepts and prioritize measure gaps for evaluating population-based trauma care outcomes. Includes the framework for evaluating trauma care at a regional or population level comprised of four domains: access to trauma services, cost and resource use, trauma clinical care, and prevention of trauma. Discusses issues related to rural access to trauma care and potential measures and measure adaptations for rural areas, as well as listing measures developed by the University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center.
Date: 05/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Quality Forum
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Time Critical Incident Responses: Results from the 2016 Rural EMS Sustainability Survey
Analyzes 2016 survey data to examine how rural emergency medical services (EMS) in Minnesota are trained to assess, manage, and treat patients experiencing time critical events, such as trauma, stroke, STEMI, or sudden cardiac arrest. Includes time critical event statistics for each rural EMS region.
Date: 05/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Minnesota Department of Health - Office of Rural Health and Primary Care
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Making Informed Decisions about Rural EMS
Provides an overview of the Informed Self-Determination Process, which can help a rural community make an informed decision about the level of emergency medical services (EMS) response the community wants and will support. Highlights how this approach was used in St. George, Maine.
Author(s): Tami Lichtenberg
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 04/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Air Ambulance: Available Data Show Privately-Insured Patients Are at Financial Risk
Examines air ambulance transports for patients with a focus on balance billing. Describes changes in geographic distribution of air ambulance services, including the location of bases and new bases and additions in rural areas; the extent of out-of-network air ambulance transports and balance billing practices; and how states are limiting balance billing. Relies on data from a variety of sources, including interviews with officials in 6 states: Florida, North Dakota, Montana, New Mexico, Maryland, and Texas.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 03/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Do Hospital Closures Affect Patient Time in an Ambulance?
Examines the impact of hospital closures on patient travel time to an emergency department (ED) by ambulance. Uses national data on hospital closures and hospital-based ambulance services and compares rural/urban differences.
Author(s): SuZanne Troske, Alison Davis
Date: 02/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Underserved Health Research Center
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EMS Agenda 2050: A People-Centered Vision for the Future of Emergency Medical Services
Serves as an update to the 1996 EMS Agenda for the Future. Reports the vision of emergency medical services (EMS) of the future and describes 6 guiding principles to help EMS and communities create a more people-centered EMS system. Discusses challenges specific to rural communities, such as EMS workforce issues.
Additional links: Infographic
Date: 01/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
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Improving Rural Systems of Care for Time Critical Diagnoses: A Review of State Flex Program Activities
Examines state Flex program initiatives to improve time critical diagnoses (TCD) care systems and integrate rural emergency medical services (EMS) into area care systems, particularly Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs). Briefly describes what each of the 17 participating states did to collaborate with EMS stakeholders, enhance TCD capacity, support EMS training, provide technical assistance to local EMS agencies, and collect EMS and TCD data.
Author(s): John A. Gale, Karen Pearson
Date: 01/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Flex Monitoring Team
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Snapshot of Rural Health in Colorado, 2019
Provides an overview of rural health in Colorado. Includes data and statistics on a variety of indicators, such as education, poverty, rural economy, healthcare coverage and access, rural health information technology, mental health, oral health, emergency medical services (EMS) and workforce shortages. Covers two critical issues for rural Colorado: opioid abuse and hospital finances.
Additional links: Eastern Plains Regional Snapshot, Mountain West Regional Snapshot, Northwest Regional Snapshot, San Luis Valley Regional Snapshot, Southwest Regional Snapshot
Date: 01/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Colorado Rural Health Center
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Medicare Payment Basics: Ambulance Services Payment System
Provides an overview of Medicare payments for ambulance services. Discusses rural counties including rural and super-rural zip codes, metropolitan statistical areas, rural add-on payments, ambulance fee schedules, and payment rates.
Date: 10/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
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Trauma Training Initiative Teaches Rural Laypeople How to “Stop the Bleed”
Features the Stop the Bleed initiative, which trains community members to help control blood loss while waiting for medical help. Highlights training provided in rural North Dakota and Nebraska.
Author(s): Allee Mead
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 10/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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