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Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Emergency medical services

Rural Emergency Hospital Conversion: Critical Factors for EMS Support
Policy position paper focused on emergency medical services (EMS) in communities with hospitals converting to Rural Emergency Hospital (REH) status. Outlines barriers to EMS delivery in rural areas including funding, workforce, and community engagement and support. Includes policy recommendations.
Author(s): Julie Bosak, Jed Hansen
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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How Actual Practice of Emergency Medical Services Personnel Aligns with the Recommended National Scope of Practice in Rural Versus Urban Areas of the U.S.
Results of a study examining the extent to which EMS professionals perform skills that correspond to their credential levels, and determining whether there are variations in adherence to guidelines between agencies serving rural or urban populations and agencies with unpaid versus paid staffing models. Examines credentials for emergency medical responders, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), advanced EMTs, and paramedics, and uses data from EMS encounters in 2018 from 1,056 EMS agencies nationally. Features statistics on various procedures and predictors of performing a procedure within the scope of practice model, with breakdowns by 4 levels of population density.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Benjamin A. Stubbs, Nikiah G. Nudell
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Public-Safety Broadband Network: Congressional Action Required to Ensure Network Continuity
Provides an overview of the implementation progress of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) public-safety broadband network, including network coverage in rural and non-rural areas as of March 2021. Reviews FirstNet's statutory requirements and contract responsibilities Congress should consider before FirstNet's authority sunsets in 2027. Explores options to oversee and manage the network when this authority sunsets, as well as the associated operational implications and potential costs.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Maine Baseline Needs Assessment: First Responders
Report highlights a the results of a baseline needs assessment identifying substance use disorder (SUD) treatment needs and barriers for rural first responders in Maine. Breaks down data by county, substances used, and rural versus non-rural areas.
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Vermont Center on Rural Addiction
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Snapshot of Rural Health in Colorado, 2022
Provides an overview of rural health in Colorado. Includes data and statistics on a variety of indicators, such as education, poverty, rural economy, healthcare coverage and access, rural health information technology, mental health, oral health, emergency medical services (EMS) and workforce shortages. Covers two critical issues for rural Colorado: opioid abuse and hospital finance sustainability. Includes a discussion of COVID-19 in rural parts of the state.
Additional links: Regional Snapshot: Eastern Plains, Regional Snapshot: Mountain West, Regional Snapshot: Northwest, Regional Snapshot: San Luis Valley, Regional Snapshot: Southwest
Date: 01/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Colorado Rural Health Center
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2022 EMS Index: North Dakota Rural EMS Counts
Presents data on rural-relevant EMS quality measures for North Dakota, focusing on cardiac, stroke, pain, vitals, and safety using 2021 data from the North Dakota State EMS Repository. Compares metrics in each focal area to national rates.
Date: 2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: ESO, North Dakota Department of Health, North Dakota EMS Association, University of North Dakota Center for Rural Health
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Ending Surprise Medical Bills
Offers resources for healthcare providers and consumers regarding surprise billing regulations and policies. Includes information on payment dispute resolution between patients and providers, and between providers and out-of-network health plans.
Date: 2022
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Attributes of a Successful Rural Ambulance Service Assessment
Survey created by a national group of State Office of Rural Health and State EMS directors, designed for states to assess their emergency medical services. Provides information to improve performance for each attribute rated.
Date: 12/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Wisconsin Office of Rural Health
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National Study on the Contribution of Family Physicians to the US Emergency Physician Workforce in 2020
Results of a study of family physicians who provide emergency care, using data from the 2020 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Features county-level maps showing density of family medicine emergency physicians, and statistics including urban, large rural, or small rural location.
Author(s): Christopher L. Bennett, W. Anthony Gerard, John S. Cullen, et al.
Citation: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 34(6), 1221-1228
Date: 11/2021
Type: Document
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Medicare Payment Basics: Ambulance Services Payment System
Provides an overview of Medicare payments for ambulance services. Discusses rural add-on payment policies, geographic categories determining payment rates, super-rural ZIP codes, and ambulance fee schedules. Includes information on payment system changes during the COVID-19 public health emergency.
Date: 11/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
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