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Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Illicit drug use

Association of Spatial Proximity to Fixed-Site Syringe Services Programs with HCV Serostatus and Injection Equipment Sharing Practices Among People Who Inject Drugs in Rural New England, United States
Examines the correlation of proximity to a syringe services program (SSP) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in rural areas of the northeastern United States. Utilizes 2018-2019 data to analyze people who inject drugs (PWID) and their demographic characteristics, drug usage, and distance to the nearest fixed-site SSP.
Author(s): Eric Romo, Thomas J. Stopka, Bill M. Jesdale, et al.
Citation: Harm Reduction Journal, 21, 23
Date: 01/2024
Type: Document
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The Impact of Fentanyl on State- and County-Level Psychostimulant and Cocaine Overdose Death Rates by Race in Ohio from 2010 to 2020: A Time Series and Spatiotemporal Analysis
Analyzes the role of fentanyl in overdose deaths in Ohio. Examines 2010-2020 state- and county-level overdose mortality rates with data further broken down by drug type and race/ethnicity. Discusses related geographical factors such as rurality and Appalachian region.
Author(s): Angela T. Estadt, Brian N. White, JaNelle M. Ricks, et al.
Citation: Harm Reduction Journal, 21, 13
Date: 01/2024
Type: Document
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Opioid Overdose Surveillance Preliminary District Report: Georgia, 2022
Describes district-level fatal and nonfatal opioid-involved overdoses that occurred in Georgia 2020-2022. Covers prescription opioids and illicit opioids, including heroin, fentanyl, and fentanyl analogs. Features statistics on demographics, overdose deaths, and emergency department visits, with breakdowns by district, drug type, and year. The Preliminary County Report contains county-by-county data.
Additional links: County Report
Date: 01/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Georgia Department of Public Health
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Primary Care Professionals' Perspectives on Tailoring Buprenorphine Training for Rural Practice
Interviewed 23 rural Ohio primary care professionals to identify barriers to prescribing buprenorphine for opioid use disorder treatment. Discusses the need for training addressing rural-specific barriers, limited patient access to required social supports, workforce, and stigma. Offers recommendations based on findings.
Author(s): Cheyenne Fenstemaker, Elizabeth A. Abrams, Benjamin Obringer, et al.
Citation: Journal of Rural Health, 2024
Date: 2024
Type: Document
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Effectiveness of Syringe Services Programs
Presents a literature review of the studies evaluating SSP interventions across the country. Report aims to evaluate the overall efficacy of SSPs at reducing the transmission of HIV/HCV. Four of the 100 studies were conducted in completely rural settings, and 5 were conducted in both rural and urban settings. Makes recommendations for VA policy makers.
Additional links: Appendices, Executive Summary
Author(s): Katherine M. Mackey, Erin H. Beech, Beth E. Williams, et al.
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: VA Health Services Research & Development Service
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Disparities in Mortality Between Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Regions of Kentucky
Compares all-cause, drug-related, and opioid-related mortality in Kentucky, with breakdowns by metropolitan/nonmetropolitan and Appalachian/non-Appalachian counties. Utilizes 2000-2019 CDC WONDER mortality data. Identifies mortality trends, and discusses related demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors.
Author(s): Sonali S. Salunkhe, Sahal Alzahrani, Beatrice Ugiliweneza
Citation: Journal of Appalachian Health, 5(3), 38-52
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
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Differences in Buprenorphine Prescribing Readiness Among Primary Care Professionals With and Without X-Waiver Training in the US
Examines readiness of primary care providers (PCPs) to prescribe buprenorphine to patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). Analyzes PCP knowledge of and confidence in buprenorphine, attitudes toward patients with OUD, and stress and/or empathy toward patients with OUD. Utilizes survey data from 403 PCPs in Ohio and discusses the challenges of addressing OUD in rural contexts.
Author(s): Berkeley Franz, Lindsay Y. Dhanani, O. Trent Hall, et al.
Citation: Harm Reduction Journal, 20, 180
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
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High-Risk Individuals and Naloxone Use: Implications for THN Programs in Rural Appalachian Communities
Presents thematic analysis of factors influencing opioid overdose and naloxone use from interviews with 16 people who use opioid drugs in 4 rural, Appalachian Pennsylvania counties. Identifies opioid overdose risk factors, including substance use habits, as well as factors facilitating or preventing effective naloxone interventions. Covers naloxone access and knowledge, experiences, attitudes toward first responders, and disconnects between naloxone intervention and opioid dependence treatment.
Author(s): Victor Garcia, Lisa McCann, Erick Lauber, et al.
Citation: Journal of Appalachian Health, 5(3), 9-21
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
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Retention in Telehealth Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder Among Rural Populations: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Highlights a study on the efficacy of telehealth-based treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) for rural populations. Draws patient data from 2020-2022 across 14 states and breaks down data by patient characteristics, such as insurance status, education, and rurality, among other measures. Explores retention in care and adherence over a 6 month treatment period.
Author(s): Marlene C. Lira, Cynthia Jimes, M. Justin Coffey
Citation: Telemedicine and e-Health, 29(12), 1890-1896
Date: 12/2023
Type: Document
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Oversight Hearing titled, "Fentanyl in Native Communities: Federal Perspectives on Addressing the Growing Crisis"
Recording of a Congressional hearing addressing fentanyl among Native communities. Includes testimony from federal officials discussing previous efforts and future priorities for solving the opioid crisis. Subtitles available in the video player.
Additional links: Adam W. Cohen Testimony, Glen Melville Testimony, The Honorable Roselyn Tso Testimony, The Honorable Vanessa Waldref Testimony
Date: 12/2023
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Senate Committee on Indian Affairs
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