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Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Rural-urban differences

Telemedicine Increases Access to Buprenorphine Initiation During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Discusses the expanded access to buprenorphine prescription through telemedicine during COVID-19, comparing the experiences of two harm reduction primary care programs in a rural and urban region of New York. Discusses reduced barriers to treatment, particularly delays due to in-person evaluation requirements before to the pandemic, and innovations to opioid use disorder treatment made possible through telehealth.
Author(s): Linda Wang, Jeffrey Weiss, Elizabeth Bogel Ryan, et al.
Citation: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 124, 108272
Date: 05/2021
Type: Document
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Escalating Alcohol-Involved Death Rates: Trends and Variation across the Nation and in the States from 2006 to 2019
Examines alcohol-involved deaths by state and at the national level, discussing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention vital statistics data. Explores death rate changes, trends, and variation, comparing state rates to U.S. rates and comparing rates across demographic and age groups, by sex, and by urban/rural location. Offers a map with links to infographics for each state.
Additional links: Issue Brief
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: State Health Access Data Assistance Center
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Changes in Provision of Selected Services by Rural and Urban Hospitals between 2009 and 2017
Examines the increase in number of rural hospitals that have closed or converted to a model eliminating inpatient care, as well as rural hospitals that have reduced or terminated historically essential services including obstetrics, surgery, long-term care, home health, and oncology. Features statistics on the number of hospitals offering various types of healthcare services in 2009 and in 2017, with breakdowns by urban and rural location.
Author(s): Kathleen Knocke, George H. Pink, Kristie W. Thompson, Randy K. Randolph, Mark Holmes
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program
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Influenza Vaccination in the Past 12 Months Among Children Aged 6 Months–17 Years: United States, 2019
Presents data on influenza vaccination for children aged 6 months to 17 years using 2019 National Health Interview Survey data. Compares vaccination rates by age for Black, White, and Hispanic-origin children, also comparing levels of urbanization and regional vaccination rates.
Author(s): Lindsey I. Black, Amanda E. Ng, Benjamin Zablotsky
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Geographic Access to Health Care for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries in Five States: An Update
Describes the provider mix caring for rural and urban Medicare beneficiaries in Alaska, Idaho, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington, using 2014 data. Examines the quality of care, number of annual visits, and the distances traveled for treatment of several conditions. Compares 2014 data with estimates from 1998, to assess the changes in geographical access to care. Features statistics with breakdowns by urban, large rural, small rural, and isolated rural locations.
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Rural and Urban Hospital Characteristics by Obstetric Service Provision Status, 2010-2018
Illustrates the differences between urban and rural hospitals providing obstetric (OB) services. Compares them by size, capacity, location, and community characteristics, and compares these factors between rural hospitals with OB units and those that had discontinued services during the study period. Features statistics with breakdowns by urban and rural location.
Additional links: Characteristics of Rural and Urban U.S. Hospitals Based on Obstetric Services
Author(s): Julia D. Interrante, Lindsay K. Admon, Mariana S. Tuttle, Bridget Basile Ibrahim, Katy B. Kozhimannil
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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Rural and Urban Experiences with EMS Overdose Treatment
Results of a survey of 90 urban and rural emergency medical service (EMS) providers practicing in Indiana during the period from November 2020 to March 2021, to determine how many training hours they receive and how comfortable they are with treating opioid overdoses and general drug overdoses. Features survey responses with breakdowns by urban and rural location. Poster presented at the 2021 RTT Collaborative Annual Meeting.
Author(s): Brycen Ratcliffe, Robin Danek, Ellen Ireland, Eric Reyes
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Indiana University School of Medicine
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Care Systems COVID-19 Impact Assessment: Lessons Learned and Compelling Needs
Explores the clinical and public health responses and experiences of hospitals and health systems, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Presents policy actions and policy considerations to leverage the lessons of the pandemic to improve health system financing, infrastructure, and coordination. Includes information on challenges and priority areas for consideration for rural hospitals and Critical Access Hospitals.
Author(s): Jeffrey Balser, Jaewon Ryu, Michelle Hood, et al.
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Academy of Medicine
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The Opioid Epidemic: A Geography in Two Phases
Research report examining population and geographic data on two phases of the U.S. opioid epidemic. Examines the association between overdose deaths and chronic pain, physical disability rates, and economic hardship. Discusses the shift from overdose mortality associated with prescription opioids to illicit and synthetic opioids in the early 2010s, including in rural areas and the Northeastern U.S.
Additional links: Report summary
Author(s): David A. McGranahan, Timothy S. Parker
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Use of Selected Recommended Clinical Preventive Services — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2018
Examines use of 10 recommended clinical preventive services: colon cancer screening, cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, HIV testing, pneumococcal vaccination, influenza vaccination, diabetes screening, HPV vaccination, zoster (shingles) vaccination, and tetanus vaccination. Includes data for urban and rural counties, as well as the urban to rural prevalence ratio.
Citation: MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 70(13), 461-466
Date: 04/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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