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Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Rural-urban differences

Higher Risk of Melanoma-Related Deaths for Patients Residing in Rural Counties: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program Study
Analyzes the persistence of the rural mortality penalty (RMP) related to melanoma cancer. Utilizes 2000-2019 SEER Research-Plus-17-Registry data to examine disease characteristics, incidence, and mortality rates, with breakdowns by race/ethnicity, income, and rural versus urban location.
Author(s): Sarah Kooper-Johnson, Viknesh Kasthuri, Alexander Homer, Bichchau Michelle Nguyen
Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 90(6), 1257-1258
Date: 06/2024
Type: Document
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Health Disparities in Tennessee
Examines health disparities experienced by Tennessee residents. Measures include life expectancy, health equity, healthcare access, mental health and trauma, infectious disease, chronic disease, cancer, reproductive health, and age-specific health. Features statistics with breakdowns by race, ethnicity, gender, and urban or rural location.
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Tennessee Department of Health
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Prevalence of Hospital Readmission in Illinois Counties, 2007-2022
Examines hospital readmission rates in Illinois that happened within a 30-day period from initial discharge. Analyzes 2007-2022 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) data to observe county-level as well as metro versus nonmetro changes in readmission rates.
Author(s): Adee Athiyaman
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs
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COVID-19 Vaccination Site Accessibility, United States, December 11, 2020–March 29, 2022
Analyzes the accessibility of COVID-19 vaccination sites via walking and driving time. Includes state-level graphs and maps that provide visual data on COVID-19 immunization access, as well as comparisons across noncore, metropolitan, small metropolitan, medium metropolitan, large fringe metropolitan, and large central metropolitan locations.
Author(s): Randy Yee, David Carranza, Christine Kim, et al.
Citation: Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 947-955
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
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Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies Related to Using Presumptive Recommendations for HPV Vaccination: A Qualitative Study with Rural and Non-Rural-Serving Primary Care Professionals
Examines the use of presumptive recommendations that assume parents will want to vaccinate, a strategy aimed at improving HPV vaccination uptake in rural and non-rural primary care clinics in North Carolina. Analyzes interview data from primary care professionals (PCPs) about the impact of presumptive recommendations, focusing on issues such as patient trust and cultural sensitivity.
Author(s): Olufeyisayo O. Odebunmi, Lisa P. Spees, Caitlin B. Biddell, et al.
Citation: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 20(1)
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
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Rural Resurgence: Recent Population Growth in Rural N.C.
Analyzes population trends in rural North Carolina from 2010-2023, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Features statistics with breakdowns by urban, suburban, and rural counties, and county-level maps with shadings showing percentages of population increase or decrease.
Author(s): Dalton Bailey
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Rural Center
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Association Between Sociodemographics and Change in Alcohol or Tobacco Use Behaviors During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Presents a study exploring the changes in alcohol and tobacco use during the COVID-19 pandemic and aims to identify correlating sociodemographic factors. Breaks down survey data by sociodemographic markers, such as age, race, gender, and rural versus urban location, among other factors.
Author(s): Selam Habtemariam, Chloe M. Hery, Xiaochen Zhang, et al.
Citation: PLoS ONE, 19(5), e0304111
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
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Facilitators and Barriers to Passing Local Policies That Prohibit the Sale of Flavored Tobacco Products: Qualitative Analysis of Strategies Implemented by 36 Communities in California, 2017–2021
Examines the success rate of implementing local polices that prohibit flavored tobacco sales in California. Analyzes both rural and urban communities and discusses barriers and facilitators to policy adoption.
Author(s): Sarah Hellesen, Sue Haun, Melanie S. Dove
Citation: Preventing Chronic Disease, 21
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
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Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Assessment and Tailoring Study (WIC NATS)
Provides an overview of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and how local WIC agencies and clinic sites assess their breastfeeding and nutrition services to improve participant retention and service delivery. Includes two reports: a pre-pandemic nutrition assessment report at the state and local levels and a remote versus in-person report focused on assessment processes. Includes data from state agencies as well as 369 local WIC agencies, with differences between rural versus urban agencies discussed.
Additional links: Final Report Part 1, Final Report Part 2, Summary
Author(s): M. Gabay, A.A. Gola, M. Gearing, et al.
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Food and Nutrition Service
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VA Health Care: Additional Assessments of Mileage Reimbursement Data and Veterans' Travel Costs Needed
Provides an overview of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) mileage reimbursement benefit that reimburses eligible veterans for the use of personal vehicles to attend VHA-approved care. Explores the extent to which the benefit helps defray travel costs by describing the distance a veteran would have to travel to receive a non-zero reimbursement across a variety of conditions. Presents VHA data on veterans' use of the benefit from fiscal years 2010 through 2023, as well as fuel costs incurred and mileage reimbursement for hypothetical trips to 3 VA health systems by rurality. Offers recommendations to the VA and VHA on the collection and assessment of veterans' use of the mileage reimbursement benefit and how travel costs vary by subpopulations, such as rural veterans.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 05/2024
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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