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Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Rural-urban differences

COVID-19 Cases and Deaths, Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Counties Over Time (Update)
Presents charts to compare COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas from April 1, 2020 - November 15, 2022.
Author(s): Fred Ullrich, Keith Mueller
Date: 01/2023
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
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Confirmed COVID-19 Cases, Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Counties
Identifies metro and nonmetro counties with one or more confirmed cases of COVID-19. Data is currently updated bimonthly.
Additional links: Animated Map: Counties with COVID-19 Cases, Progression Over Time
Author(s): Fred Ullrich, Keith Mueller
Date: 01/2023
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
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Rural America Ends First-Ever Period of Population Loss
Line chart showing metropolitan and nonmetropolitan population change from 1985-2021. Highlights a period of population loss in rural areas followed by a population gain.
Date: 01/2023
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Nonmetro Education Levels Are Improving, But Still Lag Metro
Stacked bar chart showing educational attainment for adults age 25 and over in 2000 and 2017-2021 for metropolitan and nonmetro areas.
Date: 01/2023
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Higher Hospitalization and Mortality Rates Among SARS-CoV-2-Infected Persons in Rural America
Presents a study on hospitalizations for COVID-19 based on rurality. Breaks down data for rural, urban-adjacent rural, and urban by age, gender, comorbidities, and outcome, among other measures.
Author(s): Alfred Jerrod Anzalone MS, Ronald Horswell, Brian M. Hendricks, et al.
Citation: Journal of Rural Health, 39(1), 39-54
Date: 2023
Type: Document
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Urban-Rural Disparities in Childhood Obesogenic Environments in the United States: Application of Differing Rural Definitions
Analyzes rural versus urban differences in food and physical activity (PA) environments that contribute to childhood obesogenic environment index (COEI) scores. Utilizes multiple data sources to examine 6 food environment variables and 4 PA variables by rural-urban continuum codes, among other rural definitions. Discusses differences in COEI scores and implications for public health practices.
Author(s): Marilyn E. Wende, M. Renée Umstattd Meyer, Christiaan Abildso, Kara Davis, Andrew T. Kaczynski
Citation: Journal of Rural Health, 39(1), 121-135
Date: 2023
Type: Document
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Oregon Areas of Unmet Health Care Need Report 2022
Covers nine variables that describe areas of unmet healthcare need in Oregon and measure access to primary care, mental, and oral healthcare services. Areas of unmet need are scored based on variables within the following categories: availability of providers, ability to afford care, and utilization. Includes statistics and county-level information by service areas.
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Oregon Office of Rural Health
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Roles of Race and Residence on the Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in South Carolina: Improving STD Prevention and Care Through Partnerships
Slides that depict information from two presentations. The first explores the associations of race and rurality in relationship to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Medicaid beneficiaries in South Carolina. Utilizes South Carolina Medicaid administrative claims data from 2019 to 2021 to examine STI and HIV incidence with data broken down by age, gender, race/ethnicity, comorbidity index, urban versus rural location, and county. The second analyzes the need to provide STI care in primary health clinics and reports on case studies from 4 rural clinics who discuss a gap in STI screening and treatment as well as barriers such as workforce capacity, structural issues, and stigma.
Author(s): Elizabeth Crouch, Theodoros V. Giannouchos, Melinda A. Merrell
Date: 12/2022
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center (formerly the South Carolina Rural Health Research Center)
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Disparities in Patient Portal Access by U.S. Adults Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Reports on a population-based survey to determine if socio-demographic disparities exist in accessing online patient portals. Using data from the 2020 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey, insured adults who had a medical visit in the previous 12 months were asked about their knowledge, access, and use of online medical records. Demographic characteristics of patients who were offered access, and for patients who accessed online portals are compared. Reasons for not using an online portal are discussed. Additional comparisons on usage are shown regarding education, race/ethnicity, sex, age, location (metro vs nonmetro/rural), insurance type, use of internet, and quality of care.
Author(s): Akira Nishii, Celeste Campos-Castillo, Denise Anthony
Citation: JAMIA Open, 5(4)
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
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The Economic Contributions of North Carolina's Health Systems and Hospitals
Presents information for 137 hospital facilities in North Carolina, including number of jobs, wage income, total value added, taxes that result from health system and hospital operations, and community benefits such as reduced cost care. Features statistics including numbers of hospitals and beds, with breakdowns by rural, suburban, and urban areas.
Additional links: Two-Page Summary
Author(s): Sara Nienow, Rizwaan Lakhani, Michael Hogan, Chrystall Davis, Jared Woollacott,
Date: 12/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: North Carolina Healthcare Association
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