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Rural Healthcare Workforce Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Healthcare Workforce.

2017 State Physician Workforce Data Book
Examines the active physician supply in each state, current medical school enrollment, physicians in graduate medical education programs, and in-state retention rates. Includes data charts and tables for all 50 states, in addition to national averages.
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of American Medical Colleges
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A Profile of New York State Nurse Practitioners, 2017
Describes active nurse practitioners (NPs) in New York, based on information from NPs who recertified from September 2015 through December 2016. Includes map of New York Population Health Improvement Program (PHIP) regions and table with practice settings of active NPs by PHIP region, both with breakdowns by urban or rural status.
Author(s): Robert Martiniano, Shen Wang, Jean Moore
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Organizations Help Veterans Transition into Healthcare Careers
Highlights the work of the Multi-State Collaborative on Military Credit and the Consortium of Michigan Veterans Educators to help veterans pursue careers in healthcare. Discusses the role veterans have played in the past and continue to play in meeting the health workforce needs of rural communities. Identifies barriers veterans face transitioning to health careers.
Author(s): Allee Mead
Location: Rural Monitor
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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AACOM 2016-17 Academic Year Survey of Graduating Seniors Summary
Results of a survey of 4,570 expected 2017 graduates from 34 colleges of osteopathic medicine and branch campuses. Topics include medical education debt and scholarships, graduate medical education plans, and percentages of students who plan to practice in rural underserved or shortage areas.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
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Does Your State Face Rural Area Provider Shortages?
Shares the percentage of each state's population living in a rural county, along with the following rural and urban healthcare workforce statistics: number of specialists per 100,000 population, number of primary care providers (PCPs) per 100,000 population, and the percent of counties that are wholly designated primary care health professional shortage areas (HPSAs).
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Healthcare Value Hub
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Clinical Training in the Rural Setting: Using Photovoice to Understand Student Experiences
Reports on a qualitative study of medical and physician assistant student training in 2 rural locations using photovoice - a participatory research methodology that combines photography and participant commentary.
Author(s): Emily Mader, Carrie Roseamelia, Sarah Lewis, et al.
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 16, 3877
Date: 05/2016
Type: Document
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Systematic Review: Rural Healthcare Workforce
Management brief describing literature review of 59 publications from 2005-2015, identifying need for rural healthcare providers, exploring provider geographic choices, synthesizing evidence on interventions to increase recruitment and retention, and documenting efficacy of student training for rural healthcare.
Author(s): S Hempel, M Maggard Gibbons, JG Ulloa, et al.
Location: Management Brief no. 112
Date: 05/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: VA Health Services Research & Development Service
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Outcomes of Rural-Centric Residency Training to Prepare Family Medicine Physicians for Rural Practice
The results of a study analyzing the number of graduates from rural-centric family medicine residency programs who selected to practice in rural areas and Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs).
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, C. Holly A. Andrilla, David Schmitz, Randall Longenecker, David V. Evans
Date: 03/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Solo and Small Practices: A Vital, Diverse Part of Primary Care
Examines characteristics, including rurality, and services provided by family physicians within solo and small practices in addition to identifying the overall percentage of family physicians working in these practices.
Author(s): Winston Liaw, Anuradha Jetty, Stephen Petterson, et al.
Location: Annals of Family Medicine, 14(1), 8-15
Date: 01/2016
Type: Document
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Diversity in Medical Education: Facts & Figures 2016
Interactive report with detailed statistical information on race, ethnicity, and gender in medical education in the United States for the 2014–2015 academic year, and trend data on select topics. Includes a map showing concentrations of select race and ethnicity of medical school applicants, matriculants, and graduates by state of legal residence. Map may be customized by student group and race/ethnicity, including American Indians or Alaska Natives.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of American Medical Colleges
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A Profile of Oral Health Providers in New York State
Results of a study examining the dentist and dental hygienist workforce in New York, using U.S. Census Bureau data from 2009-2013. Features statistics with breakdowns by sex, race or ethnicity, age group, and rural or urban location.
Author(s): Tracey Continelli, Cassondra Bruce, Erin Roberts, Robert Martiniano
Date: 11/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Assessing Rural-Urban Nurse Practitioner Supply and Distribution in 12 States Using Available Data Sources
A policy brief comparing the distribution of nurse practitioners (NPs) in rural and urban areas through the analysis of license records and the National Provider Identifier (NPI) data from 12 states.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman,Gina Keppel, Mark P. Doescher, et al.
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Personnel in Rural Areas: Results from a Survey in Nine States
Results of a 2008 Centers for Disease Control survey comparing patterns of supply and demand in rural and urban areas for prehospital emergency response personnel and examining involvement of medical directors and availability of medical consultation. Includes statistics on organizations, personnel, and types of medical emergencies, with breakdowns by four population density categories.
Author(s): D.G. Patterson, S.M. Skillman, M.A. Fordyce
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Personality Profiles of Rural Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship Students Who Choose Family Medicine
Examines whether rural clerkship students who intended to and eventually practiced family medicine had personality traits different from rural clerkship students who intended to practice in all other specialties. Includes statistics with breakdowns by sex, medical specialty, year of clerkship, age group, marital status, and personality trait.
Author(s): Diann S. Eley, Kathleen D. Brooks, Therese Zink, C. Robert Cloninger
Location: Family Medicine, 47(3), 194-203
Date: 03/2015
Type: Document
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Estimating the Residency Expansion Required to Avoid Projected Primary Care Physician Shortages by 2035
Discusses the projected shortage of primary care physicians by 2035. Briefly mentions expanding graduate medical education training through the use of teaching health centers and rural training tracks to increase those who choose primary care.
Author(s): Stephen M. Petterson, Winston R. Liaw, Carol Tran, Andrew W. Bazemore
Location: Annals of Family Medicine, 13(2), 107-114
Date: 03/2015
Type: Document
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Family Medicine Graduate Proximity to Their Site of Training: Policy Options for Improving the Distribution of Primary Care Access
Assesses the geographic relationship between graduate practice location and family medicine graduate medical education training sites. Results show an uneven geographic distribution between urban and rural primary care physicians. Report also states that family physicians are more likely to work in rural areas.
Author(s): Ernest Blake Fagan, Claire Gibbons, Sean C. Finnegan, et al.
Location: Family Medicine, 47(2), 124-130
Date: 02/2015
Type: Document
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Intra Rural and Urban Primary Care Physician Findings: AAMC 2009 Physician Survey of Primary Care Chartbook
Analyzes primary care physician survey data that was assembled by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) in 2009/2010 prior to passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to provide baseline measures in which to compare potential post ACA application studies.
Author(s): Gary Hart
Date: 02/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
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Tapping Nurse Practitioners to Meet Rising Demand for Primary Care
Discusses the use of advanced practice nurses, specifically nurse practitioners, to increase access to primary care for those residing in Health Professional Shortage Areas. Reports that nurse practitioners working in primary care are more likely than primary care physicians to work in rural areas. Suggests that the use of nurse practitioners and physician assistants could help reduce the primary care provider shortage in 2020 by two-thirds.
Author(s): Amanda Van Vleet, Julia Paradise
Date: 01/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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Fewer Family Physicians Are in Solo Practices
Discusses the current trend of fewer family physicians engaging in a solo practice, which could affect access to healthcare in rural areas that are reliant on single physician facilities.
Author(s): Lars E. Peterson, Elizabeth Baxley, Carlos Roberto Jaén, Robert L. Phillips
Location: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 28(1), 11-12
Date: 01/2015
Type: Document
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The Obstetric Care Workforce in Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) and Rural Non-CAHs
Examines current obstetric practice models in Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) and other rural hospitals to understand obstetric care services and obstetric workforce issues. Also reports on the types of clinicians providing obstetric care in rural hospitals, including obstetricians, family physicians, certified nurse midwives, and general surgeons.
Author(s): Katy Kozhimannil, Michelle Casey, Peiyin Hung, Shailendra Prasad, Ira Moscovice
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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An Interview with Robert T. Trachtenberg
Presents an interview with Robert Trachtenberg, the Executive Director of the National AHEC Organization who discusses its evolution, and how AHECs build the rural healthcare workforce.
Author(s): Beth Blevins
Location: Rural Monitor, 2014(Fall)
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Distribution of U.S. Health Care Providers Residing in Rural and Urban Areas
Presents the supply and distribution of practitioners in 32 health occupations across urban and rural areas, from 2008-2010, based on their place of residence. Reports that among rural residents, there are more providers in occupations that require fewer years of education and training.
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Workforce Analysis
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The Role of Physician Assistants in Health Care Delivery
Describes the role of physician assistants (PAs) in the U.S. healthcare system with information related to state regulations, PA education, scope of practice, and their importance in rural healthcare facilities. Also provides policy recommendations to help states attract, retain, and fully realize the value of PAs within their healthcare system.
Author(s): Amanda Dunker, Esther Krofah, Frederick Isasi
Date: 09/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Governors Association
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Transforming the Workforce to Provide Better Care: The Role of Obstetric Nurse Coordinators in North Carolina
A case study describing how nurses are helping improve prenatal care for high-risk pregnant women via North Carolina's statewide Medicaid Pregnancy Medical Home (PMH) program. Includes a section on support for rural practices participating in the PMH program.
Author(s): Mary Takach, Rachel Yalowich
Date: 09/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: AARP Public Policy Institute, National Academy for State Health Policy
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Advancing Primary Care Delivery: Practical, Proven, and Scalable Approaches
Describes the U.S. primary care system and suggests several approaches for improving value and capacity. Includes rural-specific workforce and healthcare facility statistics.
Date: 09/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UnitedHealth Center for Health Reform and Modernization
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Unfreezing the Flexnerian Model: Introducing Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships in Rural Communities
Investigates the perspective of physicians introduced to rural health through a nine-month Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) to measure the effectiveness of the LIC model in increasing the rural health workforce.
Author(s): Robert Bing-You, Robert Trowbridge, Catherine Kruithoff, John Daggett
Location: Rural and Remote Health
Date: 08/2014
Type: Document
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Models to Estimate the Economic Impact of a Rural Nurse Practitioner or Physician Assistant
Discusses the advantages of using nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) for the provision of primary care services to meet the workforce challenges in rural settings and how they contribute economically to the community.
Author(s): Fred C. Eilrich, Gerald A. Doeksen, Cheryl F. St. Clair,
Date: 08/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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Graduate Medical Education That Meets the Nation's Health Needs
Reviews the current system supporting graduate medical education (GME) and discusses how it supports or creates barriers to the development of the physician workforce the nation needs. A section on geographic maldistribution on pages 43-44 discusses the rural physician workforce. The report also discusses GME issues related to rural health facilities, including Table 3-8 (p. 83), with data on rural hospital GME.
Author(s): Committee on the Governance and Financing of Graduate Medical Education
Date: 07/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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For the Record: Mary Wakefield
Presents an interview with Mary Wakefield, Administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration, who discusses the shortage of health care providers. Highlights strategies and programs including the National Health Service Corp, the Maternal and Child Health Block Grant, State Offices of Rural Health and Primary Care Offices, scholarship and loan forgiveness programs, and the Rural Recruitment and Retention Network, which links clinicians looking to practice in rural areas with rural clinical sites in need of providers.
Location: State Legislatures Magazine, 40(6), 20-21
Date: 06/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Conference of State Legislatures
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Working with Dental Therapists - Dental Health Aide Bobby Curtis
Presents a 2 minute video with Bobby Curtis, a dental health aide therapist in rural Alaska, who describes his work with patients and how he interacts with his supervising dentist.
Date: 06/2014
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Pew Charitable Trusts
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Preventing Rural Workforce by Design
Argues that the lack of primary care physicians in rural America could have been and can still be avoided. Policies aimed to attract recent graduates into primary healthcare, rather than specialty healthcare, can help to address disparities between rural and urban healthcare.
Author(s): Robert Bowman, Michael Halasy
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 14, 2852
Date: 06/2014
Type: Document
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State Variability in Supply of Office-based Primary Care Providers: United States, 2012
Data brief covering the supply of primary care providers. Includes national rural-urban comparisons for primary care providers per 100,000 population and for use of physician assistants and nurse practitioners in physician practices. See Figure 4.
Author(s): Esther Hing, Chun-Ju Hsiao
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Subcommittee Hearing - Addressing Primary Care Access and Workforce Challenges: Voices from the Field
Presents video recording of a hearing, held on April 9, 2014, with the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging. Features 9 speakers from various health centers or clinics throughout the U.S. Speakers discussed primary care access issues including workforce training programs as a method of increasing access to geographically and economically underserved areas. 2 hours, 37 minutes in length.
Date: 04/2014
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions
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Projected Impact of the Primary Care Residency Expansion Program Using Historical Trends in Graduate Placement
Discusses the Primary Care Residency Expansion Program and its impact on future physicians working in primary care. Chart shows projected work areas by type of residency including the number of those residents working in primary care, health professional shortage areas, and rural areas.
Author(s): Rossan M. Chen, Stephen M. Petterson, Andrew Bazemore
Date: 04/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Robert Graham Center
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Effects of Potential Federal Funding Cuts on Graduate Medical Education: Results of a Survey of Designated Institutional Officials
Results of a survey which assessed how future federal funding reductions for physician education would affect the number of residency programs.
Author(s): Kathleen D. Holt, Rebecca S. Miller, Ingrid Philibert, Thomas J. Nasca
Location: Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 6(1), 183-188
Date: 03/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
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A 21st Century Health Care Workforce for the Nation
Highlights several proposals in the President's 2015 budget related to healthcare workforce, particularly primary care services. Discusses funding for graduate medical education and the National Health Service Corps to increase the number of trained providers in rural areas.
Date: 02/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Supervision, Support and Mentoring Interventions for Health Practitioners In Rural and Remote Contexts: An Integrative Review and Thematic Synthesis of the Literature to Identify Mechanisms for Successful Outcomes
Reports findings from a literature review examining support strategies for the rural and remote health workforce. Identifies successful interventions related to supervision, training and education, professional support, and mentoring. Included studies focused on the rural U.S. and other countries.
Author(s): Anna M Moran, Julia Coyle, Rod Pope, et al.
Location: Human Resources for Health, 12(10)
Date: 02/2014
Type: Document
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Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Facts & Figures 2014
Interactive report identifying demographics and practice patterns of the physician workforce that graduated from United States M.D. granting medical schools. A map in Section III provides access to state and county-level physician data. Table 12 in Section V lists primary care and specialist physicians by rural and urban areas and by race/ethnicity.
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of American Medical Colleges
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Highlights From the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners
Provides a summary of a national survey of the NP workforce that describes their education, certification, and practice patterns - including NPs who practice in rural health clinics.
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Workforce Analysis
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Rural Primary Care Physician Workforce Expansion: An Opportunity for Bipartisan Legislation
Recommends expansion of graduate medical education (GME) support in teaching health centers (THCs) as a way to address the shortage of rural primary care physicians. Proposes an expanded version of the community health center and academic medicine partnerships (CHAMP) model that would help in the development of rural THCs.
Author(s): Richard Rieselbach, Robert Phillips, Thomas Nasca, Byron Crouse
Location: Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 5(4), 556-9
Date: 12/2013
Type: Document
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Rural Nurses’ Continuing Education Needs: A U.S. Multi-Site Survey Reveals Challenges and Opportunities
Presents the results of a study which assessed the perceptions of continuing education needs for nursing staff working in healthcare facilities throughout rural areas of the Midwestern United States. Results showed the need for evidence-based continuing education content, and reducing nursing knowledge stagnation among entry level staff.
Author(s): Roseanne M. Fairchild, Marcee Everly, Linda Walters, et al.
Location: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(5), 45-55
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
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Projecting the Supply and Demand for Primary Care Practitioners Through 2020
Examines the adequacy of the future supply of primary care providers to meet the projected demand for primary care. Includes information on physician, nurse practitioner, and physician assistant supply and demand. Discusses likely causes of growth in demand for primary care, and potential impact of increased use of NPs and PAs on alleviating the primary care physician shortage. Section 8 of the full report discusses geographic disparities.
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Hospice Workforce: An Annotated Review of the Literature
Contains an annotated review of hospice workforce literature published between 2000 and 2013. Review was completed to assist in identifying hospice provider types for a hospice workforce study by the Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center.
Author(s): Shawnda Schroeder
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
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Growing the Dental Workforce: The Critical Role of Community Colleges and Workforce Investment Boards
Examines how community colleges and workforce investment boards can help improve access to care. Discusses the distribution of dentists in both rural and urban areas, dental therapists who deliver care to rural underserved communities, and dental education programs targeting recruitment efforts for students from underserved communities, including rural and low-income.
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Pew Charitable Trusts
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Improving Education for the Care of Underserved Populations
Issue brief addressing the need to improve quality of care for underserved populations, including racial and ethnic minorities, the elderly, low-income people, rural and inner city populations. Describes how new curricula and training models are preparing the health workforce to meet the needs of all patients.
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation
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The U.S. Nursing Workforce: Trends in Supply and Education – Results in Brief
Brief summary of a report that analyzes data from a variety of sources to present recent trends and the current status of the registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) workforces.
Date: 10/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Workforce Analysis
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The Aging of the Rural Primary Care Physician Workforce: Will Some Locations Be More Affected than Others?
Reports that as the aging primary care physician population retires, rural provider shortages will be further exacerbated.
Author(s): Meredith A. Fordyce, Mark P. Doescher, Susan M. Skillman
Date: 09/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Expanding Access to Primary Care: The Role of Nurse Practitioners, Physician Assistants, and Certified Nurse Midwives in the Health Center Workforce
Discusses how the use of nurse practitioners (NPs), physician assistants (PAs), and nurse midwives (CNMs) can improve access to care, patient outcomes, and reduce health disparities while promoting a more efficient and cost-effective primary care system.
Date: 09/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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GME in the United States: A Review of State Initiatives
Reports results from a study examining what states are doing to address issues affecting the physician workforce, including shortages in rural areas. Report introduces maps and charts showing demographics and healthcare workforce data by state.
Author(s): Julie C. Spero, Erin P. Fraher, Thomas C. Ricketts, Paul H. Rockey
Date: 09/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research
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Health Workforce Assessment: Tools for Policymakers and Planners
A primer on key rural health workforce assessment concepts, the use of workforce projections to examine policy scenarios, and data resources for the Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Davis G. Patterson, Susan M. Skillman, et al.
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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The Rural Health Workforce in the WWAMI States: By the Numbers
Provides data on the numbers of health care professionals in rural and metropolitan Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Susan M. Skillman, C. Holly A. Andrilla, Denise M. Lishner, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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The Rural Health Workforce: Challenges and Opportunities
Describes the characteristics and the challenges of the rural health care workforce and the factors affecting delivery of health care in rural areas.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Davis G. Patterson, Denise M. Lishner, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Unequal Distribution of the U.S. Primary Care Workforce
A policy brief on the distribution of the primary care workforce by urban and rural location.
Author(s): Stephen M. Petterson, Robert L. Phillips, Andrew W. Bazemore, Gerald T. Koinis
Date: 06/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Academy of Family Physicians
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The U.S. Nursing Workforce: Trends in Supply and Education
Analyzes data from a variety of sources to present recent trends and the current status of the registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) workforces in both rural and urban settings.
Date: 04/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Workforce Analysis
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Workforce Roles in a Redesigned Primary Care Model
Addresses both rural and urban primary care delivery models and physician workforce roles in response to the growing workforce needs as a result of the Affordable Care Act and the increased number of Americans receiving health insurance.
Date: 01/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association
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Primary Care Access: 30 Million New Patients and 11 Months to Go: Who Will Provide Their Primary Care?
Discusses the shortage of primary care providers in rural and low-income urban areas.
Date: 01/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions
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Out of Order, Out of Time: The State of the Nation's Health Workforce
Focuses attention on the need for a collaborative, coordinated, national health workforce planning initiative. Chapters 5 and 7 of the full report discuss socioeconomic trends and challenges including students’ limited access to health professions education partly due to faculty shortages, and the importance of keeping pace with the increasing diversity of the U.S. population. Also discusses resources such as pipeline initiatives for K-12 students which focus more on rural areas or underrepresented minorities, and offering distance education and online courses particularly for those in rural areas. Includes the 2013 Call to Action, the 2013 Policy Framework, and the full report.
Date: 2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of Academic Health Centers
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Source Book: Rural Health Workforce Development Grant Program, 2010-2013
Describes 20 initiatives funded under the Rural Health Workforce Development Grant Program in the 2010-2013 funding cycle. Includes information on program services, community characteristics, outcomes, challenges addressed, partners involved, and implications for other communities.
Date: 2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Federal Office of Rural Health Policy
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Widespread Need for Caregivers
Finding an adequate supply of trained caregivers to provide in-home care for seniors continues to be a challenge, especially in rural areas.
Author(s): Candi Helseth
Location: Rural Monitor, 2012(Fall)
Date: 11/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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The Contributions of Community Colleges to the Education of Allied Health Professionals in Rural Areas of the United States
Examines the availability and importance of community colleges for educating the rural allied health workforce. Discusses which allied health occupations are most affected, the contributions of rural community colleges, and the potential for using distance education to overcome geographic barriers.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Gina A. Keppel, Davis G. Patterson, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 10/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Alliance Creates Community Health Workers’ Scope of Practice, Training Curriculum, Certificate Program, and Reimbursement Strategy, Expanding Their Integration Into the Health System to Reduce Health Disparities
Discusses how the Minnesota Community Health Worker Alliance (a broad-based, statewide consortium of community health workers, public agencies, and nonprofits) prioritizes building the community health worker field as a key strategy for addressing health disparities in the state.
Date: 09/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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Characteristics of Rural RNs Who Live and Work in Different Communities
Explores individual and community-level factors associated with registered nurses' decisions to commute away from their rural areas of residence for work.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Lorella Palazzo, Mark P. Doescher, Patricia Butterfield
Date: 09/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Dental Therapists: A Promising Practice for Frontier Communities
Describes a class of allied dental health workers, Dental Therapists, who are working in frontier and rural areas of Alaska and Minnesota.
Author(s): Saskia van Hecke
Date: 08/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Frontier Communities
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Primary Care Workforce Project Report
Highlights a one-day rural symposium which featured focus groups on improving access to primary care services, raising awareness of efforts to recruit ND youth for primary care professions, and encouraging ND youth to remain in or return to the state after graduation.
Author(s): Joshua Wynne, Gary Hart, Lynette Dickson
Date: 06/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of North Dakota School of Medicine & Health Sciences
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Priming the Pump of Primary Care: Ninth Annual Report to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and to Congress
Provides advice and recommendations on policy and program development to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on primary care medicine and dentistry training. Discusses how rural areas are disproportionately affected by shortages of physicians. Makes recommendations to Title VII, section 748 to target rural and federally designated underserved areas to receive more primary care physicians. Also recognizes trends in trainees, such as on page 16 it highlights how rural born trainees are more likely to serve in rural and underserved areas.
Date: 02/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry
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Health Care Workforce Distribution and Shortage Issues in Rural America
Policy paper detailing the ongoing problems for rural areas regarding the distribution of physicians and other healthcare providers, including recruitment and retention issues. Provides policy recommendations and solutions that may help reduce or solve these problems for rural America.
Date: 01/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Primary Care Workforce Facts and Stats No. 3: Distribution of the U.S. Primary Care Workforce
Shows that primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants are more likely to practice in rural areas than are non-primary care specialists, but are still more concentrated in urban areas.
Date: 01/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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Exploring Change in Supply of Total Surgeons
These maps show rural and urban counties that lost all active surgeons between 2006-2011, counties that had no surgeons in either 2006 or 2011, counties that saw a decline in surgeons relative to population, and counties that gained surgeons relative to population.
Date: 2012
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: American College of Surgeons Health Policy Research Institute
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Matching Supply to Demand: Addressing the U.S. Primary Care Workforce Shortage
Discusses the growing primary care workforce shortage in the United States, the distribution of primary care practitioners, and patient needs. Identifies policies options to address primary care capacity.
Author(s): Emily R. Carrier, Tracy Yee, Lucy Stark
Date: 12/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Studying Health System Change
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Negotiated Rulemaking Committee on the Designation of Medically Underserved Populations and Health Professional Shortage Areas: Final Report to the Secretary
Contains recommendations and documentation of the Negotiated Rulemaking (NRM) Committee to influence methodologies used to determine Medically Underserved Populations (MUPs) and Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs).
Additional links: Appendices and Addenda, Attachments
Date: 10/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Advancing Health in Rural America: Maximizing Nursing’s Impact
Provides a link between the evidence-based nursing solutions in the Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health report and the health care challenges facing rural America. Outlines the challenges of providing access to quality, affordable care in rural areas, followed by examples of initial progress in additional support to key programs.
Author(s): Mary S. Gorski
Date: 06/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: AARP Public Policy Institute
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Health Care Workforce Shortages Critical in Rural America
Describes the impact of health workforce shortages on rural areas. Discusses state policy options to address workforce shortages and provides state-by-state statistics on Health Professional Shortage Areas for primary care, dental, and mental health HPSAs.
Author(s): Debra Miller
Date: 05/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Council of State Governments
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The Country Doctor
Thematic issue focused on ethical concerns physicians face in a rural setting, including issues related to patient privacy, overlapping roles for rural physicians, and other topics.
Location: AMA Journal of Ethics, 13(5)
Date: 05/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Medical Association
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Training Physicians for Rural Practice: Capitalizing on Local Expertise to Strengthen Rural Primary Care
Reports that medical residents who train in rural settings are more likely to practice in a rural area. Rural Training Track (RTT) programs play an important role in increasing rural practice placements, thus reducing primary care shortages. Describes the new Rural Training Track Technical Assistance (RTT-TA) program.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Randall Longenecker, David Schmitz, Susan M. Skillman, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 01/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Continuing Education, Professional Development, and Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century Health Care Workforce
11th Annual Report to the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the Congress of the United States. Focuses on continuing education for health professionals. Discusses video or web conferencing for providing continuing education to rural providers.
Date: 2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Advisory Committee on Interdisciplinary Community-Based Linkages
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The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health
Discusses transforming the nursing profession to meet the need for improving health care system. Topics include healthcare workforce, healthcare quality and safety, and health services. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss rural nursing practices and education.
Date: 2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Nurse Staffing and Rural Hospital Performance (Policy Brief)
Examines the impact of nurse staffing on rural hospital performance improvement in the CMS/Premier Inc. Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration project.
Author(s): Gestur Davidson, Kathy Belk, Ira Moscovice
Date: 12/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Upper Midwest Rural Health Research Center
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COGME Twentieth Report: Advancing Primary Care
Makes recommendations related to the ideal number of primary care physicians, primary care physician reimbursement, financial aid programs, as well as physician education and distribution. Addresses rural and underserved areas, Rural Health Clinics (RHCs), and community health centers (CHCs).
Author(s): Jerry Kruse, Mark Kelley, Tom Keane, et al.
Date: 12/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Council on Graduate Medical Education
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Preparing the Interprofessional Healthcare Workforce to Address Health Behavior Change: Ensuring A High Quality and Cost-Effective Healthcare System
10th Annual Report to the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the Congress of the United States. Focuses on education and training needed to help the healthcare workforce promote positive health behaviors. Discusses task shifting to community members in rural areas such as the use of lay health workers, including promotoras and patient navigators.
Date: 09/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Advisory Committee on Interdisciplinary Community-Based Linkages
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The Economic Impact of a Rural General Surgeon and Model for Forecasting Need
Identifies the economic benefits of a general surgeon and offers a methodology to estimate the need for a rural general surgeon.
Author(s): Fred Eilrich, Jonathan Sprague, Brian Whitacre, et al.
Date: 09/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Rural Health Works
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The Future of Family Medicine and Implications for Rural Primary Care Physician Supply
Examines the rural physician shortage, the effect of recent trends in specialty choice on provider supply, and major trends that are changing the dynamics that shape the delivery of health care.
Additional links: Policy Brief, June 2009
Author(s): Roger A. Rosenblatt, Frederick M. Chen, Denise M. Lishner, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 08/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Rural Health Workforce Issues: Challenges and Opportunities National Rural Task Force 2010 Meeting Summary
Summarizes the discussion and outcomes from the National Rural Task Force 2010 meeting, which included updates from the Health Resources and Services Administration and Federal Office of Rural Health Policy.
Date: 07/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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A National View of Rural Health Workforce Issues in the USA
Findings from a nationwide survey of rural hospital chief executive officers (CEOs). Topics addressed include their assessments of health workforce shortages and perceptions about factors influencing recruitment and retention.
Author(s): MacDowell M., Glasser M., Fitts M., Nielsen K., Hunsaker M.
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 10, 1531
Date: 07/2010
Type: Document
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Health Care Shortage Designations: HPSA, MUA, and TBD
Reviews the methodologies utilized in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and the Medically Underserved Area (MUA) designations, identifies federal programs that use these designations to allocate resources, describes proposals to consolidate and improve these designations, and discusses the Affordable Care Act provision to harmonize the two designations.
Author(s): Eileen Salinsky
Date: 06/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Health Policy Forum
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The 2010 Report to the Secretary: Rural Health and Human Services Issues
Report to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on issues related to rural America. Topics include home and community based care for rural seniors, rural primary care workforce, and rural health care provider integration.
Date: 05/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
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The Aging Surgeon Population: Replacement Rates Vary by Specialty and Rural-Urban Status
Highlights the demographic characteristics of the surgical workforce in the U.S. Using 2009 data this fact sheet presents trends by surgical specialty, regions, and rural-urban county status.
Author(s): Elizabeth Walker, Stephanie Poley, Thomas Ricketts
Date: 05/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American College of Surgeons Health Policy Research Institute
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An Analysis of the Labor Markets for Anesthesiology
Examines the supply and demand of anesthesiologists (ANs) and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs). Includes information on demographics, income, differences in rural areas, demand by state, and more. States that rural facilities are more likely than urban ones to employ CRNAs and less likely to employ ANs. Both ANs and CRNAs earn more in rural areas than in urban ones, and rural CRNAs also work longer hours than their urban counterparts.
Author(s): Daugherty L, Fonseca R, Kumar KB, Michaud P
Date: 2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RAND Corporation
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The Aging of the Primary Care Physician Workforce: Are Rural Locations Vulnerable?
Describes the rural areas of the U.S. where impending retirement threatens access to primary care, and offers potential solutions to the problem.
Date: 06/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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An Examination of the Healthcare Workforce Issues in Rural America
8th Annual Report to the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the United States Congress regarding workforce issues in rural America: enhancing health care for rural populations through interdisciplinary training and quality improvement; and rural health workforce status.
Author(s): Mary Wakefield, Patricia Moulton, Gary Hart
Date: 09/2008
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Advisory Committee on Interdisciplinary Community-Based Linkages
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Medically Underserved Areas/Populations
A map of the U.S. displaying Medically Underserved Population (MUP) and Medically Underserved Area (MUA) designated regions.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) - Mental Health
A map of the U.S. displaying Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) and HPSA scores for mental health by county, updated daily.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) - Dental Health
A map of the U.S. displaying Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) and HPSA scores for dental health by county, updated daily.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) - Primary Care
A map of the U.S. displaying Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) and HPSA scores for primary care by county, updated daily.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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AMA Health Workforce Mapper
Customizable, interactive tool for accessing healthcare workforce-related data. Includes data on physicians by specialty, as well as data on a wide range of other healthcare providers. Provides information on Health Professional Shortage Areas, hospital locations, population indicators, and patient health data such as morbidity and mortality rates, health behaviors and social environment, healthcare access, and quality data.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organizations: American Academy of Family Physicians, American Medical Association
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Physician Compare
Provides consumers with information on physicians that accept Medicare patients. Includes practice location, physician specialties, hospital affiliation, and participation in selected Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services quality improvement programs.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Rural Health Workforce Funding Programs
May 2014 webinar providing an overview of funding programs designed to grow and sustain a new crop of rural health workers. Highlights funding programs from HRSA, HHS, and foundations. Also covers financial aid and loan repayment programs available to those entering the rural health workforce. Presented by Becca Cruger, Funding Specialist for RHIhub. 60 minutes in length.
Additional links: Transcript
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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State Nursing Workforce Centers
Directory of state nursing workforce centers, which focus on addressing the nursing shortage in their states.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: National Forum of State Nursing Workforce Centers
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Health Workforce Research Centers
Information on the centers funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration to conduct policy-relevant research on the health workforce.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Bureau of Health Workforce
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Community Health Workers Toolkit
Contains eight modules about community health worker programs, how the programs work and how to use community health workers in the local community.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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PubMed Search: Healthcare Workforce and Rural Health
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on the topic of rural healthcare workforce.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: National Library of Medicine
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Medical Education Futures Study (MEFS)
Serves as a vehicle of information and data dissemination for the community of students, educators, practitioners, researchers, policy analysts, policy makers and press. Available resources focus on the role of medical education in reducing disparities, increasing access to care in rural and urban areas, and improving the health of U.S. citizens.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation
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NHSC Jobs Center
A resource for primary care, dental, and mental health providers looking for jobs at National Health Service Corps sites. Includes in-depth site information, as well as information on vacancies by discipline and specialty.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Health Service Corps
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WWAMI Center for Health Workforce Studies Regional Information Center
Provides access to health workforce information for Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Content is available by state and by profession.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 12/8/2017