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Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma – Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma.

Strategies for Enhancing Prehospital Outcomes for Cardiac Arrest (EPOC)
Analyzes results of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute–funded Enhancing Prehospital Outcomes for Cardiac Arrest (EPOC) study, which lays the foundation for future quality improvement efforts in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Identifies 49 strategies across the incident, stakeholder, and system levels to improve pre-hospital OHCA survival and care delivery. Includes rural references and considerations throughout.
Author(s): Mahshid Abir, Stephen R. Dowker, Wilson Nham, et al.
Date: 07/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: RAND Corporation
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Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Personnel: Comparing Rural and Urban Professional Experience and Provision of Evidence-Based Care
Describes the relationship between prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers' levels of experience and provision of evidence-based care for rural and urban populations. Features statistics on EMS agency sample characteristics and evidenced-based care for seizure, stroke, hypoglycemia, and trauma as of 2018, with breakdowns by urban, large rural, small rural, and isolated rural locations.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Nikiah G. Nudell, Lisa A. Garberson, C. Holly A. Andrilla
Date: 05/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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The Association of Crash Response Times and Deaths at the Crash Scene: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Using the 2019 National Emergency Medical Service Information System
Compares EMS response times with rates of crash scene deaths by rural and urban region and by rush and non-rush hour periods. Breaks down the demographic characteristics of the people involved in the crash, such as age, sex, substances involved, and injuries, as well as mortality and rurality, among other measures.
Author(s): Oluwaseun J. Adeyemi, Rajib Paul, Charles DiMaggio, et al.
Citation: Journal of Rural Health
Date: 04/2022
Type: Document
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Rural Emergency Hospital Conversion: Critical Factors for EMS Support
Policy position paper focused on emergency medical services (EMS) in communities with hospitals converting to Rural Emergency Hospital (REH) status. Outlines barriers to EMS delivery in rural areas including funding, workforce, and community engagement and support. Includes policy recommendations.
Author(s): Julie Bosak, Jed Hansen
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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How Actual Practice of Emergency Medical Services Personnel Aligns with the Recommended National Scope of Practice in Rural Versus Urban Areas of the U.S.
Results of a study examining the extent to which EMS professionals perform skills that correspond to their credential levels, and determining whether there are variations in adherence to guidelines between agencies serving rural or urban populations and agencies with unpaid versus paid staffing models. Examines credentials for emergency medical responders, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), advanced EMTs, and paramedics, and uses data from EMS encounters in 2018 from 1,056 EMS agencies nationally. Features statistics on various procedures and predictors of performing a procedure within the scope of practice model, with breakdowns by 4 levels of population density.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Benjamin A. Stubbs, Nikiah G. Nudell
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Ending Surprise Medical Bills
Offers resources for healthcare providers and consumers regarding surprise billing regulations and policies. Includes information on payment dispute resolution between patients and providers, and between providers and out-of-network health plans.
Date: 2022
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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National Study on the Contribution of Family Physicians to the US Emergency Physician Workforce in 2020
Results of a study of family physicians who provide emergency care, using data from the 2020 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Features county-level maps showing density of family medicine emergency physicians, and statistics including urban, large rural, or small rural location.
Author(s): Christopher L. Bennett, W. Anthony Gerard, John S. Cullen, et al.
Citation: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 34(6), 1221-1228
Date: 11/2021
Type: Document
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Medicare Payment Basics: Ambulance Services Payment System
Provides an overview of Medicare payments for ambulance services. Discusses rural add-on payment policies, geographic categories determining payment rates, super-rural ZIP codes, and ambulance fee schedules. Includes information on payment system changes during the COVID-19 public health emergency.
Date: 11/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
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Sustainable Rural EMS: Navigating Change
Designed to help rural communities navigate a change from unsustainable volunteer emergency medical services (EMS) and ambulance service models to those that are sustainable. Intended to direct community leaders through change based on a stepped process that has been used in rural communities throughout the U.S. Includes information on how to assess whether a community has an EMS problem, ingredients needed to change, and a process to implement change to a more sustainable model of rural EMS.
Date: 09/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Resource Center
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Air Ambulance Use and Surprise Billing
Provides an overview of air ambulance services, including the types and number of air ambulance providers and suppliers, utilization rates by patients, average costs, and the potential for balance billing for air ambulance transport. Summarizes key policies and legislation related to air ambulances, including the No Surprises Act. Presents data on air ambulance utilization by rurality between 2014-2018.
Author(s): Gina Turrini, Joel Ruhter, Andre R. Chappel, Nancy De Lew
Date: 09/2021
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
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Last Updated: 7/20/2022