Rural America includes vibrant communities that find innovative solutions to unique health challenges.
Nonprofit organizations and healthcare providers in rural areas rely on government and state funders as well as
foundations, businesses, and individual donors to help bring new projects to life or sustain crucial, existing
Getting a grant is hard work, and can involve numerous, time-intensive steps. Many funders hold competitive
cycles for grant programs in which rural organizations must compete alongside well-funded, well-prepared
organizations with dedicated and experienced grant writing teams. Organizations in rural areas are less likely
to have staff members strictly dedicated to grant writing. Staff, board members, or even community members
who have the most writing or business experience may be chosen by necessity to be responsible for securing
Rural organizations face many barriers when seeking grant funding, as identified in the National Committee for
Responsive Philanthropy's 2007 report Rural
Building Dialogue from Within, including:
- Lack of major foundations located in rural areas, leading to fewer networking opportunities
- Foundations and state/federal grantmakers without knowledge of rural issues
- The inability to show potential impact to funders when serving less densely populated areas
- Perception that rural projects are less sustainable and organized
- Smaller local nonprofit infrastructure
In addition to those barriers, the amount of funding allocated to rural organizations is significantly
smaller per capita when compared to urban counterparts. A 2015 USDA report, Foundation
Grants to Rural Areas from 2005 to
2010: Trends and Patterns, compares the average value of grants from large foundations given from 2005
to 2010. The report states that organizations based in nonmetro counties received less than half the amount per
capita compared to organizations in metro counties.
The purpose of a grant proposal isn't just to request funding. Successful grant applications should be thought
as one of the first steps to building sustainable, long-term programs that will increase the health of rural
communities. This guide can serve as a starting point for those who need assistance to begin the grant writing
process. It will cover tips on searching for rural-specific funding, grant proposal preparation, building
successful funding relationships, and planning for program sustainability.
Frequently Asked Questions
How can I learn about funding opportunities for rural health-related organizations?
Here at RHIhub, we offer many ways to learn about funding opportunities. The RHIhub Funding
and Opportunities section includes federal, state, local, and private funding programs of interest to
rural health organizations and rural organizations interested in the social determinants of health. RHIhub
reviews funding and opportunities that are added to the database,
making certain that all of the funders either expressly state they will fund in rural areas, or have been known
to fund in rural areas in the past.
RHIhub can also conduct a free, customized funding search on your behalf, which will identify funders who may be
interested in your project or program. Contact us at 800-270-1898 or firstname.lastname@example.org
to request a custom search. Please include your ZIP code and the purpose of your project in your request.
To stay up-to-date on the latest funding opportunity announcements, subscribe to the RHIhub
This Week newsletter, custom alerts, or to one of our RSS feeds.
Other ways to find federal agencies and other funders who fund rural projects (please note that RHIhub
staff search these sources for relevant information on a daily basis):
Grants.gov – Serves as a comprehensive
website with information about finding and applying for all federal grant programs, including funding from
the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy, USDA Rural Development, and other federal agencies who provide
opportunities related to rural health. Users can subscribe
to receive real-time updates on funding opportunities of interest.
Federal Office of Rural Health Policy (FORHP)
– Maintains a site specifically for rural health organizations, including a page for agency-specific funding
opportunities. Rural service providers are encouraged to sign up for FORHP's weekly e-newsletter, which
contains information about other rural-specific funding opportunities. Request to be added to the e-newsletter
list in an email to email@example.com.
Register – Provides access to information
about federal benefits and opportunities for funding. There will be information overlap with funding
sources provided on Grants.gov.
Rural Community Toolbox: Funding & Tools to Build
Health Drug-Free Rural Communities – Shares federal funding programs and information
resources related to technical assistance, training, and treatment to help rural communities address substance
use disorder (SUD) and issues related to SUD in their communities.
Candid, formerly called The Foundation Center is a nonprofit
organization that provides information, resources, and training related to working with philanthropic
Foundation Directory Online by Candid – A
subscription-based service that collects and organizes information about philanthropic organizations in the
United States. Has a searchable database of known funders.
PND by Candid, formerly called Philanthropy News
Digest – A daily news service that publishes philanthropy-related articles and
open requests for proposals.
Information Network locations – Free funding information centers that provide a
core collection of Candid/Foundation Center publications and a variety of supplementary materials and
services. Staff are available to assist you with funding searches at each location. Scroll down to the Resources
located near you section to search for locations in your area.
State Offices of Rural Health (SORHs) – Many SORHs administer funding programs, and most
knowledgeable about the funders operating within their state. Many have websites or electronic newsletters
that include funding and opportunities. Contact your State
Office of Rural Health to learn how to find funding information specific to your state.
Other sources to consider:
Businesses and organizations operating in your area – Corporations, banks, and other
businesses often fund projects that will benefit the areas in which they operate. Especially if you are
looking for a small amount, these organizations can be valuable sources of funding.
Community foundations – Many rural areas have community foundations who look for
local projects to fund. To find your nearest Community Foundation, you can use the Council on Foundations'
Community Foundation Locator.
Civic organizations – American Legions, Chambers of Commerce, Rotary Clubs, and the
like may have small amounts of funding available, or may consider hosting a fundraiser on behalf of your
Nonprofit organization associations – The National Council of Nonprofits has state association members in
almost every state. The associations support nonprofit organizations in meeting their missions by providing
training, resources, and policy support. Many provide grant writing and resource development training and
additional support for nonprofit organizations in their state.
National and regional philanthropy serving organizations – Members of national philanthropy
serving organizations have specific areas of expertise, such as a particular funding issue,
population group, or philanthropic practice. Members of state and regional philanthropy serving
organizations are sources of smaller grants within their respective service areas. The United Philanthropy
Forum maintains a listing of its regional
members. Other states may have grantmaker groups that are not members of the national association.
Note: Be cautious of for-profit grantseeking services. Federal and state grant opportunities
be found on public websites, and Foundation Directory resources may be accessed through Funding Information Network locations.
I found a grant program that looks like it would work for my rural project. Should I call first or just send in
Making contact with funders before submitting a proposal is almost always a good idea, but it varies by funder.
Carefully review the funder's giving priorities to make sure your project matches up, and then look through what
funders have to say about contact. Some funders make it explicitly clear that they aren't interested in
discussing applications while others expressly ask applicants to talk to a program officer prior to
submission. It is important to note that while federal program officers can answer technical questions about
funding opportunities, they are unable to provide feedback to strengthen an application.
Unless otherwise noted, speaking with a program officer about your application before submission can only
strengthen it. Program officers know what types of projects will be competitive and may be able to help hone
Prior to calling, be sure to do your homework — carefully review:
IRS PF990 forms
Application instructions, which may be called requests for proposals (RFPs), notices of funding opportunity
(NOFOs), or funding opportunity announcements (FOAs)
Any posted selection criteria or proposal scoring rubrics
The items listed above will give great insight into what is important to individual funders. In addition, attend
any scheduled applicant webinars and technical assistance sessions and watch posted webinar recordings.
When you reach out to program officers, be prepared to answer basic questions about your project, such as:
- Overall concept
- Budgetary needs
- Funding already in hand
- Partners who are involved
Does my organization need to be a nonprofit to apply for grants?
Typically, yes. Funders rarely make grants to for-profit businesses. Grant funds are almost exclusively reserved
for nonprofit organizations with 501(c)(3) status, with exceptions made for tribal, governmental, and civic
organizations. It is important to read through the program guidance closely to determine eligibility. There are
some exceptions. For example, some
Federal Office of Rural Health Policy community-based grant programs allow an applicant organization and/or
network member to be a public, private, non-profit, or for-profit entity.
What do I need to consider before applying for a grant?
It's important to note that grants should not be considered as the first place to start. Resources can be
gained through partnerships, sub-contracting, and local fundraising strategies. Grantseeking should come only
after significant program development thinking.
A grant is not a gift or charity; rather, a grant is an exchange relationship between a funder who wants to
address a problem and an applicant who also wants to address a problem. When a funder awards a grant, it is
making an investment towards meeting its own mission. Therefore, funders want to invest in organizations that
operate in a manner to address their mission and have a track record for meeting goals and objectives. Consider
what you bring to the table — your history, your successes, your credibility, what you can offer. It is
not just what the funder does for you, but what you can do for the funder. It is okay to brag a little, as you
have to give the funder a reason to invest in you to help address their mission.
Most federal agencies and foundations want to fund organizations that are legally organized, have a mission
statement, an annual budget, support from their local communities, and documented community impacts. Many
funders require that applicants be incorporated for a period of time before they are eligible to apply for
Grant Space offers a 5-part self-paced webinar, Before
You Seek a Grant: A Checklist for New Nonprofits. The training walks newer nonprofit organizations
through the process of getting grant-ready.
Other things to do before looking for grants:
Set up a grant file to share among your team. The file could contain:
- Ideas about organizational needs that could lead to a grant application
- Information on partners associated with ideas and needs
- Articles, documents, and additional information on potential funders
- Organizational documents that will be needed to submit grant applications
- Boilerplate text about the organization
- Research and data sources on community needs
- Reports, impact, and evaluation information on programs
Create one-page concept papers for each of your projects. It helps to have project ideas ready so you have
talking points if you get an audience with a potential funder.
When thinking about a potential project, seek out and involve partners from other agencies from the very
beginning. Consider how you might pool resources in order to create a more effective project. More and more
funders are looking favorably upon grant applications that include a consortium of community organizations
working together. Evidence has shown that collaboration reduces overlap and leads to bigger impact.
Get to know the people at local community foundations well before any grantseeking. Community foundations
are in tune to the local philanthropy landscape. They can perhaps help develop donor-advised funds in your
interest area, or at the very least, help you come up with places to look for funding.
Take a look at potential funders' websites, annual reports, and IRS PF990 forms. These items
give great insight into what is important to them.
The grant guidance says we need to be rural. What does that mean?
Rural is an inexact term that can mean different things to different people, organizations, and government
agencies. RHIhub offers the Am I Rural? tool to help determine whether a specific
location is considered rural based on various definitions, including those used by federal grant programs. For
HRSA grants, applicants should use the Rural Health Grants
Eligibility Analyzer to determine their eligibility.
Federal agencies make reference to many acronyms and codes to represent statistical areas across the country. In
federal grant announcements, one may see “RUCA” for Rural-Urban Commuting Areas, “HPSA”
for Health Professional Shortage Areas, or “MUA” for Medically Underserved Areas. For more
information on navigating commonly used acronyms and rural definitions, see RHIhub's What is Rural? topic guide.
Does our organization need to hire a grant writing consultant?
It depends on your organization's staffing level and expertise. It can take less than 10 hours to complete a
private or corporate application and up to 200 hours for a first time federal grant application. If there is an
individual or group on staff who
can complete the proposal adequately and in time for the application deadline, you may not need a consultant.
Consider the skills of staff and volunteers, and build grant writing teams. If
your organization lacks the expertise to develop one particular aspect of the proposal, such as the budget, you
may want to hire a consultant just for that section. Or you may choose to have a professional grant writer
prepare the entire proposal.
If this is the first grant proposal your organization has submitted, a grant consultant may be able to guide you
through the process and lend you valuable expertise. Grant writers can be very helpful, but they don't know the
work like you do. Wait to engage a grant writer after you have done the preliminary work yourself. As stated
earlier, grantseeking should only come after significant program development thinking.
It is a best practice to have basic proposals and projects already developed in anticipation of grant
opportunities. If you wait for a grant announcement, you may not have enough time! While all grant programs have
different review criteria, most request similar types of information. Doing initial thinking and writing around
those common information requests will make the process for preparing individual grant applications easier. If
the information is already organized into electronic folders, then boilerplate text can be dropped into
proposals and edited.
Common information includes:
Organizational description, mission, vision, goals, and objectives
Past experience and outcomes
Demonstration of the need for the project
A detailed project description
Project work plan, timeline, and evaluation plan
Plans for sustainability
Staff qualifications, biographies, resumes, and position descriptions
Organizational documents such as Articles of Incorporation, Bylaws, corporate registration letter, and IRS
Letters of support from partners
How the organization addresses equity
If you decide to work with a grant writer, you should be able to re-use many of the sections listed above in
future proposals, furthering the value of the consultant's fee.
Whether the proposal is written by staff or a consultant, everyone involved with implementing the proposed
project should familiarize themselves with the workplan, application, and program requirements. Then, if the
grant application is successful, everyone will have a good understanding of the program expectations.
If you decide to hire a consultant:
Take some time to get acquainted with the ethics and standards of fundraising. The National Council of
Nonprofits has several resources on ethical fundraising,
which includes standards for grant writing consultants. The Association of Fundraising Professionals
maintains a Code of Ethical Standards
involving transparency, stewardship, confidentiality, and compensation; these standards can provide a
framework for developing a contract with a consultant.
Before hiring a consultant, it may be helpful to attend a reputable grant writing workshop, either in person
or online, so that you understand the basic process. Contact your State Office of Rural
Health (SORH) to ask if they offer
workshops or can recommend a good training in your area.
Ask the SORH if they can recommend vetted grant writers.
If you decide to write the grant yourself:
Attend a reputable grant writing workshop, either in person or online, so that you understand the basic
process. Contact your State
Office of Rural Health (SORH)
to ask if they offer workshops or can recommend a good training in your area. Additional training resources
Ensure you thoroughly read through the instructions and guidance and follow the directions down to the
smallest detail. For instance, many applications require that certain font styles and font sizes be used.
Many applications list the order that they want the grant application information to appear, have page
limits for each section, or require the use of very specific language. Federal grant reviewers have shared
that often as many as one third of grant applications are disqualified simply because the applicants did not
Have strong writers/editors on the team review all the materials before submission to ensure the information
from each section correlates well to the other sections of the application. Allow plenty of time for
proofreading and editing and getting any required sign off from leadership on the application prior to the
deadline. Pay close attention to reviewing for continuity when sections of a grant have been written by
Contact your SORH as early as possible in the process. Some may be able to critique your proposal prior to
Which organizations provide technical assistance to rural grant writers?
There are several organizations that may provide technical assistance for rural organizations seeking grants.
All states have a designated State
Office of Rural Health, and many SORHs will provide grant writing training, guidance during the writing
process, or review and critique of completed grant proposals. Likewise, many State Rural Health Associations provide
training programs and technical assistance for grant writers working with rural health organizations.
Primary Care Associations are state or regional nonprofit organizations that provide training and technical
assistance for safety-net providers. Primary Care Associations may provide informal grant writing assistance,
especially for Federally Qualified Health Centers and similar agencies applying for HRSA Health Center funding.
HRSA maintains a map
of state and regional Primary Care Associations on its website.
Local community foundations and private foundations are in the “business” of building the capacity
of their communities, and they will often provide technical assistance for organizations in their service areas.
Don't be afraid to ask if grant writing or organizational capacity assistance is available. For an idea of the
types of services that may be provided, below is a list of a few technical assistance programs offered by local
grantmakers across the country.
Many large foundations and federal agencies hold conference calls and technical assistance webinars ahead of the
application deadline to provide an overview of the application process and allow time for questions. The
information for the technical assistance events is typically included in the grant guidance.
Grant applicants can contact their HRSA
Office of Regional Operations representative to ask about the availability of grant writing assistance.
The Office of Regional Operations hosts webinars and trainings on applying for HRSA grants, and they may be
contacted to ask about upcoming trainings.
The funder says we need to use an evidence-based model for our program. Where can I find rural
evidence-based project examples?
Evidence-based can mean a variety of different things to different funders, so it is important to clarify what
the funder's requirements are regarding level of evidence.
The RHIhub offers the Rural Models and Innovations section,
which is a valuable source of rural-specific project examples. These models are regularly updated to reflect the
latest project outcomes and are sortable by evidence level, state, topic, and funding source. Each model
includes a contact who can answer questions about the program. Successful rural models are categorized based on
four levels of evidence:
Evidence-based – Tried in numerous rural locations, a review study published in a
peer-reviewed journal, overall results were generally positive.
Effective – Tried in single rural location, positive results published in a
Promising – A formal program evaluation showed positive results.
Emerging – Anecdotal account of a successful rural program.
The County Health
Rankings Action Center is another place to search for examples of evidence-based work. In addition, you
may be able to find successful evidence-based programs by browsing through a funder's list of past projects.
Most funders will detail their most successful programs through news articles, reports, or in program summaries
on their websites. A successful strategy can be to put together a hybrid project using parts of multiple
evidence-based programs that would be applicable in your area.
Other sources for project examples are the Evidence-Based Toolkits for Rural Community
Health and the FORHP
Grants in Motion series.
Sometimes there is just no rural-specific evidence base for a particular project. In that case, many funders
will allow grantees to adapt evidence-based models for their rural area and target audience. Be sure to discuss
this with the potential funder if evidence is unavailable.
How do we show that our project addresses a real need?
Write a well-thought-out narrative that focuses on how the project will help the community and includes relevant
statistics and data to support your case. This is your chance to educate the funder about your community and
about the people you are trying to help. When possible, use tables or graphics to show comparisons of local,
state, and national data. The grant reviewers who are making decisions about your grant proposal may come from
completely different backgrounds, and may not be familiar with the specific problems faced in your community, or
rural areas in general. Rural applications may often need to be very specific to paint the picture of what the
service area looks like. For example, rural Montana looks entirely different in terms of distance and
infrastructure than rural South Carolina.
A common weakness in grant applications is not adequately connecting the needs section with the program
description, methodology, and work plan. Many grant applications will have a vast array of demographic
information listed in the needs section, but do little to substantiate the need as it relates to the solution or
program. Be sure that any data provided in the needs section is addressed when describing the project and
services. In addition to community needs, be sure to demonstrate assets of the organization and the community
that are specifically suited to meeting the needs described in the application.
Funders, especially private foundations, are working to meet specific social needs. The more you can associate
with the funder’s goals rather than the applicant’s wants, the stronger the proposal will be.
Resources for writing needs statements:
How can we design a needs statement without painting a negative picture of the community?
Funders know you are approaching them because you have a problem and you need funding to help fix the problem;
however, in addition to needs, every community has assets and success stories that can help to address those
needs. An asset-based framework, or asset-based community approach, can be used to highlight the good things
about a community and show how the community is poised to be successful in meeting the deliverables of a
According to the Asset
based Community Development Toolkit, every community has 5 key assets, including:
- Individual people with unique skills
- Associations or groups of people who come together around a common purpose
- Anchor institutions, such as businesses, schools, libraries, and other private or government entities
- Physical assets including land, natural resources, and built environment
- Connections and relationships between people
The Social Determinants of Health in Rural
Communities Toolkit's asset-based community approaches section can be used as a guide for discovering
assets and describing the positive aspects of the community to a potential funder. The toolkit includes
information about different asset-based frameworks, a list of common assets in many rural communities, and
examples of programs that use these approaches. The Rural
Community Health Toolkit also includes a section on asset mapping and a list of resources for additional
A strong needs statement will:
State the problem and related needs clearly and concisely, along with your solution that includes
consideration of the community culture
Stress the good things and unique talents within the community.
Describe partnerships that work together to meet challenges.
Talk about past successes.
Focus on the alliance between the applicant, the community, and the funder to reach specific goals that
everyone has in common.
How can I find supporting statistics or research for rural health grant proposals?
A good way to demonstrate need is to compare data for the proposed service area to state and national data.
RHIhub offers the Finding Statistics and Data Related to Rural
Health topic guide. The guide covers frequently asked questions about locating rural health data and
statistics that can be used to support grant proposals and communicate your community's needs effectively to a
funder. The resources section of the topic guide links to
many relevant data sources for rural applications.
RHIhub's Rural Data Explorer and Chart Gallery provide access
to data on a wide range of issues that impact rural health. RHIhub's state guides are
another useful resource for data.
Additional data resources include:
Offices of Rural Health and State
Primary Care Offices – State level data and reports on healthcare facilities, workforce, and
population health; varies by state
U.S. Census Bureau – Population, demographic, housing, and
economic data; data visualizations; frequent news updates; and data exploration tools
HRSA Data Warehouse – Data sets, maps, queries, and fact sheets
in the areas of health workforce, grants, training programs, practitioners, and shortage areas
USDA Economic Research Service – Rural economic, population,
food/nutrition, farm, and employment data; data visualizations; and reports
Housing Assistance Council (HAC) Rural Data Portal –
Rural demographic, social, economic, housing, and housing finance data; reports; and maps
Are maps useful to include in our grant application?
Maps can be an effective way to illustrate arguments made in your grant application and will provide visual
emphasis to written problems.
Maps may be used to show:
- Health status
- The location of healthcare facilities
- The distribution of healthcare workforce
- Data related to specific population groups
- Information about transportation and access to healthcare
Maps can be used in proposals to show grant reviewers visual locations and distances within the state. Many
reviewers may not know your community or your location within the state. Be careful that maps don't take up too
much space and that they are readable if printed in black-and-white.
RHIhub's Rural Data Visualizations section houses a collection of charts, graphs,
and interactive maps that explore data down to the county level on issues that impact rural health, including
rural demographics, health disparities, the health workforce, and other topics. Static maps showing the
locations of rural healthcare facilities in each state are also available.
The resources section of the Finding Statistics and Data
Related to Rural Health topic guide links to multiple rural health related maps from the U.S. Census Bureau and
When a funding opportunity requires matching funds, what are some strategies to come up with the match?
Matching funds, sometimes called cost-sharing, is when the costs of a project are shared between the parties
involved. If expected, cost sharing/matching requirements will be outlined in the grant guidance.
There are many different options for procuring cash matches. Community foundations, local businesses, and
community-based organizations all may be good sources of funding for matching grants. It is important to
identify these stakeholders early in your process and explain clearly how their contributions could be used to
leverage additional dollars for the community.
The Council on Foundations Community Foundation
Locator tool can help to identify if your community has an established Community Foundation.
If an in-kind match is acceptable to the funder, there are many ways to show the contribution your organization
and community are making to the project:
An organization can provide a cash match.
Staff time and volunteer time can count as an in-kind match. Track the contribution that participants'
organizations are providing by allowing them to work on the project, including their attendance at meetings.
Construction and donations of capital equipment or supplies may be used as an in-kind match.
You may also want to keep track of other types of in-kind contributions, such as space, equipment use,
printing, mailing, or utility costs.
It is important to document everything and keep good records of in-kind matches. It is also important to note
that most federal grant programs refer to matching as cost-sharing, and one cannot use federal dollars
match other federal dollars.
Should we try to find a single funder or should we use multiple funding sources?
While it would be ideal to find a single source of funding for a major project, many small organizations rely on
multiple funding streams to support their work. Don't discount the smaller chunks of money that are available
from funders in your area. If you add up several small grants, you may find you have enough money to do what you
set out to do. Many funders recognize a great benefit to having program investment from multiple funding groups.
Additionally, diversifying the source of your organization's funding can make your project or organization more
financially secure and sustainable in the event that one source of funding is lost.
This is where a development consultant, sometimes known as a fundraising consultant, may be useful. Development
consultants can assist with program development, as well as the development of fundraising and sustainability
plans for projects and services. Typically, fundraising plans will involve activities in addition to grant
writing, such as individual giving, capital campaigns, and local fundraisers.
Organizations that do not have the resources to hire a development consultant may still benefit from fundraising
planning. Grant Space by Candid offers a free course, called Introduction to
Fundraising Planning, that is provided through in-person, live webinar, and on-demand formats.
What can we do to make our rural project more sustainable?
Funders are increasingly looking to proposed plans for sustainability during their decision-making processes.
Most funders want to know that the dollars they are giving will lead to lasting impact and change. Therefore,
planning for sustainability from the beginning of your project is extremely important.
The Rural Health Information Hub offers Sustainability Planning Tools. The
tools were developed by the Georgia Health Policy Center for the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy's
community-based grantees. They are also useful for programs funded by other sources. The tools are intended to
help you consider the sustainability of programs that address community needs and engage partners and
stakeholders in this planning process.
Module 5 of the Rural Community Health Toolkit
provides detailed information about planning for sustainability early in the planning and implementation stages.
The How to Plan for Sustainability page has a list
of links to toolkit pages with additional information on sustainability planning considerations for specific
types of programs.
While not rural-focused, sustaintool.org is an online system of tools and
resources created by the Center for Public Health Systems Science at Washington University in St. Louis,
Missouri. The tools help with examining the sustainability of programs and clinical practices. Users will need
to sign up for an account to use the free resources. The tools guide the user in understanding the factors
that influence a program's capacity for sustainability, assessing the level of sustainability, reviewing
a sustainability report generated by the system, and developing an action plan to increase the likelihood of
How do we create an evaluation plan to include in our grant proposal?
Funders typically place significant emphasis on your plan to evaluate your project. Tracking and reporting on
processes and outcomes will help your project improve processes, be accountable to the funder, and show impact.
Evaluation planning should be done as part of the initial program design to ensure that program elements can be
adequately evaluated, that benchmark data are available, and that opportunities for performance improvement are
included in the program design.
The question commonly comes up, “Does an outside evaluator need to be hired as part of our grant project?”
Most grant programs do not require formal, outside evaluation at the local program level. Typically, a
evaluation plan is sufficient. For programs that require large amounts of data collection, it could be helpful
to include a data coordinator position in the budget to help ease required data collection and reporting
requirements. Specific language will be in the application guidance if budget funding needs to
be allocated for a contract with an outside evaluator. If you do hire a consultant or contractor to complete an
evaluation, make sure they have demonstrated experience in qualitative, quantitative, and developmental
evaluation of similar types of rural projects.
A term you may see when talking about workplans and program evaluation is logic models. A logic model presents a
visual image of how your initiative is supposed to work and offers a logical explanation of how your strategy is
a good solution to the problem at hand. Logic models can be a helpful planning tool, especially when writing
grant applications. Logic models often include process and outcome measures, which can help measure the impact
of each individual activity as well as the overall project. Many funders, especially federal agencies, request
logic models as part of the application. Even in cases where a logic model is not required as part of the
application, creating a logic model can be helpful in developing a project framework and workplan. The Kellogg
Foundation offers many resources on evaluation, including the Logic Model
Development Guide. Similar terms you may see in application guidance instead of logic model are
conceptual map, framework, blueprint, chain of causation, and theory of change.
To learn more about evaluating rural health programs, see the Conducting Rural Health
Assessment, and Program Evaluation topic guide and the Rural Community Health Toolkit's Module 4: Evaluating Rural Programs.
How important is networking and collaborating to getting a project funded?
It can be very helpful to network with other facilities, agencies, and organizations in your community and
beyond. It is important to build your credibility and reputation so that funders are aware of the good work you
do and think of
you when they have extra funds to allocate. Colleagues at other nonprofits may share information on funding
opportunities with you. They may also be willing to act as grant writing partners or mentors.
- Reduce the cost of grant writing
- Increase capacity to carry out programming
- Expand programs and services to enhance the reach and effectiveness of projects
- Increase chances of getting funded, when partners lend their good reputation
In some grant programs, including many of the funding opportunities through the Federal Office of Rural Health
Policy, networking or collaborating with other organizations and/or developing a consortium are requirements to
receive funding. Many funders want to know that a project or program has broad support across a variety of
different spectrums. In other grant programs, extra points are awarded for networking with other organizations.
For additional information, visit the Rural Health Networks and Coalitions
How do I apply for a federal grant that requires electronic submission?
Most federal agencies require that grant applications be submitted electronically through Grants.gov.
requires a one-time registration by the applicant organization. To begin the registration process, follow the
steps outlined on Grants.gov:
Organization Registration. This is a time consuming process that requires financial information, a DUNS
number, as well as registration with the System for Award Management (SAM). HRSA states on
their website that the process of registering in all three of these systems (Grants.gov, SAM, and DUNS) can take
up to a month to complete. It is recommended to go through this process right away even if you aren't currently
applying for a grant.
Be sure to renew
your registration every year. The renewal process can take
48-72 hours to validate, and you will be unable to submit an application if your account is inactive.
By April of 2022, the government will no longer use the DUNS number as an identifier for grant applicants and
contractors; SAM will create a Unique Entity Identifier (UEI) without having to access a third-party website.
According to the U.S.
General Services Administration, existing registered entities will automatically be assigned a new UEI
by SAM. Unregistered entities will need to request new UEIs through SAM.gov when starting the registration
Where can I find examples of successful grant proposals?
There are many ways to access copies of successful proposals.
Many funders provide copies of successful proposals and/or detailed project summaries on their program
websites. If you are unable to locate this information, you can always reach out to the funder to ask if
they have examples of previous proposals.
For federal proposals, you can make a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. Plan ahead—this process
will take some time, as well as money for the cost of copies. Information for making a request can be found
on the FOIA website.
Samples of successful cover letters,
letters of inquiry, proposals, and budgets can be found on the Grant Space by Candid site.
- Candid/Foundation Center has produced multiple print resources that include successful proposals. They can
be found at the Funding Information Network locations.
Our proposal was declined. What's next?
Many projects are denied several times before being funded. Declined proposals often have fundamental issues
need to be addressed.
Next steps may include:
Request comments about your proposal from the funder, and address those weaknesses in future applications
Seek out other sources of funding, and rework your proposal to closely follow the guidance of the new
Make contact with a program officer and work closely with the funder when preparing future applications
Ask the funder if they provide technical assistance opportunities for applicants.
- Examples of agencies that may be able to provide grant writing/funding technical assistance and/or
application review include:
Our proposal was funded. How do we live up to our funder's expectations?
Write a thank you note to the funder (before depositing the check, if possible), and submit reports about your
project on time. Follow through with the activities you outlined in your proposal, and be sure to keep the
funder informed about any changes that you need to make when the project is in progress. Send event invitations
and other related products to the funder throughout the course of the project. Request regular follow-up
meetings with the funder to discuss activities, outcomes, expectations, and project changes that have occurred
since the proposal was submitted.
During the lifespan of the project, be sure to:
- Submit grant deliverables and reports on time
- Be responsive to requests
- As questions arise, always ask to clarify requirements and expectations
- Alert the funder immediately when there are changes in your budget, staff, or work plan
Remember that you are building a relationship with the funder. This may be your first grant from a specific
funder, but you may be approaching them again in the future for continuation funds or a different project
entirely. Applicants want to establish a long-term relationship by building contacts, securing a firm
relationship, and showing that your organization is a good steward of their funds.
How can I learn more about preparing grant proposals?
There are several free online tutorials you can take, such as these from the Candid/Foundation Center:
Additionally, many State
Offices of Rural Health provide free or low-cost grant writing seminars for rural health organizations.
The Technical Assistance and Services Center developed the Federal Grant
Writing Manual to assist organizations, particularly Critical Access Hospitals, who wish to complete
While not rural-specific, there are several other useful sources for learning about grants:
The official blog of Grants.gov, #LearnGrants,
provides a wealth of information on the federal grant writing process. Blog topic categories are listed on
the right side of the page and include eligibility, policy, and grant writing basics. You can subscribe to
be notified of new posts.
A listing of state, regional, and issue-specific associations of grantmakers is available on the United
Philanthropy Forum website.
Candid Learning for Funders is a Candid/Foundation
Center product that works to improve nonprofit capacity through data-driven tools and access to information.
Giving Compass is an information clearinghouse for
philanthropy-based content and resources.
Inside Philanthropy is a curated collection of articles and
resources devoted to how foundations and major donors are distributing their funding.
The Chronicle of Philanthropy is an online publication that
includes information and resources on nonprofit organizations and philanthropy in America.
The National Library of Medicine offers an on-demand grant and proposal writing
class and associated
instructional guide. The intended audience is libraries and organizations that are considering
applying for funding from the Network of the National Library of Medicine; however, the information provided
is useful to all audiences, and all beginning grant writers are invited to participate.