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Education and Training of the Rural Healthcare Workforce Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Education and Training of the Rural Healthcare Workforce.

Rural Family Medicine Outcomes at the University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth
Analysis of 1972-2009 graduates of the Duluth medical school, an institution emphasizing family medicine and service to American Indian communities, showing how gender, race, age, and hometown relate to family medicine specialty, rural practice, and rural family medicine practice. Includes demographic statistics by decade, with breakdowns by rural and urban hometowns.
Author(s): Anna Fuglestad, Jacob Prunuske, Ronald Regal, et al.
Location: Family Medicine, 49(5), 388-393
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
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Learning by Doing: The MD-PA Interprofessional Education Rural Rotation
Describes the Combined Medical-Physician Assistant Student Rural Rotation (Med-PARR) program at the Oregon Health & Science University, in which pairs of third-year MD students and second-year PA students spend 5 weeks together in a primary-care-focused clinical rotation in a rural area.
Author(s): Ryan Palmer, Curt Stilp
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 17, 4167
Date: 03/2017
Type: Document
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Understanding the Importance of Medical Student Clerkships in Poor Health Outcome Regions Served by Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) in Impoverished Locations of Southern United States
Highlights the importance of Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) in providing valuable community-based training for health professional students intending to work in rural or underserved areas to help them understand the factors and the barriers affecting positive health outcomes. Discusses how training or clerkships in areas such as the Southern Black Belt can bridge the gap between healthcare professionals and diverse patient populations.
Author(s): Ashruta Patel
Location: Archives of Public Health, 75(7)
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
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AACOM 2016-17 Academic Year Survey of Graduating Seniors Summary
Results of a survey of 4,570 expected 2017 graduates from 34 colleges of osteopathic medicine and branch campuses. Topics include medical education debt and scholarships, graduate medical education plans, and percentages of students who plan to practice in rural underserved or shortage areas.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
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Health Professions Education Programs: Preparing the Next Generation of Health Professionals to Meet the Nation's Health Care Needs, FY 2018
Overview of the Title VII and Title VIII health professions federal programs designed to train providers in interdisciplinary settings to meet the needs of special and underserved populations, as well as increase minority representation in the health care workforce.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of American Medical Colleges
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Rural Health IT Workforce Program Sourcebook
Overview of program results for 15 network grantees funded under the Rural Health Information Technology Workforce Program in the 2013-2016 funding cycle. Discusses goals of the program related to developing and enhancing rural-focused HIT training programs. Summarizes program successes and challenges, as well as student enrollment and retention results. Includes brief program profiles.
Additional links: Part 2: Excel Spreadsheet
Date: 09/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Resource Center
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Do Residencies That Aim to Produce Rural Family Physicians Offer Relevant Training?
Examines the differences in skills training and program content for allopathic, osteopathic, and dual-accredited family medicine residency programs that offer rural-centric training tracks. Also examines rural/urban training configurations and the differences in requirements for time spent training in rural locations.
Author(s): David V. Evans, Davis G. Patterson, Holly A. Andrilla, David Schmitz, Randall Longenecker
Location: Family Medicine, 48(8), 596-602
Date: 09/2016
Type: Document
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Veterans Choice Act: Update on the VA GME Expansion
Overview of the scope, funding priorities, legislative priorities, and types of assistance available for expansion of Graduate Medical Education through the Veterans Access, Choice, & Accountability Act (VACAA). Emphasizes impact on smaller communities and underserved areas. Slides from a presentation at the RTT Collaborative annual meeting in Denver, Colorado, Feb. 24-26, 2016.
Author(s): Kathleen Klink, Edward Bope
Date: 02/2016
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: RTT Collaborative
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Sustainable RTT Program Design: Understanding the Requirements
Includes information on features of Rural Training Track programs, financial issues, and implications of regulations related to Medicare and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Slides from a presentation at the RTT Collaborative annual meeting in Denver, Colorado, Feb. 24-26, 2016.
Author(s): Lou Sanner
Date: 02/2016
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: RTT Collaborative
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Family Medicine Rural Training Track Residencies: 2008-2015 Graduate Outcomes
Policy brief tracking practice outcomes of family physicians who completed graduate medical education in Rural Training Track (RTT) residency programs. Features statistics on 253 RTT graduates, including background characteristics and percentage practicing in rural areas and Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) 1-7 years after graduation.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, David Schmitz, Randall Longenecker, C. Holly A. Andrilla
Date: 02/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Which Physician Assistant Training Programs Produce Rural PAs? A National Study
Policy brief reporting results of a study to identify physician assistant (PA) training programs that produced high proportions or high numbers of rural PAs from 2000 to 2012, and characteristics of those programs. Features statistics including breakdowns by type of college or university, location by rural or urban area and census region, and includes names of colleges producing the greatest number of rurally located graduates.
Author(s): Eric H. Larson, Holly Andrilla, Caitlin Morrison, Stefanie Ostergard, Anita Glicken
Date: 02/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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The Feasibility and Acceptability of Administering a Telemedicine Objective Structured Clinical Exam as a Solution for Providing Equivalent Education to Remote and Rural Learners
Describes implementation of a pilot program to effectively and efficiently assess distance medical students' clinical skills in rural areas.
Author(s): Ryan T. Palmer, Frances E. Biagioli, Jasminka Mujcic, et al.
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 15, 3399
Date: 12/2015
Type: Document
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Graduates of Teaching Health Centers Are More Likely to Enter Practice in the Primary Care Safety Net
Assesses whether primary care graduates of Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) programs are more likely than other physicians to begin practicing in rural or underserved settings.
Author(s): Andrew Bazemore, Peter Wingrove, Stephen Petterson, et al.
Date: 11/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Robert Graham Center
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Access to Health Information Technology Training Programs at the Community College Level
Examines health information technology (HIT) workforce training programs in community colleges to better understand how these programs may be reaching underserved populations with limited access to training, such as rural students. By identifying barriers faced by these programs, this paper helps to inform HIT skill training programs, especially in strengthening HIT workforce in rural areas.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Davis G. Patterson, C. Holly A. Andrilla, et al.
Date: 11/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Higher Education and Workforce Development in Tribal Communities and the Role of Tribal HPOG
Discusses barriers to education and employment for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Provides data on AI/AN representation in healthcare professions and describes health career educational opportunities and programs. Describes training and employment outcomes of the Tribal Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG) program.
Author(s): Michael Meit, Katherine Meyer, Tess Gilbert, et al.
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Administration for Children and Families
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Teaching Hospitals: Preparing Tomorrow’s Physicians Today
Provides an overview of the value teaching hospitals bring in rural and urban areas, serving as training centers to prepare physicians in clinical settings, provide specialty training and specialty services, engage in research and innovation, and prepare healthcare professionals to adapt to changes in the healthcare environment. Discusses the federal (Medicare & Medicaid) financial support mechanisms teaching hospitals receive and the impact this support has on the increased cost of clinical training of new physicians.
Date: 06/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association
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Courting Preceptors: How to Invite, Engage, and Support Community Preceptors
Provides strategies for recruiting clinicians to serve as preceptors for rural healthcare educational experiences. Includes examples of concerns potential preceptors may have and how to address them. Discusses how to support preceptors in their role and keep them engaged. Slides from a presentation at the RTT Collaborative annual meeting.
Author(s): Lori Rodefeld, Kara Traxler
Date: 05/2015
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: RTT Collaborative
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Graduate Medical Education Financing: Sustaining Medical Education in Rural Places
A policy brief reporting on the financial situation of rural training track (RTT) residency programs, including their sources of funding, expenses, and the relationship between urban RTT sponsors and rural program sites.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, David Schmitz, Randall Longenecker, David Squire, Susan M. Skillman
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
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Teaching Health Centers: A Promising Approach for Building Primary Care Workforce for the 21st Century
Provides information about Teaching Health Centers (THC), including the number of physicians choosing primary care following residency, location of practice, number of patients served by THCs, and characteristics of patients. Also discusses the impact that loss of federal funding may have on this graduate medical education training program.
Author(s): Leighton Ku, Fitzhugh Mullan, Cristine Serrano, Zoe Barber, Peter Shin
Date: 03/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: George Washington University Department of Health Policy and Management
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Rural Student Profiles
Profiles four students who have used distance education to advance their careers and better serve their communities.
Author(s): Kate Menzies
Location: Rural Monitor, 2015(Winter)
Date: 02/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Education at a Distance: Virtual Classrooms Bring Healthcare Classes to Rural Areas
Highlights three university programs that are using distance education to allow professionals to stay in their rural communities while earning a degree.
Author(s): Kate Menzies
Location: Rural Monitor, 2015(Winter)
Date: 02/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Building Primary Care from the Ground Up Training Rural Residents in Williston, ND
Provides a case study on Mercy Hospital Family Residency Program which includes a rural training track that emphasizes rural family medicine training in rural settings. Offers details on the partnership and success of the program.
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association Section for Small or Rural Hospitals
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Rural Training Track Programs: A Guide to the Medicare Requirements
Provides guidance to urban hospitals, rural hospitals, and rural nonhospital clinical training sites on how to take part in a Rural Training Track (RTT) to train residents to practice in rural areas. Explains how hospitals can receive additional payments from Medicare to train residents in an RTT program, beyond the graduate medical education (GME) caps in place since 1996.
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of American Medical Colleges
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Emergency Medical Services Leadership Education: A State-by-State Compendium of EMS Leadership Development Education
Results of a survey of 48 National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) member states and territories. Features statistics including breakdowns by type of EMS education program, target audience, instructional methodology, incentives for participation, funding sources, and certification benefits.
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of State EMS Officials
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Twenty-Second Report: The Role of Graduate Medical Education in the New Health Care Paradigm
Presents seven recommendations from the Council on Graduate Medical Education (COGME) regarding the expansion of Graduate Medical Education training. Suggests expanding GME clinical training into ambulatory and community settings, and ensuring accountability including providing rural and underserved practice locations. Discusses the need for increased funding for GME, and providing future physicians with the training and skills needed for emerging care delivery systems.
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Council on Graduate Medical Education
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An Interview with Robert T. Trachtenberg
Presents an interview with Robert Trachtenberg, the Executive Director of the National AHEC Organization who discusses its evolution, and how AHECs build the rural healthcare workforce.
Author(s): Beth Blevins
Location: Rural Monitor, 2014(Fall)
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Transforming Interprofessional Health Education and Practice: Moving Learners from the Campus to the Community to Improve Population Health
13th Annual Report to the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the Congress of the United States. Examines how health professions education and healthcare delivery can be transformed through interprofessional collaboration and community-based learning. Presents four recommendations for health professions educators, policymakers, and funders. Includes sections on the Quentin N. Burdick Program for Rural Interdisciplinary Training, Area Health Education Centers, and educational support for health professionals serving in underserved communities.
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Advisory Committee on Interdisciplinary Community-Based Linkages
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Building Health Workforce Capacity Through Community-Based Health Professional Education: Workshop Summary
Presents highlights from a workshop held May 1-2, 2014 which discusses the increased focus on community-based health and healthcare, and interprofessional collaborations. Discusses the current financial and structural design of health professional education. Presents examples of interprofessional, community-based programs and curricula for educating health professionals. Mentions rural throughout.
Author(s): Patricia A. Cuff
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Performance of Third-Year Medical Students on a Rural Family Medicine Clerkship
Examines academic performance of University of Kansas medical students who chose a rural location for required clerkships in family medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics-gynecology from 1999-2011. Includes statistics with breakdowns by mean scores on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), mean clerkship and shelf exam grades, and mean grade point averages for undergraduate and medical school classes.
Author(s): Hannah Maxfield, Michael Kennedy, John E. Delzell, Jr, Anthony M. Paolo
Location: Family Medicine, 46(7), 536-538
Date: 2014
Type: Document
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Rural Nurses’ Continuing Education Needs: A U.S. Multi-Site Survey Reveals Challenges and Opportunities
Presents the results of a study which assessed the perceptions of continuing education needs for nursing staff working in healthcare facilities throughout rural areas of the Midwestern United States. Results showed the need for evidence-based continuing education content, and reducing nursing knowledge stagnation among entry level staff.
Author(s): Roseanne M. Fairchild, Marcee Everly, Linda Walters, et al.
Location: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(5), 45-55
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
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Interprofessional Practice Education: Is the ‘Interprofessional’ Component Relevant to Recruiting New Graduates to Underserved Areas?
A scoping review that examined interprofessional education and its impact on recruiting new health professionals to work in underserved rural and urban areas.
Author(s): Siegrid Deutschlander, Esther Suter, Ruby Grymonpre
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 13, 2489
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
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Medical School Rural Tracks in the US
Discusses the results of a survey of 35 U.S. medical schools about their active or planned rural medical school residency tracks (RT), to better understand what rural medical education looks like throughout the country. This brief looks at their admissions and processes, curriculum, administration and funding structures, and program outcomes.
Author(s): Mark Deutchman
Date: 09/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Compliance Review Initiative: Advancing Effective Communication in Critical Access Hospitals
Describes a communication initiative so that limited English proficient individuals can effectively participate in healthcare services at Critical Access Hospitals.
Date: 04/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Fifteen-Year Outcomes of a Rural Residency: Aligning Policy With National Needs
Study of physicians who graduated from a rural Oregon family medicine residency program from 1994 to 2009, describing satisfaction level with preparation for practice and the tendency to establish a practice in a federally defined shortage area. Contains statistics with breakdowns by average number of patients seen, procedures for which physician has hospital admitting privileges, and procedures performed in office practice.
Author(s): Robert Ross
Location: Family Medicine, 45(2), 122-127
Date: 02/2013
Type: Document
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Rural Residency Training for Family Medicine Physicians: Graduate Early-Career Outcomes, 2008-2012
Discusses the effectiveness of family medicine rural training track (RTT) residency programs, which train physicians for practice in rural and underserved areas.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Randall Longenecker, David Schmitz, et al.
Date: 01/2013
Type: Document
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The Contributions of Community Colleges to the Education of Allied Health Professionals in Rural Areas of the United States
Examines the availability and importance of community colleges for educating the rural allied health workforce. Discusses which allied health occupations are most affected, the contributions of rural community colleges, and the potential for using distance education to overcome geographic barriers.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Gina A. Keppel, Davis G. Patterson, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 10/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Medical Student Characteristics Predictive of Intent for Rural Practice
Presents findings from a study exploring the effect of student characteristics on choosing rural practice.
Author(s): Pamela Royston, Kathleen Mathieson, Joan Leafman, Olivia Ojan-Sheehan
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 12, 2107
Date: 08/2012
Type: Document
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Priming the Pump of Primary Care: Ninth Annual Report to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and to Congress
Provides advice and recommendations on policy and program development to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on primary care medicine and dentistry training. Discusses how rural areas are disproportionately affected by shortages of physicians. Makes recommendations to Title VII, section 748 to target rural and federally designated underserved areas to receive more primary care physicians. Also recognizes trends in trainees, such as on page 16 it highlights how rural born trainees are more likely to serve in rural and underserved areas.
Date: 02/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry
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Impact of a Rural Interprofessional Experience in Rural Communities on Medical and Pharmacy Students
Examines the impact of a Rural Interprofessional Experience (RIE), based at the University of Minnesota Duluth campus, on the attitudes and knowledge of medical and pharmacy students in relation to rural practice.
Author(s): Debra C. Sisson, Ruth E. Westra
Location: Family Medicine, 43(9), 653-658
Date: 10/2011
Type: Document
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Doctors Follow Rural Training Tracks to Small Town Practices
Highlights the Rural Training Tract (RTT) Residency Program. Describes the experience of one medical resident and her RTT program in Idaho.
Author(s): Candi Helseth
Location: Rural Monitor, 2011(Spring)
Date: 05/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Availability and Potential Effect of Rural Rotations in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs
Describes the types of rural rotations in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs and the correlation with rural practice after graduation.
Author(s): Brad E. Talley, S. Ann Moore, Carlos A. Camargo Jr., John Rogers, Adit A. Ginde
Location: Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(3), 297-300
Date: 03/2011
Type: Document
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Family Medicine Residency Training in Rural Locations (Final Report)
Reports findings from a survey of U.S. family medicine residency programs about the current status and location of their rural training for residents. Includes information on small rural, large rural, and urban programs.
Author(s): Frederick M. Chen, C. Holly A. Andrilla, Mark P. Doescher, Carl Morris
Date: 07/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Distance Learning in Depression for Rural Primary Care and Mental Health Providers
Discusses the development of effective distance education methods to train rural primary care providers in integrated care models for depression using computer-based training and materials adapted from the MacArthur Initiative on Depression & Primary Care.
Author(s): Scott J. Adams, Mimi McFaul, Fran Dong, John Fortney
Date: 06/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WICHE Center for Rural Mental Health Research
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Outcomes of Community Health Worker Interventions
Results of a systematic review on the characteristics of community health workers (CHWs) and CHW interventions, outcomes of such interventions, costs and cost-effectiveness of CHW interventions, and characteristics of CHW training. Includes references to rural.
Date: 06/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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Addressing Racial Disparities in Health Care: A Targeted Action Plan for Academic Medical Centers
Report provides recommendations for academic health centers to help address racial disparities in healthcare through how they prepare physicians. Recommendation 2 focuses on medical schools offering students exposure to rural and underserved settings.
Date: 2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of American Medical Colleges
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An Examination of the Healthcare Workforce Issues in Rural America
8th Annual Report to the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the United States Congress regarding workforce issues in rural America: enhancing health care for rural populations through interdisciplinary training and quality improvement; and rural health workforce status.
Author(s): Mary Wakefield, Patricia Moulton, Gary Hart
Date: 09/2008
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Advisory Committee on Interdisciplinary Community-Based Linkages
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RTT Collaborative Newsletter
Provides links to rural health professions-related news items, including the quarterly newsletters from the RTT Collaborative.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: RTT Collaborative
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Rural Health Information Technology Workforce Curriculum Resources
A collection of curriculum resources educators can adapt to create rural health IT workforce training programs. Developed by Federal Office of Rural Health Policy Rural Health IT Workforce Program grantees.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Rural Graduate Medical Education (GME) Analyzer
Assesses eligibility for rural hospitals interested in starting residency training programs.
Type: Tool
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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PubMed Search: Education and Training of the Rural Healthcare Workforce
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on the combined topics of education and training, healthcare workforce, and rural health.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: National Library of Medicine
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GME Outcomes Mapper
Locate graduate medical education (GME) institutions, primary teaching sites, and outcomes like the percentage of graduates practicing in rural areas. You can also download the entire GME outcomes data table.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: American Academy of Family Physicians
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Area Health Education Centers Directory
Lists contact information for regional Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) by state. AHECs work to recruit, train, and retain health professionals committed to underserved populations.
Type: Directory
Sponsoring organization: National AHEC Organization
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Culturally Competent Nursing Care: A Cornerstone of Caring
Provides free, online accredited educational program for nurses and social workers to help the providers meet the cultural and linguistic needs of an increasingly diverse patient population.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health
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Cultural Competency Curriculum for Disaster Preparedness and Crisis Response
Provides free, online cultural and linguistic competency education designed for emergency medical technicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, and social worker responding to disaster situations.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health
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Cultural and Linguistic Competence Policy Assessment (CLCPA)
A self-assessment instrument designed to examine cultural and linguistic competence in four dimensions: values, policy, structure, and practice.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Cultural Competence
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A Physician's Practical Guide to Culturally Competent Care
A website that offers CME, CNE, and CEU credit and equips health care professionals with awareness, knowledge, and skills to treat the increasingly diverse U.S. population they serve. Includes a self-directed training course for family physicians and other health care professionals with an interest in cultural competency.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Cultural, Language and Health Literacy
Resources and tools to help health care providers enhance their clinical and organizational skills so they can meet patients cultural, language, and health literacy needs.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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TRAIN (TrainingFinder Real-time Affiliate Integrated Network)
Resources for online learning opportunities for healthcare professionals who work in public health. Searchable by subject, keyword, target audience, and core competencies.
Type: Tutorial/Training
Sponsoring organization: Public Health Foundation
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Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 12/8/2017