Skip to main content
Rural Health Information Hub

Rural Health
Resources by Topic: Social determinants of health

Utilization of Z Codes for Social Determinants of Health among a Sample of Medicare Advantage Enrollees, 2017 and 2019
Examines the use of Z codes for social determinants of health in a sample of Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees from 2016 through 2019. Identifies the five most-used Z codes among MA enrollees, including the percent of enrollees and claims with these Z codes in 2017 and 2019. Presents data on the proportion of MA enrollees with Z code claims in 2017 and 2019 across demographic characteristics, including rurality, place of service, and provider type.
Date: 04/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
view details
Addressing Social Determinants of Health: Examples of Successful Evidence-Based Strategies and Current Federal Efforts
Provides an overview of efforts to address social determinants of health (SDOH) that impact people of color, LGBTQ+ persons, individuals living in rural areas, and people with disabilities. Discusses housing, food and nutrition, transportation, social and economic mobility, and social service connections in terms of community (upstream) and individual (downstream) SDOH impacts.
Author(s): Amelia Whitman, Nancy De Lew, Andre Chappel, et al.
Date: 04/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
view details
A Critical Review on the Complex Interplay between Social Determinants of Health and Maternal and Infant Mortality
Reports on a critical review of maternal and infant mortality literature to observe how social determinants of health relate to health disparities for mothers and babies of racial/ethnic minorities, less privileged socioeconomic statuses, and rural geographies. Includes discussion about rural versus urban differences in maternal and infant mortality.
Author(s): Rada K. Dagher, Deborah E. Linares
Citation: Children, 9(3), 394
Date: 03/2022
Type: Document
view details
Data Elements for Research on the Role of Social Determinants of Health in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection and Outcomes in the U.S.
Reviews 27 studies published between December 2019 and August 2021 to explore how social determinants of health (SDOH) are related to outcomes of COVID-19. Focuses on modifiable SDOH such as income, housing, health insurance status, and food insecurity, among others. Examines rural and urban settings in data analysis as possible predictors of COVID-19 outcomes.
Author(s): Katherine K. Kim, Hibah K. Qudsi, Heather M. Halter, et al.
Date: 03/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
view details
Assessment of Structural Barriers and Racial Group Disparities of COVID-19 Mortality With Spatial Analysis
Explores social determinants of health such as minority status, income inequality, and lack of health insurance, among others, and their relationship to COVID-19 mortality rates. Analyzes data from rural, suburban, and urban counties across all 50 states from January 2020 to February 2021. Includes demographic data such as age, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic advantage index, and more.
Author(s): Qinyun Lin, Susan Paykin, Dylan Halpern
Citation: JAMA Network Open, 5(3)
Date: 03/2022
Type: Document
view details
Association Between Mental Health and Oral Health Status and Care Utilization
Highlights a study on the correlation between oral and mental health issues. Examines factors that contribute to poor mental and oral health status. Details participants' household income, insurance status, and whether they live in a metro or non-metro area, among other factors.
Author(s): Tamanna Tiwari, Abigail Kelly, Cameron L. Randall, et al.
Citation: Frontiers in Oral Health, 2, 732882
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
view details
From Idea to Reality: Federal Funding Supports Quapaw Nation's Community Paramedicine Program
Describes how the Quapaw Nation used federal COVID-related funding to launch a community paramedicine program. Explains how the program is serving local residents and meeting community needs.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
view details
Social Determinants of Mortality of COVID-19 and Opioid Overdose in American Rural and Urban Counties
Highlights a study on the social determinants of health that correlate with high COVID-19 and opioid overdose mortality in rural and urban counties. Breaks down county data by median income, unemployment, and healthcare workforce, among other factors.
Author(s): Yuhui Zhu, Zhe Fei, Larissa J. Mooney, et al.
Citation: Journal of Addiction Medicine, 16(1), e52-e55
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
view details
Meeting the Behavioral Health Needs of Farm Families in Times of Economic Distress
Offers strategies to support development and integration of behavioral health services across healthcare and community-based organizations, including leveraging payment systems to support coordinated care for farm families and aligning federal grant programs to address mental health and substance use disorders. Features recommendations including integrating primary and behavioral care for initial treatment of mental health and substance abuse concerns, expanding the workforce to improve rural behavioral health services capacity, increasing telehealth services, and expanding private and public insurance coverage.
Author(s): Andrew F. Coburn, Alva O. Ferdinand, Alana Knudson, et al.
Date: 02/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute Rural Health Panel
view details
Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) 2019–2020: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers
Reports on demographic and employment characteristics of hired agricultural workers in the United States. Includes data on health insurance and healthcare access, as well as information on social determinants of health such as income, education level, language skills, and housing. Based on data collected from face-to-face interviews with 2,586 crop farmworkers conducted between October 1, 2018, and September 30, 2020.
Date: 01/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Labor
view details