The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a comprehensive structure for assessing health needs for designing, implementing,
and evaluating health promotion and other public health programs to meet those needs. PRECEDE provides the
structure for planning a targeted and focused public health program. PROCEED provides the structure for
implementing and evaluating the public health program.
PRECEDE stands for Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational
Evaluation. It involves assessing the following community factors:
Social assessment: Determine the social problems and needs of a given population
identify desired results.
Epidemiological assessment: Identify the health determinants of the identified
problems and set priorities and goals.
Ecological assessment: Analyze behavioral and environmental determinants that
predispose, reinforce, and enable the behaviors and lifestyles are identified.
Identify administrative and policy factors that influence implementation and match
interventions that encourage desired and expected changes.
Implementation of interventions.
PROCEED stands for Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Constructs in Educational and
Development. It involves the identification of desired outcomes and program implementation:
Implementation: Design intervention, assess availability of resources, and
Process Evaluation: Determine if program is reaching the targeted population and
achieving desired goals.
Impact Evaluation: Evaluate the change in behavior.
Outcome Evaluation: Identify if there is a decrease in the incidence or prevalence
of the identified negative behavior
or an increase in identified positive behavior.
The PRECEDE-PROCEED model provides a structure that supports the planning and implementation of health promotion
or disease prevention programs. This model has worked well for many health promotion topics, and can effectively
support one-time interventions or long-running programs. Like the Community Readiness Model, PRECEDE-PROCEED
invites participation from community members, and has the potential to increase community ownership of the
program. When determining whether to use PRECEDE-PROCEED as a model for health promotion or disease prevention
programs, it is important to consider whether all parts of the model are appropriate for the program and the
resources available to support implementation. It is also important to remember that components of the plan may
be adapted over time, as needed.
Resources to Learn More
Provides detailed description of the PRECEDE/PROCEED model, the benefits for using this approach, how to apply
this model, and offering a checklist for its implementation.
Organization(s): Community Tool Box
What is a Planning Model? An Introduction to
Discusses the importance of the theory and concept of PRECEDE-PROCEED for addressing health promotion
intervention, and the importance of the review process when applying it to real world settings.
Author(s): Crosby, R. & Noar, S.
Citation: Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 71 Suppl 1: S7-15