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Evaluation Measures for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Programs

Rural health promotion and disease prevention programs collect data to document changes and evaluate effectiveness. An effective evaluation tracks changes over time by collecting data before, during, and after program implementation.

When identifying evaluation measures for health promotion and disease prevention programs, consider the program's focus, the needs of different audiences, including funders, and the time frame and resources available for meeting program goals.

Evaluation measures for health promotion and disease prevention programs can be determined based on the program's activities and goals. Population health measures may also be used in evaluation. Individual participant data, including demographic data (age, gender, race/ethnicity); biological markers (height, weight, blood pressure); and health status (disease, injury, disability), may also be used to inform evaluation measures.

Process measures

  • Number of participants who complete the program
  • Number of participants in screenings or risk assessment
  • Number of participants in health education or skill activities development
  • Number of participants that receive and follow up with referrals
  • Number of participants enrolled in health promotion or disease prevention programs
  • Number and types of educational materials produced for the program
  • Number of partners involved in the program
  • Number of people aware of program messaging and intending to take action
  • Number of policies developed
  • Types of program activities and settings
  • Number, type, and characteristics of staff offering the program
  • Extent to which activities are implemented according to the program plan
  • Types of resources and contributions provided by partners
  • Cost to complete program-related activities

Outcome measures:

  • Changes in health status, including perceived and actual based on biometric markers
  • Modified or adopted healthy behaviors
  • Medication adherence
  • Prevalence of risk factors or disease
  • Improved healthcare costs
  • Policies enhanced or implemented
  • Changes in knowledge and skills

Resources to Learn More

Health Outcome Measures
Provides potential indicators at program baseline, throughout the program, and outcome measures to demonstrate improved health.
Organization(s): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Healthy People 2030: Leading Health Indicators
Highlights high-priority health objectives or indicators selected to emphasize specific health issues causing death and disease in the U.S. and track improvements over the next decade. Discusses how they are used to assess the health of the nation, facilitate collaboration across sectors, and motivate action at the national, state, and community levels.
Organization(s): Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Department of Health and Human Services

New Summary Measures of Population Health and Well-Being for Implementation by Health Plans and Accountable Care Organizations
Describes a summary measure framework focused on population health to identify and address conditions having an impact on health of patients, members, and community. Framework includes three components for assessment: current health, sustainability of health, and subjective well-being.
Author(s): Kottke, T.E., Gallagher, J.M., Rauri, S., et al.
Citation: Preventing Chronic Disease, 13
Date: 7/2016

Suggested Population Level Measures for the CMS State Innovation Model Initiative
Offers an annotated list of population health measures endorsed by the National Quality Forum (NQF) and proposed for the CMS State Innovation Model Initiative. Measures were selected on high population burden and society costs, suitability for interventions to improve health, quality of care and decreased costs, and availability of data at state or sub-state level.
Organization(s): Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
Date: 6/2014