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The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a comprehensive structure for assessing health needs for designing, implementing, and evaluating health promotion and other public health programs to meet those needs. PRECEDE provides the structure for planning a targeted and focused public health program. PROCEED provides the structure for implementing and evaluating the public health program.

  • PRECEDE stands for Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation. It involves assessing the following community factors:
    • Social Assessment: Determine the social problems and needs of a given population and identify desired results.
    • Epidemiological Assessment: Identify the health determinants of the identified problems and set priorities and goals.
    • Educational and Ecological Assessment: Analyze behavioral and environmental determinants that predispose, reinforce, and enable the behaviors and lifestyles identified.
    • Health Program and Policy Development: Identify and develop appropriate interventions that encourage desired and expected changes.
  • PROCEED stands for Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Constructs in Educational and Environmental Development. It involves the identification of desired outcomes and program implementation:
    • Process Evaluation: Determine if the program is reaching the targeted population and achieving desired goals.
    • Short-term Evaluation: Evaluate the change in knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
    • Intermediate Evaluation: Evaluate the change in behavior.
    • Long-term Evaluation: Identify if there is a decrease in the incidence or prevalence of the identified negative behavior or an increase in identified positive behavior.

Implementation Considerations

The PRECEDE-PROCEED model provides a structure that supports the planning and implementation of health promotion and disease prevention programs. This model has worked well for many health promotion topics and can effectively support one-time interventions or long-running programs. Like the Community Readiness Model, PRECEDE-PROCEED invites participation from community members, and has the potential to increase community ownership of the program. When determining whether to use PRECEDE-PROCEED as a model for health promotion or disease prevention programs, it is important to consider whether all parts of the model are appropriate for the program and the resources available to support implementation. It is also important to remember that components of the plan may be adapted over time, as needed.

Resources to Learn More

What is a Planning Model? An Introduction to PRECEDE-PROCEED
Discusses the importance of the theory and concept of PRECEDE-PROCEED for addressing health promotion intervention, and the importance of the review process when applying it to real world settings.
Author(s): Crosby, R. & Noar, S.
Citation: Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 71 Suppl 1: S7-15
Date: 3/2011