Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion and Practice frames the ecological perspective as
“...the interaction between, and interdependence of, factors within and across all levels of a health problem. It highlights people’s interactions with their physical and sociocultural environments.”
Ecological models recognize multiple levels of influence on health behaviors, including:
- Intrapersonal/individual factors, which influence behavior such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personality.
- Interpersonal factors, such as interactions with other people, which can provide social support or create barriers to interpersonal growth that promotes healthy behavior.
- Institutional and organizational factors, including the rules, regulations, policies, and informal structures that constrain or promote healthy behaviors.
- Community factors, such as formal or informal social norms that exist among individuals, groups, or organizations, can limit or enhance healthy behaviors.
- Public policy factors, including local, state, and federal policies and laws that regulate or support health actions and practices for disease prevention including early detection, control, and management.
Examples of Ecological Models
- Project HEART (Health Education Awareness Research Team) used an ecological model to design a health promotion and disease prevention program to address cardiovascular disease risk factors. The project uses a community health worker (CHW) promotora model to provide services.
- CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) was designed to address multiple factors of influence on colorectal cancer prevention, using ecological model components.
- Rural networks and coalitions often acknowledge multiple factors of influence and may be designed using theoretical components of ecological models. More information is available in the Rural Health Networks and Coalitions Toolkit.
Considerations for Implementation
The ecological perspective is a useful framework for understanding the range of factors that influence health and well-being. It is a model that can assist in providing a complete perspective of the factors that affect specific health behaviors, including the social determinants of health. Because of this, ecological frameworks can be used to integrate components of other theories and models, thus ensuring the design of a comprehensive health promotion or disease prevention program or policy approach.
The Healthy People 2020 framework addresses the importance of ecological models in health promotion and disease prevention. Programs are most likely to be effective when they are designed to address the multiple levels of influence on health behaviors.
Resources to Learn More
Public Policy Approaches to the
Prevention of Heart Disease and Stroke
Describes an ecological model and policy approaches for heart disease and stroke prevention.
Authors(s): Pearson, T.A.
Organization(s): American Heart Association
Model: A Framework for Prevention
Describes an ecological model for injury prevention that highlights the complex interplay between individuals, groups, community, and the societal factors that shape relationships.
Organization(s): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention