Mobility on Demand
Mobility on Demand models integrate and connect various pre-existing modes of transportation within a
community. An organization may serve as a central authority in scheduling and coordinating
transportation for several programs and for individuals. In this model, a private company, local
partners, and local and state agencies work together to organize and provide transportation using
preexisting transportation infrastructure. Mobility on Demand service providers are well-equipped to
match client needs with the most appropriate resources available. Service providers also help to
ensure cost efficiency, improve safety, and satisfy any necessary regulatory compliance.
Mobility on Demand models use a variety of transit modes to provide services, including fixed routes,
Typically, these services are implemented using smartphone technology or payment apps.
Examples of Mobility on Demand Programs
Michigan Transportation Connection uses the brokerage
to provide non-emergency medical transportation services to Michigan residents. The nonprofit uses
existing programs, including United Way 2-1-1 call centers, public transit systems, and local human
service agencies to organize transportation.
Ride Connection provides transportation services to
residents of rural Clackamas and Washington counties in Oregon. The program serves primarily
residents age 60 and over and people with disabilities. Ride Connection provides information
referrals, training on how to use public transit, door-to-door rides, and a community connector
Pelivan Transit provides both fixed-route and
demand-response services to residents of rural Oklahoma. Pelivan Transit formed 2 consortiums with 10
tribes in northeastern Oklahoma. The collaboration provides tribal transit services to 8 counties.
Pelivan Transit provides a Road-to-Work Transportation service to nearby employers and has started
routes to the Mid-America Industrial Park.
Considerations for Implementation
Mobility on Demand service providers typically ensure that transportation providers have proper
licensing, safety inspections, and insurance. Private companies in particular may have access to
technologies that improve trips by maximizing efficiency. Mobility on Demand services are often easy
to use, as they allow for a single point of contact in arranging transportation.
Because Mobility on Demand models typically build upon the structures already in place within a
community, these programs may take more time to establish in communities where there are not already
public and/or private sector efforts.
Resources to Learn More
These presentation slides give an overview of mobility on demand, including how it is being implemented, guiding
principles, and impacts on transit.
Author(s): Sheehan, R.
Organization(s): U.S. Department of Transportation
Mobility on Demand (MOD): “Transform
the Way Society Moves”
This fact sheet gives an overview of Mobility on Demand, why it a promising model, and how the U.S. Department
of Transportation is incorporating MOD strategies into its planning efforts.
Author(s): Sheehan, R. & Torng, G.W.
Organization(s): U.S. Department of Transportation, Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program