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Recruitment and Retention for Rural Health Facilities Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Recruitment and Retention for Rural Health Facilities.

Community Recruiters
Article describing the process a rural North Dakota community used to recruit two family physicians, through the efforts of community members and representatives of the local Critical Access Hospital.
Author(s): Stacy Kusler
Date: 07/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Resource Center
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National Health Service Corps Site Reference Guide
Provides clarification for National Health Service Corps (NHSC) sites regarding eligibility requirements, qualification factors, compliance, roles and responsibilities, and other factors for becoming as NHSC approved site. This document is a supplemental resource to the information provided in the online NHSC Site Application.
Date: 06/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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Behavioral Health Integration and Workforce Development
Issue brief examining the need for states to assess behavioral health integration (BHI) workforce needs, identify legal and policy barriers to practice, and effectively train and retain BHI practitioners, especially in underserved areas. Includes case studies of programs in Washington, Nebraska, and Michigan, and lists of resources.
Author(s): Rachel Block
Date: 05/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Milbank Memorial Fund
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Recruitment and Retention: Overcoming the Rural EMS Dilemma
Reports on rural emergency medical services (EMS) workforce challenges and identifies innovative approaches to meet these challenges, highlighting programs in several states. Includes a list of 4 EMS recruitment and retention tactics for rural communities.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 02/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Rapid Evidence Review: What are Effective Approaches for Recruiting and Retaining Rural Primary Care Health Professionals?
Provides an overview of evidence concerning the effectiveness of rural-specific recruitment and retention strategies. Discusses several distinct approaches, overlapping strategies, and targeted efforts that may change based on a health professional's career stage.
Date: 12/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: AcademyHealth
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Strengthening the Rural Health Workforce: Tools, Resources and Outcomes
Webinar designed to explore rural healthcare workforce challenges and best practices for recruiting and retaining clinicians and allied health professionals. Panelists include representatives from HRSA, the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy, 3RNet, and HRSA grantees.
Date: 11/2017
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Health Resources and Services Administration
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The National Health Service Corps
Provides an overview of the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) program, including the federal scholarship and loan repayment components, and explains how the program affects rural providers.
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Congressional Research Service
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Mobility of US Rural Primary Care Physicians During 2000-2014
Presents results from a study aimed at understanding which rural physicians are most likely to move, and which factors most likely contribute to that decision. Uses data from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile between 2000 and 2014, and shows the likelihood of mobility based on gender, age, birthplace, long work commute, county unemployment rate, Rural-Urban Continuum Code (RUCC), and numerous other indicators.
Author(s): Matthew R. McGrail, Peter M. Wingrove, Stephen M. Petterson, Andrew W. Bazemore
Citation: Annals of Family Medicine, 15(4), 322-328
Date: 07/2017
Type: Document
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Recruitment and Retention Planning for Rural Health Networks and Members
Toolkit composed of four main components: a recruitment and retention plan guide, an assessment tool, templates, and plan samples. Dynamic documents to help network leaders carry out the planning, preparation, follow-up, and follow-through phases of recruitment and retention efforts in rural healthcare facilities.
Date: 04/2017
Type: Tool
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Resource Center
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3RNet Annual Report 2016-2017
Includes information on accomplishments from October 1, 2016 through September 30, 2017. Features statistics on referrals, placements, job postings, and technical assistance.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Recruitment & Retention Network
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The Imperative for Strategic Workforce Planning And Development: Challenges and Opportunities
Discusses workforce planning and development in rural hospitals as well as other key topics that present challenges and opportunities in workforce recruitment and retention, such as diversity, the shortage of behavioral health professionals, technology, and more. Covers three rural specific examples that expand access to healthcare services through telehealth services and a rural residency matching incentive programs.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association
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Using Area Health Education Centers to Promote Interest in Rural Practice
Examines the relationship of third-year medical students participating in AHEC-sponsored family medicine clerkships in a rural primary care setting and their interest in working in rural areas after graduation, and compares the same relationship between third-year medical students participating in non-AHEC-sponsored family medicine clerkships.
Author(s): Jennifer Taylor, Sarah Goletz
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 16, 3934
Date: 09/2016
Type: Document
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Graduates of Rural-Centric Family Medicine Residencies: Determinants of Rural and Urban Practice
Reports on a study analyzing the characteristics, experiences, and attitudes of graduates from rural-centric family medicine residencies regarding influences on their selection of practice location.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, C. Holly A. Andrilla, Eric H. Larson
Date: 07/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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An Interview with David Schmitz
The co-creator of the Community Apgar Program and program director of Rural Training Tracks (RTTs) at the Family Medicine Residency of Idaho shares his insights about rural physician training and recruitment of rural healthcare providers.
Author(s): Allee Mead
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 07/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Conrad 30 Waivers for Physicians on J-1 Visas: State Policies, Practices, and Perspectives
Examines state Conrad 30 programs’ goals, policies, and practices for recruiting and retaining non-U.S. citizen international medical graduates on J-1 visas. Includes information from Conrad 30 program websites and interviews with program staff in 32 states, with a focus on use of the program to support physician workforce for rural communities.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Gina Keppel, Susan M. Skillman
Date: 03/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Diffusion of Physicians and Access To Primary Care: The Role of Person, Program, and Place
Examines factors which influence physicians' decisions to move into or out of Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) and analyzes characteristics that may cause counties to gain or lose HPSA designation, using data from 2006, 2011, and 2013. Includes statistics with breakdowns such as change in physician-to-population ratio in urban, rural HPSA, and rural non-HPSA counties from 2010 to 2012, rates of inter-county and inter-state moves among physicians from 2006 to 2013, and characteristics of physicians by category of move.
Author(s): Thomas C. Ricketts
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: The Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research
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VA Health Care: Oversight Improvements Needed for Nurse Recruitment and Retention Initiatives
Reviews Veterans Health Administration (VHA) initiatives to recruit and retain nurses and the extent to which VHA oversees these initiatives. Discusses nurse recruitment and retention concerns specific to rural areas.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Determinants of an Urban Origin Student Choosing Rural Practice: A Scoping Review
An analysis of a comprehensive literature review using Medline and PubMed databases focused on key factors that influence medical students from urban areas in Australia, Canada and the USA to choose careers in rural medicine.
Author(s): Douglas Myhre, Sameer Bajaj, Wesley Jackson
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 15, 3483
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
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Analysis of Context Factors in Compulsory and Incentive Strategies for Improving Attraction and Retention of Health Workers in Rural and Remote Areas: A Systematic Review
Identifies and summarizes key factors policymakers should consider when designing and implementing interventions to address shortages of qualified health workers in underserved areas. Includes data from U.S.-based and international studies, and focuses on compulsory rural services programs and financial incentives.
Author(s): Xiaoyun Liu, Lixia Dou, Huan Zhang, Yang Sun, Beibei Yuan
Citation: Human Resources for Health, 13
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
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Recruitment, Onboarding, & Retention: A Toolkit for Health Centers
Assists community health centers to plan, develop, and implement strategies to support the existing clinical workforce. Discusses how to recruit and retain a future workforce of primary care providers including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, certified nurse midwives, dentists, and others who provide clinical care.
Date: 04/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Quality of Life Impacts the Recruitment and Retention of Rural Health Care Providers
Policy paper discussing the aspect of maintaining a professional quality of life and its impact on the recruitment and retention of healthcare providers in rural areas. Professional quality of life refers to promoting the advantages of rural practice over the negative aspects.
Author(s): Dayle Sharp, Maritza Bond, Kelly Cheek, Holly Wolff
Date: 02/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Finding and Keeping Health Care Providers in Rural Communities: Culture Change in Recruitment at Rural Health Group
Discusses the importance of developing a team-based, patient-centered care culture that emphasizes relational, interpersonal, and leadership skills as a method for the effective recruitment of healthcare providers in rural communities.
Author(s): Brian O. Harris
Citation: North Carolina Medical Journal, 76(1), 29-33
Date: 01/2015
Type: Document
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Effect of Tele-Emergency Services on Recruitment and Retention of US Rural Physicians
Analyzes the effects of telemedicine services on recruitment and retention of physicians to rural healthcare facilities.
Author(s): Andrew Potter, Keith Mueller, Clint MacKinney, Marcia Ward
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 14(3), 2787
Date: 08/2014
Type: Document
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For the Record: Mary Wakefield
Presents an interview with Mary Wakefield, Administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration, who discusses the shortage of health care providers. Highlights strategies and programs including the National Health Service Corp, the Maternal and Child Health Block Grant, State Offices of Rural Health and Primary Care Offices, scholarship and loan forgiveness programs, and the Rural Recruitment and Retention Network, which links clinicians looking to practice in rural areas with rural clinical sites in need of providers.
Citation: State Legislatures Magazine, 40(6), 20-21
Date: 06/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Conference of State Legislatures
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Support for Rural Recruitment and Practice among U.S. Nurse Practitioner Education Programs
Describes nurse practitioner (NP) education programs across the U.S. to identify those actively promoting NP practice in rural areas; describes their use of education methods that may promote rural practice; and identifies barriers to recruiting rural students and providing rural NP clinical training.
Author(s): Susan M. Skillman, Louise Kaplan, C. Holly A. Andrilla, Stefanie Ostergard, Davis G. Patterson
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
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Rural Practice, Keeping Physicians In
Discusses recruitment, retention, and training of rural physicians. Includes a list of recommendations and key legislative and government issues to address this issue.
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Academy of Family Physicians
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Development of the Nursing Community Apgar Questionnaire (NCAQ): A Rural Nurse Recruitment and Retention Tool
Offers a guide to assess strengths and weaknesses of Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) in rural communities to address nurse recruitment and retention.
Author(s): Molly Prengaman, Jeri Bigbee, Edward Baker, David Schmitz
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 14, 2633
Date: 03/2014
Type: Document
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Local Health Department Workforce Recruitment and Retention: Challenges and Opportunities
Provides an overview of local health workforce recruitment and retention strategies and contains case studies of health departments serving rural populations. The case studies provide details on how the health departments approached recruiting, retaining, and developing their workforces.
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Center for State and Local Government Excellence, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health
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Recruitment and Retention of Rural Nursing Students: A Retrospective Study
Outlines results of a study on the difference between rural and urban nursing student trends in regards to the number of applications, admission rates, and retention/graduation rates.
Author(s): Jeri Bigbee, Diana Mixon
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 13, 2486
Date: 10/2013
Type: Document
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Interventions for Supporting Nurse Retention in Rural and Remote Areas: An Umbrella Review
Synthesizes findings from five review studies looking at interventions to promote rural nurse retention. Includes United States and international studies. Identifies four types of interventions: education and professional development, regulations, financial incentives, and personal and professional support.
Author(s): Gisèle Mbemba, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Guy Paré, José Côté
Citation: Human Resources for Health, 11, 44
Date: 09/2013
Type: Document
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Building and Maintaining the Rural Health Workforce: Resources and Strategies
Provides examples of national and regional programs in Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Focuses on programs that support the education, recruitment, and retention of the rural healthcare workforce.
Author(s): Davis G. Patterson, Denise M. Lishner, Susan M. Skillman, Mark P. Doescher
Date: 07/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UW Center for Health Workforce Studies
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Assessing Community Health Center (CHC) Assets and Capabilities for Recruiting Physicians: The CHC Community Apgar Questionnaire
Describes the evaluation instrument, CHC Community Apgar Questionnaire (CHC CAQ), developed for Idaho CHCs to use in physician recruitment with a focus on rural areas.
Author(s): Edward Baker, David Schmitz, Sean Wasden, Lisa MacKenzie
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 12, 2179
Date: 12/2012
Type: Document
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Office of Rural Health Policy Rural Guide to Health Professions Funding
Includes information to increase rural healthcare providers’ familiarity with the broad range of HRSA workforce funding. Describes multiple HRSA grant programs and how they can work together to address the continuing multi-faceted rural healthcare delivery challenges. Covers grant initiatives in other federal departments.
Date: 05/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Federal Office of Rural Health Policy
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Defining the Issues and Principles of Recruitment and Retention: Introduction to the Rural Health Careers Pipeline Series
Overview of the issues endemic to health care workforce recruitment and retention in rural areas. The introduction to a series of issue papers addressing rural health care workforce development through career pipeline programs.
Author(s): Dave Schmitz, Natalie Claiborne, Nicole Rouhana
Date: 01/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Midwest Retention Toolkit
Provides tools to assist National Health Service Corps (NHSC) sites with the retention of healthcare providers. Includes worksheets, sample surveys, and model retention plans for use with all healthcare providers, although targeted for physicians.
Date: 2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Recruitment & Retention Network
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Strengthening the Direct Service Workforce in Rural Areas
Summarizes the challenges of the direct service workforce in rural areas including strategies that rural stakeholders can use to provide high-quality, long-term care services and supports. Discusses the challenges of recruiting and retaining direct-care workers in rural areas.
Author(s): D. Kip Brown, Sarah Lash, Bernadette Wright, Ashley Tomisek
Date: 08/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Idaho Rural Family Physician Workforce Study: The Community Apgar Questionnaire
Discusses the community factors that support rural communities in the development of their physician workforce. Describes the Community Apgar Questionnaire, an evaluation instrument initially to be used by Idaho rural communities, however applicable to other rural communities, to assess their current assets and potential strengths associated with physician recruitment and retention.
Author(s): David Schmitz, Ed Baker, Ted Epperly
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 11, 1769
Date: 07/2011
Type: Document
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Federal and State Initiatives to Recruit Physicians to Rural Areas
Describes rural physician recruitment and retention challenges and the initiatives in place to help address them.
Author(s): Daniel G. Mareck
Citation: AMA Journal of Ethics, 13(5), 304-309
Date: 05/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Medical Association
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Public Health Nursing: Strengthening the Core of Rural Public Health
Policy paper discussing major concerns regarding the current and future shortage of public health nurses in rural areas and factors contributing to the shortage including an aging workforce, salaries, lack of qualified applicants, and ineffective recruitment and retention.
Date: 01/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Influence of Loan Repayment on Rural Healthcare Provider Recruitment and Retention in Colorado
Reports results of a survey of health professionals who participated in three Colorado loan repayment programs between 1992 and 2007. Examines the most important recruitment factors for participants by rural versus urban location and profession. Covers factors impacting participants' decisions to leave a community, after the end of their service obligation.
Author(s): Daniel Renner, John Westfall, Lou Ann Wilroy, Adit Ginde
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 10(4), 1605
Date: 11/2010
Type: Document
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Increasing Access to Health Workers in Remote and Rural Areas Through Improved Retention: Global Policy Recommendations
Offers comprehensive strategies to help countries encourage healthcare workers to work in rural and remote areas. Provides principles to help guide national policies, evidence-based recommendations, evaluation measures, and identifies gaps in research.
Date: 2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: World Health Organization
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An Employer's Guide to Workforce Programs: Health Professional Shortage Areas, Loan Repayment Programs, J-1 Visa Waivers
Overview for prospective employers wishing to recruit and retain healthcare workers in rural and underserved areas.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Recruitment & Retention Network
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PubMed Search: Recruitment and Retention for Rural Health Facilities
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on rural recruitment and retention for healthcare facilities.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: U.S. National Library of Medicine
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Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 10/19/2018