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Social Determinants of Health for Rural People – Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Social Determinants of Health for Rural People.

COVID-19 Health Equity Interactive Dashboard
Interactive map containing county- and state-level data on COVID-19 cases and deaths in the U.S. Illustrates relationships between COVID-19 outcomes and various social determinants of health, such as population density, poverty, underlying health conditions, urban/rural status, and more.
Date: 08/2020
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Emory University
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Leveraging the Built Environment for Health Equity: Promising Interventions for Small and Medium-Size Cities
Examines changes small and medium-size cities can make to the built environment to promote health. Identifies promising practices related to developing interventions and overcoming implementation challenges. Includes discussion of the needs of small rural cities.
Author(s): Martha Fedorowicz, Joe Schilling, Emily Bramhall, et al.
Date: 07/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Urban Institute
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Counties with Low Educational Attainment Were Concentrated in Rural Areas
Map showing metropolitan and nonmetro counties where 20% or more of working-age adults (ages 25-64) lacked a high school diploma or equivalent.
Date: 07/2020
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Social Determinants of Health and County Population Rates of Opioid-Related Inpatient Stays and Emergency Department Visits, 2016
Examines characteristics of U.S. counties, comparing counties with high and low rates of opioid-related inpatient stays and treat-and-release emergency department (ED) visits among patients 15 years and older. Includes data for metro, rural adjacent to metro, and rural remote counties, as well as by urban-rural location and poverty rate.
Additional links: Appendix
Author(s): Pamela L. Owens, Audrey J. Weiss, Marguerite L. Barrett, Lawrence D. Reid
Date: 06/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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County Economic Status in Appalachia, FY 2021
Map showing levels of economic distress in Appalachian counties based on unemployment rates, income, and poverty levels. Includes interactive map, downloadable map and data files, and data report linked on the right side of the map.
Date: 06/2020
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Appalachian Regional Commission
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Broadband: Observations on Past and Ongoing Efforts to Expand Access and Improve Mapping Data
Reviews previous and ongoing industry and federal government investments in the deployment of broadband in the United States. Compares the availability of fixed broadband services in urban, rural, and tribal areas. Describes federal programs to expand and support broadband access, as well as proposed reforms for mapping broadband deployment data.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 06/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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All Counties with Extreme Poverty in 2018 Were Rural (Nonmetro) Counties
Map showing high and extreme poverty counties by nonmetro and metro county designation.
Date: 06/2020
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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A Decade Undone: Youth Disconnection in the Age of Coronavirus
Features a report on young people between the ages of 16 and 24 who are neither in school or working. Full report details demographic information such as race and ethnicity, gender, and living arrangements. Also compares disconnection among rural and urban youth.
Additional links: Conclusions and Recommendations, Full Report, Interactive Tool
Author(s): Kristen Lewis
Date: 06/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Measure of America
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Counties Where 20 Percent or More of Adults 25-64 Do Not Have a High School Diploma/Equivalent, 2014-18
Map showing which metropolitan and nonmetro counties had 20% or more of adults without a high school diploma.
Date: 05/2020
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Traffic Safety Facts, 2018 Data: Rural/Urban Comparison of Traffic Fatalities
Reports 2018 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data describing fatal motor vehicle crashes. Provides rural versus urban statistics for fatal motor vehicle crashes by time of day, speed, alcohol use, seat belt use, and rollover crashes.
Date: 05/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
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Extreme Poverty Counties Found Solely in Rural Areas in 2018
Examines high and extreme poverty areas by rural and urban county designation. Includes a map showing rural high poverty and extreme poverty counties and urban high poverty counties. Discusses the geographic concentration of extreme poverty in regions with above-average populations of racial minorities, highlighting 6 counties in South Dakota with a large Native American population and 4 counties in Mississippi with historically high poverty rates among African Americans.
Author(s): Tracey Farrigan
Citation: Amber Waves
Date: 05/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Social Determinants of Health and 90‐Day Mortality After Hospitalization for Heart Failure in the REGARDS Study
Uses data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study to examine associations between social determinants of health (SDOH) and risk of 90-day mortality after heart failure (HF) hospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older. Some of the SDOH considered include African American race, social isolation, rural residence, living in a high poverty zip code or Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA), and more.
Author(s): Madeline Sterling, Joanna Bryan Ringel, Laura Pinheiro, et al.
Citation: Journal of the American Heart Association
Date: 04/2020
Type: Document
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Rates of Living Alone by Rurality and Age
Identifies the percentage rates of adults living alone and within specific age groups using two classifications of rurality: the U.S. Census Bureau definition for rural and urban, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definition for metropolitan/non-metropolitan county.
Author(s): Carrie Henning-Smith, Jonathan Schroeder, Mariana S Tuttle
Date: 04/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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COVID-19 Cases in Rural Persistent Poverty Counties
Map comparing the number of COVID-19 cases in rural persistent poverty counties between March 16, 2020, when the CDC issued national social distancing guidelines, and April 16, 2020. Based on data collected by the New York Times.
Date: 04/2020
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Housing Assistance Council
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Second Report to Congress on Social Risk and Medicare's Value-Based Purchasing Programs
Analyzes the effect of individuals' social risk factors on quality measures, resource utilization, and other Medicare program measures using Medicare and non-Medicare data sources. Describes how Medicare value-based purchasing (VBP) programs impact providers who serve socially at-risk beneficiaries. Categorizes rurality as a social risk factor. Explores emerging trends among providers addressing social risk factors through cooperation with social services and community-based organizations. Offers policy recommendations for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to account for social risk factors in VBP programs and achieve better outcomes for those with social risk factors. Second of two reports required by the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation (IMPACT) Act of 2014. See the first report.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 03/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
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Highest U.S. Poverty Rates Are in the South, with over 20 Percent Poor in Its Rural Areas
Bar chart showing rural and urban poverty rates by region for the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West, based on data from the 2014-2018 American Community Survey.
Date: 03/2020
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Nonmetro Poverty Rates Remain Higher than Metro
Line chart showing the metropolitan and nonmetro poverty rates, as well as the nonmetro-metro gap, from 1959 through 2018.
Date: 03/2020
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Selected Charts from Ag and Food Statistics: Charting the Essentials
Report highlights the various measures of the rural and agricultural economy. Includes rates of rural versus urban poverty and unemployment, as well as rates of food security in principal cities, suburban, and rural areas.
Date: 02/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Poverty Rates by Metro/Nonmetro Residence, 1959-2018
Line chart showing metropolitan and nonmetropolitan poverty rates over time.
Date: 02/2020
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Poverty Rates by Age Group and Metro/Nonmetro Residence, 2018
Bar chart showing metropolitan and nonmetro poverty rates for all ages, for children under 5, children under 18, adults aged 18-64, and seniors over 65.
Date: 02/2020
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates: 2018
Highlights from the 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), which provides single-year median household income and poverty statistics. Includes county-level maps showing income and poverty rates in 2018 and changes from 2007 to 2018.
Author(s): Stefan Elser, Rachel Upton, Carolyn Gann
Date: 01/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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Many Rural Americans Are Still "Left Behind"
An overview of trends in rural poverty from 1959 through 2016. Discusses how rural and urban poverty are different. Highlights changes in education and employment, the impact of race/ethnicity, and data on rural child poverty.
Date: 01/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Institute for Research on Poverty
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Quantification of Neighborhood-Level Social Determinants of Health in the Continental United States
Results of a study examining 71,901 census tracts, to quantify the social determinants of health (SDOH) consisting of advantage, isolation, opportunity, and mixed immigrant cohesion. Features demographic statistics with breakdowns by 7 multidimensional neighborhood typologies, including Rural Affordable. Offers comparisons between SDOH in Chicago and the rest of the continental United States.
Author(s): Marynia Kolak, Jay Bhatt, Yoon Hong Park, Norma A. Padron, Ayrin Molefe
Citation: JAMA Network Open, 3(1)
Date: 01/2020
Type: Document
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Water Infrastructure: Technical Assistance and Climate Resilience Planning Could Help Utilities Prepare for Potential Climate Change Impacts
Examines federal technical and financial assistance to drinking and wastewater utilities for enhancing climate resilience. Discusses the needs of small and rural communities and identifies federal resources targeted to these areas.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 01/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Alternative Drinking Water Systems: Use by Very Small Communities, Related Cost Savings, and Technical Assistance Provided by EPA and USDA
Provides an overview of 5 alternative drinking water systems used by communities with fewer than 500 people and the barriers to implementing new systems and technologies in small communities. Describes factors that influence the costs and cost-savings of alternative drinking water systems. Identifies 4 federal funding programs that support technical assistance and training for small drinking water systems serving communities of fewer than 10,000 people.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 01/2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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The Best and Worst Places for Children in America
Includes an interactive map ranking states and counties on their ability to care for and protect children, with data on child poverty, COVID-19 vulnerability, and more. Users can select and compare counties on various threats to childhood, such as deaths before age 18, teen pregnancy, food insecurity, and school dropouts.
Additional links: The Land of Inopportunity: Closing the Childhood Equity Gap for America's Kids
Date: 2020
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Save the Children Federation, Inc.
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Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults: Opportunities for the Health Care System
Examines how social isolation and loneliness affect health and quality of life in adults aged 50 and older, with a focus on vulnerable populations, including those living in rural areas. Makes recommendations for clinical settings on screening for negative health impacts related to social isolation and developing interventions to help address this issue.
Additional links: Read Online
Author(s): Committee on the Health and Medical Dimensions of Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults
Date: 2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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America's Rental Housing 2020
Report details rental housing access across the country. Looks at supply and demand of rental housing, as well as the cost of renting for various income earners. Highlights the barriers to affordable rental housing in rural communities.
Date: 2020
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University
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2014-2018 Median Household Income in the United States by County
Interactive map showing median household income by county, based on the 2014-2019 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Hover over a county to view detailed household income data.
Date: 12/2019
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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2014-2018 Poverty Rate in the United States by County
Interactive map showing county-level poverty rates, based on the 2014-2019 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Hover over a county to get poverty data by age range for those under 18 years old, 18-64, and 65 or older.
Date: 12/2019
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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Employment Has Grown Faster in Metropolitan Than Nonmetro Counties Since the Great Recession
Line chart showing metropolitan and nonmetro employment growth from 2007 through 2019.
Date: 11/2019
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Poverty Rates in 2017 Were Highest for Children, Particularly Among Those Living in Rural Areas
Bar chart showing rural and urban poverty rates by age group. Includes data for children under 5 years, all children under 18 years of age, working age adults (18-64 years), and seniors (65 and older).
Date: 11/2019
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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LGBT Poverty in the United States: A Study of Differences Between Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Groups
First in a series of reports examining the poverty rates and economic disparities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, this report provides estimates and compares the number of LGBT and cisgender people living in poverty in rural and urban communities. Poverty rates are further identified by sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI), race, ethnicity, and by state. Discusses the effect of disability status, education level, health, marital status, and employment status on poverty rates.
Author(s): M. V. Lee Badgett, Soon Kyu Choi, Bianca D.M. Wilson
Date: 10/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: UCLA School of Law, Williams Institute
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The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2018
Provides estimates of poverty for the official poverty measure and the supplemental poverty measure, which takes into account government programs that support low-income families. Tables A-1, A-2, and A-8 provide data for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.
Author(s): Liana Fox
Date: 10/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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Compendium of Federal Datasets Addressing Health Disparities
Identifies and describes publicly available data relevant to addressing health disparities, including data on socioeconomic factors and social determinants of health. Includes datasets and data-related resources from agencies within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as well as from nine other federal departments and agencies.
Author(s): Data Workgroup of the Interdepartmental Health Equity Collaborative (IHEC)
Date: 09/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health
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Watered Down Justice
Report focuses on water quality standards, violations, and potential solutions, specifically for social and economic minority populations. Features county-level maps showing the intersection of various drinking water violations and length of violations with racial, ethnic, and language vulnerability.
Author(s): Kristi Pullen Fedinick, Steve Taylor, Michele Roberts
Date: 09/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Coming Clean, Environmental Justice Health Alliance, Natural Resources Defense Council
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Child Poverty Declines Slightly in 2018 to 18 Percent
Brief summary of child poverty rates. Includes a line chart showing the percent of children in poverty from 2007 through 2018 for city, suburban, and rural places.
Author(s): Jessica A. Carson
Date: 09/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018
Reports on income levels and the number of people in poverty for 2017 and 2018, along with the percent change from 2017 to 2018. Includes statistics for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Based on data from the 2019 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements.
Author(s): Jessica Semega, Melissa Kollar, John Creamer, Abinash Mohanty
Date: 09/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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Household Food Security in the United States in 2018
Reports on household food security, food expenditures, and the use of federal food and nutrition assistance programs in 2018. Includes food insecurity statistics for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.
Author(s): Alisha Coleman-Jensen, Matthew P. Rabbitt, Christian A. Gregory, Anita Singh
Date: 09/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Home Equity: A Vision of Housing Security, Health and Opportunity
Provides data demonstrating the interrelationship between housing insecurity and health equity. Examines how policies and racism have impacted housing stability in Colorado's rural, urban, and suburban communities. Looks at the challenges to housing security faced by communities of color, undocumented immigrants, people with disabilities, families with children, low income households, rural communities, and homelessness populations. Suggests housing policies that may impact communities and improve housing security.
Date: 08/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Colorado Health Institute
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A Rising Tide: Increasing Rural Local Health Department Capacity to Address the Social Determinants of Health
Describes unique challenges faced by rural local health departments (LHDs), as well as assets such as community connectivity and trusted local institutions. Explores the ways in which partnerships, leadership, community engagement, data and evaluation, and community health improvement planning function as foundational elements in addressing social determinants of health in rural communities.
Author(s): Karla Feeser, Melissa Mayer, Ashley Edmiston
Date: 07/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of County and City Health Officials
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Social Determinants of Health among Rural Asian and Pacific Islander Populations
Policy brief examining health disparities between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) and white rural people. Fourth in a series of 4 policy briefs on social determinants of health. Features demographic statistics with breakdowns by race and urban or rural location, and age-adjusted mortality rates by gender and residence as of 2016.
Author(s): Janice C. Probst, Fozia Ajmal
Date: 07/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center (formerly the South Carolina Rural Health Research Center)
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Social Determinants of Health among Rural American Indian and Alaska Native Populations
Policy brief examining health disparities between American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) and white rural people. Third in a series of 4 policy briefs on social determinants of health. Features demographic statistics with breakdowns by race and urban or rural location, and age-adjusted mortality rates by gender and residence as of 2016.
Author(s): Janice C. Probst, Fozia Ajmal
Date: 07/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center (formerly the South Carolina Rural Health Research Center)
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Social Determinants of Health among the Rural Hispanic Population
Policy brief examining health disparities between Hispanic and white rural people. Second in a series of 4 policy briefs on social determinants of health. Features demographic statistics with breakdowns by race and urban or rural location, and age-adjusted mortality rates by ethnicity, gender, and residence as of 2016.
Author(s): Janice C. Probst, Fozia Ajmal
Date: 07/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center (formerly the South Carolina Rural Health Research Center)
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Social Determinants of Health among the Rural African American Population
Policy brief examining health disparities between African American and white rural people. First in a series of 4 policy briefs on social determinants of health. Features demographic statistics with breakdowns by race and urban or rural location, and age-adjusted mortality rates by gender and residence as of 2016.
Author(s): Janice C. Probst, Fozia Ajmal
Date: 07/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center (formerly the South Carolina Rural Health Research Center)
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The Rural-ness of Social Isolation: Information from Recent Public Health Research
Dr. Carrie Henning-Smith, deputy director of the University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center, explains how social isolation and loneliness impact rural Americans, based on information from her team's recent studies.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 07/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Social Isolation and Loneliness: Insights from Rural Clinical Providers and Other Experts
Provides an overview of social isolation and loneliness and the factors, such as limited transportation options, that can contribute to these problems in rural areas. Includes discussion of social risk assessments. Features rural clinicians, researchers, and other experts sharing their perspectives on addressing these concerns.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 07/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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A Qualitative Study Identifying Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity in Rural Communities
Highlights a study on physical activity rates and structural impediments and advantages within rural communities that affect those rates. Bases findings on interviews with rural adults in southeast Missouri. Examines the attitudes and concerns about physical activity and makes suggestions for future interventions.
Author(s): Amanda S. Gilbert, Dixie D. Duncan, Alan M. Beck, et al.
Citation: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Date: 06/2019
Type: Document
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Running Clear: Preventing Private Water Sources from Becoming a Health Hazard in Rural America
Provides an overview of the potential contaminants in well water and describes how the safety of private water sources is maintained. Features water experts and a public health professional explaining what can be done to keep well water clean, including water testing, education and training, funding, and technical assistance.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 06/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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The New Economy and Child Care: Nonstandard-Hour Work, Child Care, and Child Health and Well-Being
Examines child care instability experienced by mothers with young children. Includes information from state child care administrators related to the support provided by the child care subsidy system for parents working nonstandard hours. Includes a brief discussion of rural child care deserts.
Author(s): Angela Rachidi, Russell Sykes, Kerry Desjardins, Julius Cesar Chaidez
Date: 05/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: American Public Human Services Association, Mathematica
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Digital Gap Between Rural and Nonrural America Persists
Highlights differences in broadband access and technology adoption, such as smart phone or tablet use, between rural and urban residents of the U.S.
Author(s): Andrew Perrin
Date: 05/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Pew Research Center
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Rural Families Headed by Single Adults Had Higher Poverty Rates Than Urban Counterparts in 2017
Bar chart comparing poverty rates for rural and urban families by family type, with data on all married-couple families, male-headed families with no spouse, female-headed families with no spouse, and all families.
Date: 05/2019
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Overcoming Racial Disparities and Social Determinants in the Maternal Mortality Crisis
Provides testimonies and the recording of a hearing before the U.S. House Ways and Means Committee on disparities in maternal mortality. Discusses disparities by race and geographic location, social determinants of health, challenges in rural access to obstetrics, and potential steps for action. Includes testimony from the American Medical Association, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Maternal Mortality Projects Coordinator at the Virginia Department of Health, and others.
Additional links: Lisa Hollier Testimony, Loren Robinson Testimony, Melanie Rouse Testimony, Patrice Harris Testimony, American Medical Association, Video Recording
Date: 05/2019
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: House Ways and Means Committee
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Opportunities to Advance Complex Care in Rural and Frontier Areas
Examines obstacles rural and frontier healthcare organizations face in providing complex care based on interviews with experts around the U.S. Focuses on rural social determinants of health, workforce shortages, and rural community relationships. Includes examples of models related to community collaboration, care coordination, social determinants of health, the health workforce, technology, and payment.
Author(s): Jim Lloyd
Date: 05/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Health Care Strategies
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Preventive Health Service Use among Rural Women
A study of national data to understand whether health status and sociodemographic characteristics explain the differences in use of preventive services among women in rural and urban areas from 2014-2016. Features statistics including receipt of various services, health status indicators, sociodemographic characteristics, and predictions of women's health service receipt, with breakdowns by rural or urban residence.
Author(s): Erika Ziller, Jennifer Lenardson, Nathan Paluso, Jaclyn Janis
Date: 04/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Maine Rural Health Research Center
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Poverty Rates in Rural and Urban Areas Vary Across U.S. Regions
Bar chart showing rural and urban poverty rates by region for the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West, based on 2013-2017 American Community Survey data.
Date: 04/2019
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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The 10-20-30 Provision: Defining Persistent Poverty Counties
Defines persistent poverty counties. Discusses how differences in definitions and data used can affect which counties are considered persistently poor and includes a map highlighting the impact of different definitions. Briefly addresses legislation targeting persistent poverty counties using the "10-20-30 provision," including rural development funding.
Date: 03/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Congressional Research Service
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Student Homelessness Growing Fastest in Rural America
Examines trends in homelessness among rural students, which may contribute to disparities in health and academic outcomes. Explores challenges in identifying and supporting homeless families, funding in rural schools, and obstacles facing homeless rural students. Features statistics including percent change in number of homeless students from school years 2013-2014 to 2016-2017 in select states, with breakdowns by rural or nonrural locations.
Date: 02/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Institute for Children, Poverty & Homelessness
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Using Upstream Quality Improvement to Address Transportation
Module 5 in a series of video trainings for clinicians on how they can help address the social determinants of health. This segment discusses transportation and addresses rural issues. Includes a case study conversation with Jill Lord, director of community health at Mt. Ascutney Hospital and Health Center, a Critical Access Hospital (CAH) in Vermont.
Date: 02/2019
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association
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Practicing Medicine in Rural America: Listening to Primary Care Physicians
Reports on focus group research and interviews with primary care physicians regarding the challenges of serving rural, low-income patients. Highlights issues related to poverty, healthy food access, mental health, substance abuse, specialty care access, and transportation. Third post in the series "Listening to Primary Care Physicians for Low-Income Patients."
Author(s): Shanoor Seervai
Date: 02/2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Commonwealth Fund
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Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth
Examines the impact of summertime experiences on school-age children and youth related to academic learning, social and emotional development, physical and mental health, and health-promoting and safety behaviors. Includes discussion of rural residence and its impact on children's access to supportive services, including food programs, during the summer.
Additional links: Read Online
Author(s): Committee on Summertime Experiences and Child and Adolescent Education, Health, and Safety
Date: 2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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On the Path to Health Equity: Building Capacity to Measure Health Outcomes in Community Development
Report details the role of social determinants of health in perpetuating health inequities in communities. Highlights strategies for communities to address these inequities in both rural and urban areas.
Date: 2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Enterprise Community Partners, NeighborWorks America
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HUD Policy Brief: Understanding the Impact and Potential for Health Centers - Rural Homelessness
Provides information to help health centers connect people experiencing rural homelessness with housing and services. Summarizes challenges to ending rural homelessness and efforts of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) addressing rural homelessness.
Date: 2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Corporation for Supportive Housing
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The Social Determinants of Health and the Decline in U.S. Life Expectancy: Implications for Appalachia
Study explores life expectancy in the U.S. and compares these trends to those in Appalachia. Looks at social determinants of health such as substance use, injuries, and suicide, among others, as possible contributing factors.
Author(s): Steven H. Woolf, Heidi Schoomaker, Latoya Hill, Christine M. Orndahl
Citation: Journal of Appalachian Health, 1(1), 6-14
Date: 2019
Type: Document
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The Poverty-Reducing Effect of Five Key Government Programs in Rural and Urban America
Examines rural and urban residents' income from five social programs: Social Security, disability benefits, federal and state cash assistance, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Looks at the role of these programs in reducing poverty and reports how much poverty would increase in rural and urban areas without each program.
Author(s): Jessica Carson Marybeth Mattingly
Date: 2019
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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America's Child Care Deserts in 2018
Assesses child care availability in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, with a special emphasis on how limited or complete lack of access disproportionately impacts rural and Hispanic/Latino populations. Includes discussion on child care deserts and provides a list of policy recommendations to increase access to low-cost and high-quality child care.
Author(s): Rasheed Malik, Katie Hamm, Leila Schochet, Cristina Novoa, Simon Workman, Steven Jessen-Howard
Date: 12/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for American Progress
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Poverty Rates/Median Household Income in the United States by County Type: 2013-2017
Bar charts showing poverty rates and median household income for all counties, mostly urban counties, mostly rural counties, and completely rural counties.
Date: 12/2018
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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County Poverty Rate for the United States: 2013-2017
National map showing county-level poverty rates.
Additional links: Completely Rural Counties, Mostly Rural Counties, Mostly Urban Counties
Date: 12/2018
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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Median Household Income for Counties in the United States: 2013-2017
National map showing median household income by county.
Additional links: Completely Rural Counties, Mostly Rural Counties, Mostly Urban Counties
Date: 12/2018
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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Percentage of Households With Subscription to Any Broadband Service: 2013-2017
National map showing household broadband subscription rates by county.
Additional links: Completely Rural Counties, Mostly Rural Counties, Mostly Urban Counties
Date: 12/2018
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
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Understanding Infant and Toddler Child Care Deserts
Examines the availability of licensed infant-toddler child care in nine states and the District of Columbia, with a focus on how rural communities are disproportionately affected by a limited or complete lack of access to child care services. Features discussion on consequences of child care deserts and offers policy recommendations to increase the supply of licensed child care.
Author(s): Steven Jessen-Howard, Rasheed Malik, Simon Workman, Katie Hamm
Date: 10/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for American Progress
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Evidence Review — Social Determinants of Health for Veterans
Reports findings from a literature review of studies focused on social determinants of health for veterans. Summarizes study characteristics, social determinants addressed, and whether health behaviors, health services utilization, and health outcomes were examined. Includes an analysis of the studies that looked at effects of rurality, trauma, and sexual orientation.
Author(s): Wei Duan-Porter, Brian C. Martinson, Nancy Greer, et al.
Citation: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 33(10), 1785-1795
Date: 10/2018
Type: Document
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Rural Poverty, Part 1
Showcases two papers from the Rural Policy Research Institute's (RUPRI) March 2018 "Rural Poverty: Fifty Years After The People Left Behind" Conference. Covers the causes and consequences of rural poverty and discusses the evolving research agenda to address the issue to improve economic opportunities. Includes information on rural and urban poverty rates by gender, education, marital status, and employment.
Citation: IRP Focus, 34(2), 1-24
Date: 10/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin–Madison
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Missed Opportunities: Youth Homelessness in Rural America
Examines research related to experiences of rural youth who are homeless. Offers recommendations for policy changes and community responses to address challenges unique to rural areas. Includes a section on homelessness among American Indian and Alaskan Native youth.
Author(s): Matthew Morton, Amy Dworsky, Sonali Patel, Gina M. Samuels
Date: 10/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, Voices of Youth Count
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Rural Education Levels Are Increasing, but Still Lag Behind Urban Areas
Bar chart comparing rural and urban education levels for adults aged 25 and older in 2000 and 2016.
Date: 10/2018
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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EITC Continues to Reach Families in Poor Places
Briefly discusses the role of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) in helping low-income workers. Includes maps showing county-level information on EITC filers, with Map 1 identifying high child poverty counties and Map 2 identifying nonmetropolitan counties.
Additional links: Map 2: Nonmetropolitan Counties
Author(s): Andrew Schaefer, Beth Mattingly, Kennedy Nickerson , Jessica Carson
Date: 10/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Ensuring Access to Quality Health Care in Vulnerable Communities
Highlights the health characteristics and conditions of vulnerable populations in rural and urban communities, and the essential healthcare services as identified by the American Hospital Association Task Force on Ensuring Access in Vulnerable Communities. Discusses several strategies recommended by the task force to address social determinants of health, enhance virtual care services to reform healthcare delivery and payment methods, and support hospitals in their efforts to provide the needed health services.
Author(s): Jay Bhatt, Priya Bathija
Citation: Academic Medicine, 93(9), 1271-1275
Date: 09/2018
Type: Document
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Declines in Child Poverty Continue in 2017: Overall Rate Still Above Pre-Recession Level
Examines trends in child poverty from 2007 through 2017, with information for rural areas, suburban areas, and cities. Appendix Table 1 provides state-by-state data.
Additional links: Appendix Table 1
Author(s): Jessica Carson, Andrew Schaefer, Beth Mattingly
Date: 09/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Using Homes to Improve Behavioral Health Outcomes in the Rural West
Describes interactions between housing and behavioral health and its effect on overall health and wellness for rural populations. Discusses Medicaid expansion policy implications as a method to improve healthcare delivery and health outcomes.
Author(s): Brandn Green
Date: 09/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Western Rural Development Center
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Urban Areas Offer Higher Earnings for Workers with Higher Levels of Education
Bar chart showing median earnings by highest educational attainment for rural and urban areas in 2016 for earners age 25 and older.
Date: 09/2018
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Exploring the Rural Context for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)
Discusses adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and how they may impact rural health. Provides policy recommendations focused on the rural dimensions of ACEs. Addresses categories of ACEs, prevalence in rural areas and for Native populations, federal efforts to address ACEs, and the opioid epidemic. Covers the role of school-based healthcare programs to increase access to pediatric specialty services or linking children to needed non-medical services. Profiles a committee site visit focused on a model ACEs program in New York in Appendix A.
Date: 08/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
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Experiences of Parents and Children Living in Poverty: A Review of the Qualitative Literature
Details a review of studies focusing on the experiences of poverty from the perspective of parents and their children. Discusses variations in perceptions of poverty and government assistance in rural areas.
Author(s): Janet Quint, Katherine M. Griffin, Jennie Kaufman, Patrick Landers, Annie Utterback
Date: 07/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Administration for Children and Families
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Identifying Bright Spots in Appalachian Health: Statistical Analysis
Describes analysis used in assessing how Appalachia's 420 counties scored in 19 health indicators, and identifies counties with health outcomes that were better than expected. Features statistics and county-level maps showing economic status. Second in a series of reports exploring health issues in Appalachia.
Author(s): G. Mark Holmes, Nancy M. Lane, William Holding, et al.
Date: 07/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Appalachian Regional Commission, PDA, Inc., The Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research
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Exploring Bright Spots in Appalachian Health: Case Studies
In-depth studies of 10 Appalachian counties with health outcomes that are better than expected, given their characteristics and resources. Identifies actions these areas are taking to improve health and well-being. Features statistics including demographics and health-related data, and maps showing economic status of Appalachian counties. Third in a series of reports exploring health issues in Appalachia.
Author(s): Nancy M. Lane, G. Mark Holmes, Thomas A. Arcury, et al.
Date: 07/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Appalachian Regional Commission, Burness, PDA, Inc., The Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research
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Mold and Asthma: A Look at Co-Occurrence in Two Rural Communities in California
Reports on a study of mold and asthma prevalence in two rural, primarily low-income, migrant farmworker communities. Covers housing type, income, occupation, gender, the percent of children and adults with asthma, and mold types and amounts. Compares results to national averages.
Author(s): Ryan Sinclair, Charity Russell, Genevieve Kray, Stephen Vesper, Gail Wadsworth
Date: 05/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Institute for Rural Studies
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Piece Rate Pay and Worker Identity: How Power in the Fields Impacts Worker Health
Reports on a study of heat-related illness among California farmworkers. Identifies barriers to self-care.
Author(s): Gail Wadsworth, Michael Courville, Marc Schenker
Date: 04/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: California Institute for Rural Studies
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Social Determinants of Health: Transforming the Buzz Phrase to a Rural Action Item
Discusses how rural healthcare organizations can use social risk assessments as a tool to improve population health. Highlights the work of two rural organizations, CommWell Health in North Carolina and Tift Regional Health System in Georgia, to assess social risks and address patients' social determinants of health (SDOH).
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 04/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Rural Child Poverty Was Most Concentrated in the Mississippi Delta
Map showing average child poverty rates for rural counties, based on 2012-2016 American Community Survey data. Discusses the counties with the highest child poverty, including counties in the Mississippi Delta region.
Date: 04/2018
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Countering the Production of Health Inequities: Ensuring the Opportunity for Health for All
Examines determinants of health, such as environment, housing, public safety, education, employment, income, and access to healthcare, and the ways they affect groups including rural residents. Features policy recommendations, community examples, and possible solutions to health inequities.
Date: 04/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Prevention Institute
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Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey and Assessment: Sixth Report to Congress
Describes the results of the 2015 Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey and Assessment at the national and state levels. Includes information and statistics describing small water systems serving populations of 3,300 or fewer and addresses the needs of American Indian and Alaska Native Village water systems.
Date: 03/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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Current State of Child Health in Rural America: How Context Shapes Children's Health
Describes the health status of children in rural America. Highlights the components of the rural environment that may affect children's health and health outcomes, including economic characteristics, healthcare provider availability, behavior health risks, and usage of health services.
Author(s): Janice C. Probst, Judith C. Barker, Alexandra Enders, Paula Gardiner
Citation: Journal of Rural Health, 34(Suppl 1), s3–s12
Date: 02/2018
Type: Document
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Rural Child Welfare Practice
Issue brief discussing the needs and concerns of rural children and families, including healthcare and social services. Examines factors linked to child maltreatment, such as poverty, violence, and substance use, and features descriptions of successful programs designed to promote child welfare in rural areas of Montana, South Dakota, Kansas, and Colorado, and Appalachian Ohio and Kentucky.
Date: 02/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Administration for Children and Families
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Exploring Strategies to Improve Health and Equity in Rural Communities
Identifies the strengths and assets of rural communities, key partners, change agents, and opportunities to leverage assets to improve rural health and equity through a national forum of over 400 national and regional cross-sector stakeholders. Findings were organized into four categories: individual assets, organizational assets, community assets, and cultural assets. Includes discussion on challenges and opportunities for action for each asset category.
Additional links: Leveraging Culture and History to Improve Health and Equity in Rural Communities, Recommendations for Philanthropies and Government Agencies to Improve Health and Equity in Rural Communities, Supporting Change Agents Across Sectors to Improve Health and Equity in Rural Communities
Author(s): Michael Meit
Date: 02/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: NORC Walsh Center for Rural Health Analysis
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National Trends in Drinking Water Quality Violations
Examines patterns in health-related violations in the Safe Drinking Water Act by analyzing data from 17,900 community water systems from 1982-2015. Identifies vulnerability factors in communities and water systems. Includes a rural and urban comparison of total violations by water system, and provides county-level information on violation hot spots and spatial trends in community water systems.
Author(s): Maura Allaire, Haowei Wu, Upmanu Lall
Citation: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 15(9), 2078-2083
Date: 02/2018
Type: Document
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Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) 2015-2016: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers
Reports on demographic and employment characteristics of hired agricultural workers in the United States. Includes data on health insurance and healthcare access, as well as information on social determinants of health such as income, education level, language skills, and housing. Based on data collected from face-to-face interviews with 5,342 crop farmworkers conducted between October 1, 2014 and September 30, 2016.
Author(s): Trish Hernandez, Susan Gabbard
Date: 01/2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Labor
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Balance of State Continuum of Care Toolkit
A resource for Continuums of Care (CoCs), which are community-based local planning groups that work to address homelessness. Focuses on statewide CoCs and CoCs that serve nonmetropolitan areas and small cities. Discusses the unique challenges these areas face and highlights successful approaches to address these challenges.
Date: 2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
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Growing Up Rural in America
Presents a report on the state of childhood in rural America. Details challenges rural children face, such as growing up in poverty, adolescent pregnancy, and access to food. Report features rural-urban comparisons and state-by-state data.
Date: 2018
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Save the Children
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Human Intestinal Parasite Burden and Poor Sanitation in Rural Alabama
Reports on the presence of intestinal parasites in Lowndes County, Alabama, a location selected for this study due to high poverty, use of open-sewage systems, and past hookworm burden. Findings based on participant interviews and stool, serum, and soil samples. Includes data on parasite infection, participant gender, raw sewage in the home, asthma or other lung disease, and diarrhea in the past week.
Author(s): Megan L. McKenna, Shannon McAtee, Patricia E. Bryan, et al.
Citation: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97(5), 1623-1628
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
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Concentrated Poverty Increased in Both Rural and Urban Areas Since 2000, Reversing Declines in the 1990s
Reports on trends in poverty rates between the 2000 Decennial Census and 2011-2015 American Community Survey (ACS). Examines spatially concentrated poverty, with a map showing county-level poverty rates for nonmetropolitan counties. Compares metropolitan and nonmetropolitan poverty rates by race/ethnicity.
Author(s): Brian C. Thiede, Hyojung Kim, Matthew Valasik
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Social Determinants of Health Series: Transportation and the Role of Hospitals
Presents a report on the role of hospitals in providing health-based transportation services. Features case studies of 4 different hospital programs' approach to addressing their patients' lack of access to reliable transit.
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Hospital Association
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The Share of Households With Wired Broadband Remains Below 60 Percent in Nearly 800 Rural Counties, Mostly in Poor and Remote Regions
Map identifying rural counties where 60% or more households had wired broadband in 2010 and 2016.
Date: 11/2017
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Discrimination in America: Experiences and Views of African Americans
Examines African Americans' personal experiences of discrimination across several areas of daily life based on a national survey conducted between January and April, 2017. Areas of discussion include interactions with police, applying to jobs or being promoted at work, applying to or attending college, going to a doctor or health clinic, and more. Also examines perceived differences in discrimination between rural and urban areas, and whether individual or institutional discrimination is more prevalent.
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
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Deep Poverty Rates by Metro/Nonmetro Residence, 1989-2016
Line chart comparing metropolitan and nonmetro deep poverty rates, based on 1990-2013 Current Population Survey data combined with 2007-2016 American Community Survey data.
Date: 10/2017
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Coordinated Whole-Person Care that Addresses Social Determinants of Health
Presents approaches used and lessons learned from five projects funded by Data Across Sectors for Health (DASH) - an initiative to align various health-related sectors and promote the collection, sharing, and effective use of data. Each DASH project is working to develop the technology infrastructure necessary to support cross-sector data sharing, enhance care coordination, and address social determinants of health. One of the five projects is based on the White Earth Indian Reservation in rural northwest Minnesota.
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Data Across Sectors for Health
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Drinking Water and Wastewater Infrastructure: Information on Identified Needs, Planning for Future Conditions, and Coordination of Project Funding
Reviews federal programs that provide funding for drinking water and wastewater infrastructure projects and describes how infrastructure needs are identified. Also details how federal agencies support states' efforts and the extent to which federal agencies coordinate funding initiatives. Analysis is based on a review of infrastructure projects in six states: Alaska, California, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, and Tennessee.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Confronting Adverse Childhood Experiences to Improve Rural Kids' Lifelong Health
Highlights a western North Carolina school district and a Native American tribe in Wisconsin that are working to address adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Provides an overview of the impact ACEs have on health and provides data on ACE exposure among rural adults.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Social Determinants of Health: A Quick Reference Guide for State Offices of Rural Health and State and Territorial Health Officials
Provides an overview of social determinants of health (SDOH) in rural communities, and lists partners, resources, and national level initiatives related to four significant SDOH in rural areas: housing, transportation, education, and food insecurity. Intended to serve as a starting point and guide for rural organizations that wish to address SDOH through multi-sector collaboration.
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, National Organization of State Offices of Rural Health
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Medical-Legal Partnership Addresses Social Determinants of Health
Explores how FirstHealth of the Carolinas, a private, nonprofit healthcare network based in Pinehurst, North Carolina, reduced emergency department utilization and hospital readmission rates systemwide through the use of transitional care clinics (TCCs) and medical-legal partnerships (MLPs). Highlights how addressing non-medical factors can affect health outcomes.
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Value
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Housing and the Role of Hospitals
Provides an overview of the role of housing in health, and discusses what hospitals can can do to address housing instability as a social determinant of health. Offers five case studies of innovative hospital and health system programs related to housing, including a rural California program that provides safe transitional housing to chronically homeless patients after discharge from the hospital.
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: American Hospital Association, Health Research & Educational Trust
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The Justice Gap: Measuring the Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-income Americans
Reports on civil legal needs experienced by low-income Americans who do not seek professional legal help and the paths they take when facing civil legal problems. Includes information on legal needs related to healthcare access and other issues that impact health, such as housing. Provides details for specific groups, including rural residents, seniors, veterans, people with disabilities, parents of children under 18, and domestic violence survivors.
Additional links: Appendix B2 Tables, Appendix B3 Tables, Full Report, Special Focus: Rural Residents
Date: 06/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Legal Services Corporation
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Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 — United States
Examines air- and water-quality data and discusses how these environmental hazards vary across a spectrum of urban to rural counties. Includes rural-urban air pollutant data for ozone and particulate matter and data for 10 water contaminants for rural and urban community water systems.
Author(s): Heather Strosnider, Caitlin Kennedy, Michele Monti, Fuyuen Yip
Citation: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(13), 1-10
Date: 06/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Rural Health Literacy: Who's Delivering Health Information?
Describes the role that school nurses, newspapers, public libraries, churches, public health departments, and hub-and-spoke academic institutions can play in supporting health literacy and providing consumer health information. Features examples from several states.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Rural Health Literacy: Understanding Skills and Demands is Key to Improvement
Provides an overview of the health literacy concerns in rural areas, with insights from researchers and other health literacy experts. Discusses both the skills and demands sides of health literacy and how rural healthcare providers can help their patients.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 04/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Closure of Hospital Obstetric Services Disproportionately Affects Less-Populated Rural Counties
Policy brief describing a study examining obstetric unit and hospital closures in rural areas of the United States, 2004-2014. Features statistics with breakdowns by all rural counties, micropolitan, and noncore areas.
Author(s): Peiyin Hung, Katy Kozhimannil, Carrie Henning-Smith, Michelle Casey
Date: 04/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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Rural Education At A Glance, 2017 Edition
Provides an overview of rural educational attainment. Compares education levels in rural and urban areas in 2000 and 2015. Also provides rural-urban data by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Examines rural educational attainment in relation to employment, income, and poverty.
Date: 04/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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NACRHHS Policy Brief on Social Determinants of Health
Webinar recording discusses the social determinants of health affecting rural communities and some possible strategies for remedying the socioeconomic factors that lead to negative health outcomes. Looks at poverty, education, transportation, and labor markets as contributing factors. Focuses on three rural healthcare centers in New Mexico and statewide policy based on data from rural areas throughout the nation.
Additional links: Audio Recording, PowerPoint Handout, Transcript
Date: 03/2017
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Social Determinants of Health
Policy brief informed by a September 2016 National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services meeting held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with site visits to update the committee about factors that affect health outcomes. Identifies emerging payment models and financing strategies, and provides policy recommendations for addressing the social determinants of health in rural communities.
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
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Housing Needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives in Tribal Areas: A Report From the Assessment of American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs
Provides an overview of housing conditions and needs among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) households in tribal areas. Includes AI/AN demographic, social, and economic characteristics. Also discusses housing produced by tribes using HUD housing funds available through the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act (NAHASDA) of 1996.
Author(s): Nancy Pindus, G. Thomas Kingsley, Jennifer Biess, et al.
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
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Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Addressing Major Health Inequality Trends for the Nation, 1935-2016
Results of a study analyzing key health inequality trends in areas including maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, mental and behavioral health, chronic disease prevention, and health promotion. Examines social determinants and features statistics with breakdowns by race/ethnicity, education, mortality rates, poverty, unemployment, housing, rural or urban location, and geographic area.
Author(s): Gopal K. Singh, Gem P. Daus, Michelle Allender, Christine T. Ramey, Elijah K. Martin, et al.
Citation: International Journal of MCH and AIDS, 6(2), 139-164
Date: 2017
Type: Document
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Critical Need Counties in Broadband & Health - Rural 2017
Identifies counties with a critical need related to both broadband access and health, based on data related to broadband access, internet adoption, diabetes, and obesity. Only counties with a majority of the population living in rural areas and a total population equal to or exceeding 15,000, the median population for rural counties were considered for inclusion.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Federal Communications Commission
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Screening for Social Determinants of Health in Michigan Health Centers
Examines screening practices for the social determinants of health in Michigan health center settings, including Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Includes map of Michigan with health center locations; health center characteristics and statistics; patients in the study; and percentages of health center screenings for core domains.
Author(s): Elena Byhoff, Alicia J. Cohen, Mary C. Hamati, et al.
Citation: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 30(4), 418-427
Date: 2017
Type: Document
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Employment, Poverty, and Public Assistance in the Rural United States
Compares economic and demographic characteristics of rural counties by county income level. Includes data on employment, race/ethnicity, and English-language proficiency. Also examines reliance on public sector supports: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and children's health insurance.
Author(s): Rebecca Glauber, Andrew Schaefer
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Rural Unemployment Rates Declined for All Education Levels from 2010 to 2015
Line chart showing unemployment rates from 2010 through 2015 for rural residents with the following levels of educational attainment: less than high school, high school, some college, associate's degree, bachelor's degree or higher.
Date: 2017
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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2017 Impact Report: Measuring the Economic and Human Impact of Nonprofit Organizations in Rural America
Highlights key federal programs that support affordable housing and community infrastructure, including water and wastewater disposal. Features 23 successful rural housing programs, describing their work and impact, including health-related improvements and services.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Housing Coalition
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Involuntary Part-Time Employment: A Slow and Uneven Economic Recovery
Examines trends in involuntary part-time employment from 2000 through 2015. Includes data for rural men and rural women, compared to the overall population. Also compares rural and urban involuntary part-time work for those below the poverty line before, during, and after the recession.
Author(s): Rebecca Glauber
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Addressing the Social Determinants of Health: The Role of Health Professions Education: Thirteenth Annual Report to the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the Congress of the United States
Includes recommendations for redesign of health professional training to meet needs of an aging and diverse population, to become more team-based and interprofessional, and to prepare students to serve in rural and underserved communities.
Date: 12/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry
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Report to Congress: Social Risk Factors and Performance Under Medicare's Value-Based Purchasing Program
Uses Medicare data to examine the relationship between social risk factors and the performance of value-based purchasing programs. Discusses policy considerations that could help ensure value-based purchasing programs achieve their intended results, especially among high social risk populations. Categorizes rurality as a community risk factor and discusses whether beneficiaries with social risk factors such as rurality have worse outcomes due to their social risk profile, or because of the providers they see. Also provides rural-specific statistics and recommendations for using value-based purchasing to improve health outcomes among high social risk populations. Appendices summarize and provide additional details for each of the 9 programs evaluated.
Additional links: Appendices
Date: 12/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
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Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015
Reports on trends in teen birth rates from 2007 through 2015 in urban and rural areas. Also includes 2015 teen birth rates by race and Hispanic origin for rural and urban counties.
Author(s): Brady E. Hamilton, Lauren M. Rossen, Amy M. Branum
Date: 11/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Bringing Law and Medicine Together to Help Rural Patients
Describes how medical-legal partnerships can help address patients' health-harming legal needs. Features rural medical-legal partnerships in Minnesota and Illinois.
Author(s): Allee Mead
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 10/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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What Works? Strategies to Improve Rural Health
A guide for rural community health improvement. Explains how to find strategies that are likely to be effective. Identifies interventions related to health behaviors, healthcare access and quality, social and economic factors, and the physical environment.
Date: 07/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: County Health Rankings & Roadmaps
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The Reverend's Revolution: A Kid-First Approach to Community Health
Features the work of Reverend Richard Joyner and the Conetoe Family Life Center, a North Carolina nonprofit focused on youth development and improving community health.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 06/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Understanding the Rise in Rural Child Poverty, 2003-14
Examines the causes of a decade-long net increase in rural child poverty. Provides data on rural and urban child poverty and discusses different ways of measuring child poverty. Also provides rural-urban data on income, demographics, and income inequality.
Additional links: Report Summary
Author(s): Thomas Hertz, Tracey Farrigan
Date: 05/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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LGBTQ Healthcare: Building Inclusive Rural Practices
Discusses the challenges rural LGBTQ individuals face in accessing quality care and what rural healthcare providers can do to improve the healthcare experience for this patient population.
Author(s): Zachary Toliver
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 05/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Adverse Childhood Experiences in Rural and Urban Contexts
Reports on a study analyzing the prevalence of rural individual adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), the level of exposure to ACEs in rural regions, and the rural-urban differences of exposure to ACEs by adults using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).
Author(s): Jean A. Talbot, Donald Szlosek, Erika C. Ziller
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Maine Rural Health Research Center
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Stakeholders' Recommendations to Improve Patient-Centered "LGBTQ" Primary Care in Rural and Multicultural Practices
Discusses the results of a pilot study examining primary care practices when treating rural and ethnic-minority lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) and queer persons within the mostly rural and multicultural state of New Mexico, and offers guidelines to enhance services for the LGBT population within clinical settings.
Author(s): Miria Kano, Alma Rosa Silva-Bañuelos, Robert Sturm, Cathleen E. Willging
Citation: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 29(1) 156-160
Date: 02/2016
Type: Document
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A Special Governors' Roundtable: State and County Collaboration to Tackle Chronic Rural Poverty
Video recording of a bi-partisan panel of governors at the National Association of Counties' Annual Meeting discussing issues surrounding childhood poverty in rural America. Focuses on the Rural Impact Challenge, a collaborative effort between county, state, and national leaders to fight rural poverty. Includes discussion of substance abuse prevention and treatment, job creation, economic development, situational and inter-generational poverty, and food insecurity. USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack moderated the panel, which included governors from Tennessee, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Utah and took place February 22, 2016.
Date: 02/2016
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Counties
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Child Poverty Higher and More Persistent in Rural America
Examines counties with high child poverty and persistent poverty over a 30-year period from 1980 to 2010, with data for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. Includes maps showing regional trends. Also looks at poverty at the county level related to minority child population distribution.
Author(s): Andrew Schaefer, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Kenneth M. Johnson
Date: 02/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Poverty and Employment Indicators for Nonmetro Counties by Educational Attainment, 2009-14
Chart comparing rural counties where 20% or more of the adult population lack a high school diploma to other rural counties, for poverty, child poverty, and unemployment.
Date: 01/2016
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Community Health Center Provider Ability to Identify, Treat and Account for the Social Determinants of Health: A Card Study
Evaluates the ability of healthcare providers to identify, treat, and code for the social determinants of health at three community health center (CHC) organizations, one in rural California and two in urban New York and Illinois. Includes data describing the CHCs and patient demographics.
Author(s): Joy H. Lewis, Kate Whelihan, Isaac Navarro, Kimberly R. Boyle
Citation: BMC Family Practice, 17(1), 121
Date: 2016
Type: Document
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Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Immigrant and Native-Born Populations in Rural and Urban Places
Describes demographic and economic characteristics of immigrant and native-born people by metropolitan status. Includes data on education level, English language proficiency, poverty level, and other topics. Also provides selected data by citizenship status for rural and urban immigrants.
Author(s): Andrew Schaefer, Marybeth J. Mattingly
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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After a Parent Left Employment, One in Five Children Lost Private Insurance
Examines children's loss of private health insurance after parental job loss. Includes data on rural compared to urban privately insured children. Reports that, after parental job loss, rural and urban children were similarly impacted related to health insurance coverage.
Author(s): Kristin Smith
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Achieving Health Equity: How Academic Medicine Is Addressing the Social Determinants of Health
Includes essays on healthcare challenges faced by rural veterans and on the characteristics of rural immersion training programs for physicians.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of American Medical Colleges
view details
Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences in a Family Medicine Setting: A Feasibility Study
Reports on a study set in 3 rural clinical sites exploring the feasibility of using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) screening model for adults during routine office visits. ACEs are generally accepted as predictors in adult health outcomes.
Author(s): Patricia T. Glowa, Ardis L. Olson, Deborah J. Johnson
Citation: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 29(3), 303-307
Date: 2016
Type: Document
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Understanding the Social Determinants of Health: A Self-Guided Learning Module for Rural Health Care Teams
Provides information and resources concerning the concept of social determinants of health, and encourages activities to help rural healthcare providers address these issues and improve the health of the communities they serve.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Value
view details
Child Poverty in Rural America
Policy brief describing the needs, challenges, and experiences of rural children and families living in poverty, and how poverty affects their health. Offers recommendations to the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop appropriate and integrated health and human service delivery programs, and to create flexible grant opportunities that will reach children and families in need.
Date: 12/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
view details
The Realities of Child Poverty: Insights from a National Advisory Committee Meeting
Reports on discussion at a September 2015 meeting of the National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services focused on the needs of rural children and families living in poverty. Included a special focus on tribal needs, as the meeting was held at the White Earth Indian Reservation in rural Minnesota.
Author(s): Brandon Baumbach, Kate Menzies
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
view details
Understanding the Geography of Growth in Rural Child Poverty
Discusses variations in child poverty among rural counties, based on 2009-2013 American Community Survey data. Includes a map showing rural counties with high child poverty. Discusses family- and community-level factors impacting child poverty. A related Rural Child Poverty Chart Gallery is also available.
Author(s): David McGranahan
Citation: Amber Waves
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
view details
Sex in the (Non) City: Teen Childbearing in Rural America
Reports on the high rates of teen births in rural counties and why these rates are higher than urban counties.
Additional links: Informational Resources, Summary, Technical Appendix
Author(s): Alison Stewart Ng, Kelleen Kaye
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Power to Decide
view details
Kick the Bucket: The Future of Rural Sanitation in Alaska
Discusses the challenges rural Alaska communities face related to installing and maintaining water and sewage treatment facilities, particularly as climate change impacts the region's infrastructure. Discusses the health impacts of a lack of running water and flush toilets. A series reporting on water and sewage treatment in rural Alaska.
Additional links: Experts Seek Alternatives To Costly, Ineffective Sanitation Systems, Health Implications of Third World Conditions in Alaska, Lack of Funding Hampers Development of Modern Sanitation in Rural Alaska, Rural Sanitation Series: Innovating Beyond the Honey Bucket
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Alaska Public Media
view details
Native American Housing: Obstacles and Opportunities
Recording of a March 24, 2015 panel discussion addressing the challenges involved in supplying and maintaining tribal housing.
Date: 03/2015
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
view details
Rural Water Infrastructure: Federal Agencies Provide Funding but Could Increase Coordination to Help Communities
Discusses the issues impacting rural water and wastewater systems, including the need to upgrade aging and obsolete infrastructure. Identifies federal agencies that provide funding and technical assistance to rural communities related to drinking water and wastewater.
Additional links: Full Report
Date: 02/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
view details
Perceptions of Housing Conditions Among Migrant Farmworkers and Their Families: Implications for Health, Safety and Social Policy
Provides insight into the housing conditions of migrant farmworkers in North Carolina and its effect on their health and safety.
Author(s): Jessica Keim-Malpass, Chaya R. Spears Johnson, Sara A. Quandt, Thomas A. Arcury
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 15(1), 3076
Date: 02/2015
Type: Document
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Ground Water Contamination - Getting Up to Speed
An overview of natural and man-made sources of ground water contamination. Discusses the health effects of contamination, as well as federal regulations related to water quality.
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
view details
The Social Determinants of Health of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: A Research Framework
Examines the social determinants of health related to childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes from a Native perspective, considering historical trauma, self-determination, and cultural factors. Looks at currently available information, identifies gaps, and provides a research framework to help build a better understanding of the causes of child obesity among Native Americans.
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Notah Begay III Foundation
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Rural Healthy People 2020: A Companion Document to Healthy People 2020, Volume 2
Provides a rural focus for the Healthy People 2020 priorities with an overview for each of the top health priorities ranked 11 through 20 identified by rural stakeholders. (Volume 1 discussed the top 10 priorities.) Topics include: cancer, health education, oral health, immunizations and infectious disease, public health, sexual health and family planning, injury and violence prevention, and social determinants of health. Includes reviews of the relevant literature and model programs appropriate for rural communities. Document is available for free download, after providing brief information about intended use.
Author(s): Jane N. Bolin, Gail Bellamy, Alva O. Ferdinand, Bita Kash, Janet W. Helduser
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Southwest Rural Health Research Center
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Behind at the Starting Line: Poverty Among Hispanic Infants
Discusses the economic conditions of the Hispanic/Latino population in rural and urban areas with a focus on the infant population, the prevalence of poverty, and the risks associated with children born into poverty.
Author(s): Daniel T. Lichter, Scott R. Sanders, Kenneth M. Johnson
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Rural Healthy People 2020: A Companion Document to Healthy People 2020, Volume 1
Provides a rural focus for the Healthy People 2020 priorities. Includes overviews of the top 10 rural health priority areas identified by rural stakeholders. (Volume 2 discusses priorities 11-20.) Topics addressed include: health insurance, primary care, emergency services, nutrition and weight status, diabetes, mental health, substance abuse, heart disease and stroke, physical activity, older adults, maternal and child health, and tobacco use. Each overview includes reviews of the relevant literature and models that rural communities can use to address the issues. Document is available for free download, after providing brief information about intended use.
Author(s): Jane N. Bolin, Gail Bellamy, Alva O. Ferdinand, Bita Kash, Janet W. Helduser
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Southwest Rural Health Research Center
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Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and 30 Day Rehospitalizations: An Analysis of Medicare Data
Examines the association between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and 30-day rehospitalizations for patients discharged with congestive heart failure, pneumonia, or acute myocardial infarction. Includes data by location of patient residence for small town/rural, large town, suburban, and urban core areas.
Author(s): Amy J.H. Kind, Steve Jencks, Jane Brock, et al.
Citation: Annals of Internal Medicine, 161(11), 765-774
Date: 12/2014
Type: Document
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Rural Areas Lag Urban Areas in College Completion
Compares rural to urban post-high school educational attainment, with a focus on college completion rates, based on 2008-2012 American Community Survey data. Shows trends via comparison to 2000 Census data.
Author(s): Alexander Marré
Citation: Amber Waves
Date: 12/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Compassionate Collaboration Reduces Homelessness in Utah
Highlights Utah's Housing First plan which is decreasing the number of homeless in the state while saving thousands of dollars in emergency medical bills and other costs.
Author(s): Candi Helseth
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 11/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Rural Employment in Recession and Recovery
Describes the impact of the 2007-2008 recession and the recovery that followed, with a focus on rural employment. Discusses regional variation in unemployment. Compares rural to urban employment growth from 2007 to 2014.
Author(s): Thomas Hertz, Lorin Kusmin, Alexander Marré, Timothy Parker
Citation: Amber Waves
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Homelessness in Rural America
Discusses the unique needs and characteristics of individuals and families experiencing homelessness in rural America. Makes recommendation to the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services on ways to improve access to healthcare and other human services for America's rural homeless populations.
Date: 07/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
view details
Persistent Poverty Dynamics: Understanding Poverty Trends Over 50 Years
Reports on high-poverty counties, with a poverty rate of 20% or more, based on data from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, compared to 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 Census data. Includes comparison of rural (micropolitan and noncore) counties and metropolitan counties. Identifies counties with persistent and intermittent high poverty, as well as newly high poverty counties.
Author(s): Kathleen Miller, Bruce Weber
Date: 07/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute
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Residential Mobility Across Local Areas in the United States and the Geographic Distribution of the Healthy Population
Examines the potential impact that migration from one community to another may have on population health data, in terms of our understanding of how place impacts health status. Looked at moves over one 5-year period, from 1995 to 2000, for selected urban and rural communities, with information on disability status and education. Considered geographic relocation for blacks and whites, between urban and rural areas, between high-poverty and low-poverty areas, and between North and South.
Author(s): Arline T. Geronimus, John Bound, Annie Ro
Citation: Demography, 51(3), 777-809
Date: 06/2014
Type: Document
view details
Lead Poisoning: Not Just a Problem for Urban Youth
Discusses the risks and health consequences for rural children exposed to lead paint in older rural homes. Also identifies other sources of exposure to lead in housing. Describes "healthy homes" principles and lists other housing quality issues that can impact health.
Author(s): Ron Rupp
Citation: Rural Voices, 19(1), 19-21
Date: 03/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Housing Assistance Council
view details
Health Disparities in Rural Women
Discusses the health disparities that exist for rural women in all categories of women's health, including obstetric and gynecologic outcomes and access to care. Covers programs to improve healthcare services for rural women and recommendations to reduce health disparities.
Date: 02/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
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The Intersection of Rural Poverty and Federal Human Services Programs
Discusses challenges faced by federal human services programs in addressing rural poverty. Highlights two case studies offering different approaches for meeting these challenges, one from Montana and one from Colorado.
Date: 01/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
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The Role of Community Health Centers in Assessing the Social Determinants of Health for Planning and Policy: The Example of Frontier New Mexico
Discusses the use of the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE) by a frontier-based community health center in New Mexico for evaluating and addressing social determinants of health.
Author(s): Sean Bruna, Lisa Cacari Stone, Susan Wilger, Jeremy Cantor, Carolina Guzman
Citation: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, 37(3), 258-268
Date: 2014
Type: Document
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The Long-Term Unemployed in the Wake of the Great Recession: Percent of Unemployed Americans Seeking Work for Longer Than Six Months More Than Doubled Between 2007 and 2013
Describes the demographic and economic characteristics of the urban and rural long-term unemployed and compares them with their short-term unemployed counterparts.
Author(s): Andrew Schaefer
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Identifying Environmental Health Priorities in Underserved Populations: A Study of Rural Versus Urban Communities
Reports on a study using community engaged focus groups to compare environmental health concerns among minorities in rural and urban communities in Alabama.
Author(s): M.C. Bernhard, M.B. Evans, S.T. Kent, et al.
Citation: Public Health, 127(11), 994-1004
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
view details
Childhood Poverty and Late Adolescents' Blood Pressure Reactivity to and Recovery from an Acute Stressor: The Mediating Role of Family Conflict
Reports findings from a study of rural adolescents examining the impact of childhood poverty and family conflict on blood pressure recovery after a stress. Discusses the potential impact of childhood deprivation on health.
Author(s): Gary W. Evans, Deinera Exner-Cortens, Pilyoung Kim, Daniel Bartholomew
Citation: Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(7), 691-700
Date: 08/2013
Type: Document
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Middle-Skill Jobs Remain More Common Among Rural Workers
Explores employment trends among middle-skill jobs including the healthcare sector and the recession's impact on middle-skill workers in rural compared to urban areas.
Author(s): Justin R. Young
Date: 06/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Challenges to Head Start and Early Childhood Development Programs in Rural Communities
Discusses regulatory challenges to providing quality early childhood development programs and services in rural communities. Includes a discussion of health screenings, provider training and resources, and policy recommendations to improve collaboration surrounding early childhood programs in rural communities.
Date: 12/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
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Taking Stock: Rural People, Poverty, and Housing in the 21st Century
Details rural poverty and housing in the U.S. using data from the 2010 Census and American Community Survey (ACS). Covers information on substandard housing in rural areas and addresses rural housing for high poverty areas and populations, including the Border Colonias, Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, and housing for Native Americans and farmworkers.
Date: 12/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Housing Assistance Council
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Culture as a Social Determinant of Health
Describes the role that culture plays in health for Native Americans. Discusses the importance of cultural competence for healthcare providers, and includes recommendations for healthcare providers and policymakers.
Author(s): James Knibb-Lamouche
Date: 11/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Strengths and Silences: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students in Rural and Small Town Schools
A report compiled by the Gay, Lesbian, & Straight Education Network (GLSEN) that examines safety, harassment and assault of LGBT students in rural schools based on data collected in the GLSEN's National School Climate Survey (2010-2011). Includes demographics broken down by gender identity, race, sexual orientation, age, region, school type, and school size.
Author(s): Neal A. Palmer, Joseph G. Kosciw, Mark J. Bartkiewicz
Date: 2012
Type: Document
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The Geography of Need: Identifying Human Service Needs in Rural America
Uses American Community Survey five year average county-level data to compare the type and degree of human service needs in metropolitan versus non-metropolitan counties.
Author(s): Colleen Heflin, Kathleen Miller
Date: 06/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Policy Research Institute
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A Rural Socioeconomic Risk and Resiliency Inventory and Associated Health Outcomes
Creates an index of social and economic variables that are related to population health outcomes among rural and urban U.S. counties, and examines variability in this index across rural and urban counties.
Additional links: Policy Brief, July 2011
Author(s): Joel A. Halverson, Michael Hendryx
Date: 03/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: West Virginia Rural Health Research Center
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Social Determinants of Health Among African Americans in a Rural Community in the Deep South: An Ecological Exploration
Reports on a study that identified potential social determinants of health among African Americans in a rural community in the Deep South.
Author(s): Alison Scott, Rebecca Wilson
Citation: Rural and Remote Health, 11(1), 1634
Date: 02/2011
Type: Document
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Upstream Ecological Risks for Overweight and Obesity Among African American Youth in a Rural Town in the Deep South, 2007
Data from interviews with adult African American community members who interact with youth in varying contexts in a small southeastern Georgia town. Presents their perception that factors including the built environment, laws and policies, and issues such as race and class contribute to the prevalence and perpetuation of obesity.
Author(s): Alison J. Scott, Rebecca F. Wilson
Citation: Preventing Chronic Disease, 8(1)
Date: 01/2011
Type: Document
view details
Rural Workers Have Less Access to Paid Sick Days
Analyzes paid sick days and paid child sick days by educational attainment, sector (business, government, nonprofit), and by rural, suburban, and central city location.
Author(s): Kristin Smith, Andrew Schaefer
Date: 2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Population Health Outcomes in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States
Examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program were associated with population mortality rates and birth outcomes for both rural and urban populations.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): Michael Hendryx, Evan Fedorko, Juhua Luo
Date: 08/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: West Virginia Rural Health Research Center
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Patterns of Food Insecurity, Food Availability, and Health Outcomes Among Rural and Urban Counties
Compares food insecurity for rural versus urban counties and addresses factors contributing to food insecurity risk, as well as associated health outcomes.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): Joel Halverson, Cheryl Brown, Melissa Olfert, Melissa Ahern, Christiaan Abildso
Date: 06/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: West Virginia Rural Health Research Center
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Key Environmental Health Competencies for Rural Primary Care Providers
Identifies a set of basic environmental health competencies that are needed by all rural primary care providers in order to direct healthcare and education policy. Covers assessment, diagnosis, management, and evaluation. Describes the process used in developing the list of key competencies.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): Cynthia Armstrong Persily, Johnna S. Beane, Mary Glenn Rice
Date: 05/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: West Virginia Rural Health Research Center
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Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates Across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States
Addresses potential pollution sources and corresponding health outcomes, paying particular attention to pollution hazards in rural settings.
Additional links: Policy Brief
Author(s): Michael Hendryx, Evan Fedorko, Joel A. Halverson
Date: 02/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: West Virginia Rural Health Research Center
view details
Health Extension in New Mexico: An Academic Health Center and the Social Determinants of Disease
Discusses New Mexico's Health Extension Rural Offices program, developed in response to the Agricultural Cooperative Extension Service methodologies for academic health centers for community engagement focused on rural areas that can address the social determinants of disease.
Author(s): Arthur Kaufman, Wayne Powell, Charles Alfero, et al.
Citation: Annals of Family Medicine, 8(1), 73-81
Date: 01/2010
Type: Document
view details
Healthy Housing Reference Manual
Provides information on housing-related health and safety issues, including those particular to rural areas. Chapter 8 focuses on rural water supply and water quality issues.
Date: 2006
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
view details
Rebuilding the Unity of Health and the Environment in Rural America: Workshop Summary
Covers rural environmental health, including the social, the natural, and the built environment. Report on a regional workshop at the University of Iowa on November 29-30, 2004 addressing rural environmental health issues.
Additional links: Read Online
Date: 2006
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
view details
CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)
Identifies communities that may need support to prepare for and recover from disasters. Offers rankings by census tract based on 15 U.S. Census indicators focused on four themes: socioeconomic status; household composition; race, ethnicity, and language; and housing and transportation.
Additional links: County Maps, Interactive Map
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
view details
Addressing the Health Needs of Rural Communities
A collection of Social Determinants of Health Academy trainings recorded in 2018 that explore issues impacting health in rural communities. Topics include collecting data in rural health centers and financing infrastructure development in rural areas.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership
view details
Social Determinants of Health in Rural Communities Toolkit
Resources and best practices to help rural communities develop programs to address the social determinants of health (SDOH). Identifies program models and examples, and discusses implementation, evaluation, sustainability, and dissemination of program results.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
view details
Multidimensional Index of Deep Disadvantage
Categorizes counties and cities based on an index that examines disadvantage based on health indicators, poverty, and social mobility data. Provides a profile for each county that includes its rural/urban status, population, and index-related indicators. Identifies the 100 most disadvantaged counties.
Additional links: Full Data Set, Understanding Communities of Deep Disadvantage
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organizations: Princeton University, University of Michigan
view details
The Private Well Class
A resource focused on managing private water sources, with information for individual well owners, as well as environmental health, cooperative extension, and water well professionals. Provides a variety of learning opportunities, including a free 10-lesson course, podcasts, webinars, and a resource library.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organizations: Illinois State Water Survey, Rural Community Assistance Partnership
view details
Value of Lead Prevention
Provides data on childhood lead exposure at the state and county level. Includes information on the economic cost of lead exposure.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organizations: Altarum, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
view details
Rural Homelessness
Resources to help rural communities address homelessness. Supports the "All Routes Home: Ending Homelessness in Rural America" strategy to end rural homelessness.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
view details
Rural Health Explorer
An interactive web-based mapping tool focused on rural health. Provides access to data on rural population health, covering health behaviors, health outcomes, healthcare access, and social determinants of health. Includes healthcare workforce data for nurses, advanced practice registered nurses, physician assistants, and physicians. Also includes the Appalachia Community Data Portal, with regional data on social determinants of health and health outcomes. Part of the HealthLandscape set of tools.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: American Academy of Family Physicians
view details
PubMed Search: Rural Social Determinants of Health
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on social determinants of health impacting rural residents. Includes coverage of poverty, unemployment, housing, environmental health, educational status, and health literacy.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: U.S. National Library of Medicine
view details
The Opportunity Atlas
Interactive mapping tool that provides estimates for children's future earnings, incarceration rates, and other outcomes in adulthood by parental income, race, and gender by census tract. For some low population census tracts, there may be insufficient data to allow for all features.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organizations: Brown University, Harvard University, U.S. Census Bureau
view details
The EveryONE Project: Neighborhood Navigator
Allows users to search by zip code for resources and programs in their neighborhood to address their patients' social determinants of health. Provides information on food, housing, goods, transportation, health, care, education, employment, and more.
Additional links: Neighborhood Navigator Training Video
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: American Academy of Family Physicians
view details
The EveryONE Project Toolkit
Provides screening tools, practice assessment resources, and other social needs information for family physicians to identify and address the social determinants of health for their patients to help improve overall health. Some resources are available in Spanish.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: American Academy of Family Physicians
view details
Neighborhood Atlas
Provides access to Area Deprivation Index (ADI) information at the Census Block/neighborhood level. Provides rankings of neighborhoods by socioeconomic status disadvantage at the state or national level. Ranking considers the following factors: income, education, employment, and housing quality. Data is also available for download. Information can be used to inform health delivery and policy.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
view details
National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network
Provides access to national, state, and county-level data on environmental health topics, including air quality, heat stress, exposure to pesticides, and other factors. Also includes data on health concerns impacted by the environment, including asthma, COPD, cancer, and heart disease.
Additional links: Data Query Tool, Info by Location (County)
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
view details
National Tribal Water Center
Information and tools for tribal communities that manage water and wastewater systems. Offers a water resource library, toolkit, and other resources for water utility staff and local leaders.
Type: Website
view details
Mapping Broadband Health in America
Connect2Health mapping tool for visualizing broadband access, demographics, and health data at the national, state, and county levels. Includes a rural filter based on the percent of the population that is rural.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Federal Communications Commission
view details
Rural Services Integration Toolkit
Resources and information to help rural communities integrate health and human services. Describes a range of different program models for service integration. Identifies evidence-based and promising models that have been implemented in rural communities.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
view details
Community Vital Signs
Customizable maps showing county-level data for issues related to population health, including health status, healthcare services, health behaviors, demographics, socioeconomic factors, and the physical environment. Includes access to Population Health Mapper, Population Health Profiler, 500 Cities Mapper, and Map My Data. Part of the HealthLandscape set of tools.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: American Academy of Family Physicians
view details
EPA's Study of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas and Its Potential Impact on Drinking Water Resources
Provides access to information on an EPA study examining the relationship between hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and drinking water. Includes access to findings from the study addressing how rural communities' drinking water may be impacted.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
view details
EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online
Access to community-level information on facilities and their compliance with environmental regulations. Includes information on air emissions, surface water discharges, hazardous waste, and drinking water systems.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
view details
Drinking Water Dashboard
Access to data on public water systems regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act program. Includes information on which public water systems are regulated, inspections, violations, and enforcement actions. To access information on specific water systems, select a state and then click on the bars in the charts to see which systems have been inspected, have violations, and so on.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
view details
diversitydatakids.org
State and county-level profiles and maps providing data on children, including population, race/ethnicity, types of households, teenage mother births, low birthweight, and more.
Type: Website
view details
The Rural Data Portal
Provides over 350 data indicators identifying social, economic, and housing characteristics of communities in the United States. Utilizes the Housing Assistance Council (HAC) tabulations of public use data sets, including the Census of Population and Housing, the American Community Survey (ACS), and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Data.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Housing Assistance Council
view details
Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) Program
Provides access to annual estimates of income and poverty for all U.S. states and counties as well as estimates of school-age children in poverty for all U.S. school districts. Offers reports and visualizations, including a variety of maps.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Census Bureau
view details
Rural Poverty & Well-being
Provides an overview of rural poverty, as well as access to related Economic Research Service resources. Examines trends in rural poverty. Includes maps, charts, and data on rural poverty among different demographic groups, child poverty, and other topics related to rural poverty.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
view details
KIDS COUNT Data Center
Provides child well-being data by state, county, and congressional district. Includes the following topics: demographics, economic well-being, education, family and community, health, and safety and risky behaviors.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Annie E. Casey Foundation
view details
Rural Matters
Newsletter focused on environmental and infrastructure development issues facing rural communities related to water and wastewater systems.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
Sponsoring organization: Rural Community Assistance Partnership
view details
Tox Town
Information and resources on environmental health issues to help the general public work to reduce health risks caused by the toxic chemicals in the environment. Includes information on agriculture-related risks.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. National Library of Medicine
view details
Online Services for Key Low-Income Benefit Programs
Provides state-by-state information on online services related to SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly known as food stamps), Medicaid, CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Program), TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), and child care assistance.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
view details

Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 8/13/2020