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Rural Health Disparities Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Health Disparities.

Mortality Rates Have Increased for Working-age Rural Adults Since 2000
Line chart showing the change in mortality rates for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan residents, comparing 3-year averages for 1999-2001 and 2013-2015. Data is presented by age group.
Date: 12/2017
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Racism and Health in Rural America
Commentary on the CDC MMWR report, Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities Among Rural Adults — United States, 2012-2015. Provides additional background information on rural communities and their diverse populations. Discusses how researchers, policymakers, and healthcare providers can address racial and ethnic health disparities in rural communities.
Author(s): Katy B. Kozhimannil, Carrie Henning-Smith
Location: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved (pre-print)
Date: 12/2017
Type: Document
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Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities Among Rural Adults — United States, 2012-2015
Reports on racial/ethnic health disparities among rural residents. Includes data by race/ethnicity for health-related quality of life, healthcare access and use, chronic health conditions, and health-related behaviors. Based on data from the 2012–2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
Author(s): Cara V. James, Ramal Moonesinghe, Shondelle M. Wilson-Frederick, et al.
Location: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(23), 1-9
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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QuickStats: Infant Mortality Rate, by Urbanization Level — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2007 and 2015
Bar chart comparing infant mortality rates in rural counties, small and medium urban counties, and large urban counties in 2007 and 2015.
Location: MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 66(41), 1122
Date: 10/2017
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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2017 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report: Chartbook on Rural Health Care
Summarizes trends in healthcare quality and disparities for rural populations. Includes quality measures for access to healthcare, patient safety, person- and family-centered care, care coordination, affordability, healthy living, and effective treatment.
Author(s): Barbara Barton, Irim Azam
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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Suicide Trends Among and Within Urbanization Levels by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death — United States, 2001–2015
Reports on county-level trends in suicide rates during 2001–2015 for large metropolitan, medium/small metropolitan, and nonmetro counties. Includes data by gender, race/ethnicity, and age group. Also covers the mechanism of death, with data on firearms, hanging/suffocation, drug poisoning, non-drug poisoning, and other causes.
Author(s): Asha Z. Ivey-Stephenson, Alex E. Crosby, Shane P. D. Jack, Tadesse Haileyesus, Marcie-jo Kresnow-Sedacca
Location: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(18), 1-16
Date: 10/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Infant Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas in the United States, 2014
Reports on infant mortality in 2014 among rural, small and medium urban, and large urban counties. Includes data by infant age at death for neonatal (0-27 days) and postneonatal (28-364 days) deaths. Also provides infant mortality data by mother’s age and by mother's race for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic mothers.
Author(s): Danielle M. Ely, Anne K. Driscoll, T.J. Mathews
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Diabetes Mortality in Rural America: 1999-2015
Examines diabetes-related mortality, with a particular focus on the roles of rurality and race, during a 16-year period from 1999-2015.
Author(s): Timothy H. Callaghan, Samuel D. Towne Jr., Jane Bolin, Alva O. Ferdinand
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Southwest Rural Health Research Center
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Diabetes and Forgone Medical Care Due to Cost in the U.S. (2011-2015): Individual-level & Placed-based Disparities
Identifies national trends in diabetes rates and forgone medical care among those with diabetes, along with geographic determinants and other social determinants of health disparities. Assesses rurality as a factor that affects diabetes patients' decision to forgo medical care because of cost.
Author(s): Samuel D. Towne Jr., Jane Bolin, Alva O. Ferdinand, et al.
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Southwest Rural Health Research Center
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Appalachian Diseases of Despair
Presents mortality data on overdoses, suicides, and alcoholic liver disease/cirrhosis among people ages 15-64, from the 2015 Multiple Cause of Death database. Features statistics with breakdowns by region, Appalachian state, gender, and metropolitan or nonmetropolitan location.
Author(s): Michael Meit, Megan Heffernan, Erin Tanenbaum, Topher Hoffmann
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Appalachian Regional Commission, NORC Walsh Center for Rural Health Analysis
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Health Disparities in Appalachia
Measures population health in Appalachia and explores disparities within the region and between Appalachia and the country as a whole. Features statistics on mortality, morbidity, behavioral health, child health, community characteristics, lifestyle, healthcare systems, quality of care, and social determinants, with breakdowns between urban and rural areas.
Author(s): Julie L. Marshall, Logan Thomas, Nancy M. Lane, et al.
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Appalachian Regional Commission, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, PDA, Inc.
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Bringing Change for Rural COPD Patients: Possibilities with the COPD National Action Plan
Highlights the mounting costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the substantial impact the disease has on rural communities, and the growing divide between COPD-related rural and urban mortality rates. The recently released COPD National Action Plan (CNAP) is set to bring COPD into the spotlight as a national health concern, and rural America will likely play a major role.
Author(s): Kay Miller Temple
Location: Rural Monitor
Date: 08/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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2016 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report
Provides a comprehensive summary and data analysis of the quality of and access to healthcare received in the U.S. and discusses the disparities encountered by different racial and ethnic groups, and by geographic locations.
Additional links: Introduction and Methods
Date: 07/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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Invasive Cancer Incidence, 2004-2013, and Deaths, 2006-2015, in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties — United States
Provides a comprehensive assessment of cancer incidence and deaths by cancer type in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties. Includes rural-urban data by gender, age, race/ethnicity, and cancer site. Also discusses cancer risk factor prevalence and evidence-based interventions.
Author(s): S. Jane Henley, Robert N. Anderson, Cheryll C. Thomas, et al.
Location: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(14), 1-13
Date: 07/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Achieving Rural Health Equity and Well-being: Challenges and Opportunities: A Workshop
Videos from a workshop sponsored by the Roundtable on Health Equity and the Elimination of Health Disparities and the Roundtable on Population Health Improvement, on social determinants of health and community-driven approaches to improving health and promoting health equities in rural areas. Full list of recordings is located below Welcome and Opening Remarks video, and presentation slides are found in the right sidebar under Other Meeting Resources.
Date: 06/2017
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Health, United States, 2016: With Chartbook on Long-term Trends in Health
Presents an annual overview of national trends in health statistics. Covers health status and determinants, healthcare utilization, access, and expenditures. Includes data on rural areas - see index under "Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan data." This year's edition focuses on long-term trends in health, with 114 tables focused on health status and determinants, healthcare utilization, healthcare resources, and expenditures.
Additional links: Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Charts and Tables
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Assessing Diabetes and Factors Associated with Foregoing Medical Care among Persons with Diabetes: Disparities Facing American Indian/Alaska Native, Black, Hispanic, Low Income, and Southern Adults in the U.S. (2011-2015)
Identifies trends in care of and prevalence of diabetes in terms of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and explores individual and community factors related to diabetes and diabetics' unmet medical needs. Features statistics on percentages of adults diagnosed with diabetes from 2011-2015 and distribution of diabetes and foregone medical care, with breakdowns including race or ethnicity, income, and levels of rurality.
Author(s): Samuel D. Towne, Jr., Jane Bolin, Alva Ferdinand, et al.
Location: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(5), 464
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
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Prevalence of Arthritis and Arthritis-Attributable Activity Limitation by Urban-Rural County Classification — United States, 2015
Provides detailed data on prevalence of arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation for six urban-rural categories. Includes urban-rural data by age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, employment, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, self-rated health, and functionally disabled status.
Author(s): Michael A. Boring, Jennifer M. Hootman, Yong Liu, et al.
Location: MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 66(20), 527-532
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Traffic Safety Facts, 2015 Data: Rural/Urban Comparison of Traffic Fatalities
Contains statistics on motor vehicle fatal crashes based on data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Provides a rural/urban comparison of statistics regarding various factors, such as time of day, speeding, alcohol use, and rollover crashes, among others.
Date: 04/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
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Extending Work on Rural Health Disparities: A Commentary on Matthews and Colleagues’ Report
Commentary on the CDC MMWR report, Health-Related Behaviors by Urban-Rural County Classification — United States, 2013. Discusses the value of the data provided in the report, which highlights health-related behaviors for six geographic levels. Offers recommendations to build on this work.
Author(s): Paul A. Gilbert, Helena H. Laroche, Robert B. Wallace, Edith A. Parker, Susan J. Curry
Location: Journal of Rural Health
Date: 04/2017
Type: Document
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Differences in Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders Among Children Aged 2–8 Years in Rural and Urban Areas — United States, 2011–2012
Provides rural and urban data on a variety of health-related factors for children 2-8 years of age with and without mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders. Topics addressed include demographics, health insurance coverage, having a medical home, parental mental health, family financial difficulties, and community factors.
Author(s): Lara R. Robinson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Rebecca H. Bitsko, et al.
Location: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(8), 1-11
Date: 03/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Selected Health Conditions Among Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adults: United States, 2014
Reports on health conditions among the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander population, compared to the Asian population with which this group has historically been associated. Includes data on cancer, heart disease, diabetes, lower back pain, arthritis, severe headaches, and asthma. Based on data from the 2014 Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey and the 2014 National Health Interview Survey.
Author(s): Adena M. Galinsky, Carla E. Zelaya, Patricia M. Barnes, Catherine Simile
Date: 03/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Early Death After Discharge From Emergency Departments: Analysis of National US Insurance Claims Data
Report regarding the incidence of early death after release from emergency departments in the United States and what risk factors may contribute to those deaths. Compares urban and rural hospital location, with data for Critical Access Hospitals and rural non-CAHs. Includes data for rural and urban populations as well as poverty level, previous healthcare use, and other demographics.
Author(s): Ziad Obermeyer, Brent Cohn, Michael Wilson, Anupam B Jena, David M Cutler
Location: BMJ, 356(j239)
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
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Health-Related Behaviors by Urban-Rural County Classification — United States, 2013
Provides data on five self-reported health-related behaviors for residents of rural and urban areas. Behaviors include sufficient sleep, current nonsmoking, nondrinking or moderate drinking, maintaining normal body weight, and meeting aerobic leisure time physical activity recommendations. Includes data for each behavior for metropolitan, micropolitan, and noncore (rural) areas, as well as prevalence of 4-5 health behaviors by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and education level. Based on 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data.
Author(s): Kevin A. Matthews, Janet B. Croft, Yong Liu, et al.
Location: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(5), 1-8
Date: 02/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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State Data Accompanying MMWR Surveillance Summary 66 (No. SS-1): 1-8: Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas, United States, 2005-2015
Interactive data visualization that provides state-level metropolitan and non-metro data on expected and potentially excess deaths from cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, heart disease, stroke, and unintentional injury. Under the Options heading, select "Numbers of Potentially Excess Deaths by State" or "Potentially Excess and Expected Deaths by State and Locality" to access the data.
Location: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(SS-1), 1-8
Date: 01/2017
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas — United States, 1999–2014
Investigates the differences in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions of the U.S. for the 5 leading causes of death (heart disease, cancer, unintentional injury, chronic lower respiratory disease, and stroke) by analyzing and comparing mortality data derived from the National Vital Statistics System. Also, discusses the trends in annual age-adjusted death rates for unintentional injury for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas of the U.S.
Additional links: Supplemental Maps: Figure 5, Supplemental Tables: Figures 2-5
Author(s): Ernest Moy, Macarena C. Garcia, Brigham Bastian, et al.
Location: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(1), 1-8
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Reducing Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in the Rural United States
Reports on the rural-urban disparities regarding potentially preventable deaths caused by heart disease, cancer, unintentional injury, chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD), and stroke for populations less than 80 years of age. Discusses factors impacting the rural-urban gap, and offers suggestions for reducing these disparities and improving health.
Author(s): Macarena C. Garcia, Mark Faul, Greta Massetti, et al.
Location: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 66(1), 26-32
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity
Identifies elements of effective solutions to advance health equity at the local or community level. Featured examples include the Delta Health Center, a rural Federally Qualified Health Center that uses a community-oriented primary care model to address population health. A brief overview of rural health disparities which includes a discussion on Appalachian health is found on pages 2-19 and 2-20. Appendix A provides a historical and legal context for understanding Native American health disparities.
Author(s): Committee on Community Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States
Date: 01/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Considering Culture: Building the Best Evidence-Based Practices for Children of Color
A case study examining how culture impacts the effectiveness of evidence-based practices in communities of color, suggestions for how that efficacy may be improved, and options beyond the traditional programs that are proving to be valuable for the children in those communities. A specific discussion (pages 6-7) of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program in Georgia gives a rural perspective to the issue.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Annie E. Casey Foundation
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County Health Rankings Key Findings Report 2017
Report that highlights county health nationwide and suggests solutions for creating and sustaining healthier communities. Includes discussions of premature death, morbidity and mortality, drug use, and other topics. Special focus in this report centers on disconnected youth (ages 16-24) who are not in school or working.
Date: 2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: County Health Rankings & Roadmaps
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Report to Congress: Social Risk Factors and Performance Under Medicare’s Value-Based Purchasing Program
Uses Medicare data to examine the relationship between social risk factors and the performance of value-based purchasing programs. Discusses policy considerations that could help ensure value-based purchasing programs achieve their intended results, especially among high social risk populations. Categorizes rurality as a community risk factor and discusses whether beneficiaries with social risk factors such as rurality have worse outcomes due to their social risk profile, or because of the providers they see. Also provides rural-specific statistics, and recommendations for using value-based purchasing to improve health outcomes among high social risk populations. Appendices summarize and provide additional details for each of the nine programs evaluated.
Additional links: Appendices
Date: 12/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
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Federal Interagency Health Equity Team Compendium of Publicly Available Datasets and Other Data-Related Resources
Identifies and describes publicly available data that could be used by projects working to reduce health disparities. Includes datasets and data-related resources from agencies within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as well as from the U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Department of Commerce.
Date: 11/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities
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Chronic Disease Disparities by County Economic Status and Metropolitan Classification, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013
Examines health disparities in the U.S. using county economic data for unemployment, poverty, and per capita market income to compare the relationship of economic status of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties with the prevalence of hypertension, arthritis and self-rated health.
Author(s): Kate M. Shaw, Kristina A. Theis, Shannon Self-Brown, et al.
Location: Preventing Chronic Disease, 13, E119
Date: 09/2016
Type: Document
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Colonoscopy Access and Utilization - Rural Disparities in the Carolinas, 2001-2010
Describes the geographic distribution of colonoscopy providers, the utilization rate for colonoscopies in urban and rural populations, and the influence of the availability of colonoscopy providers on patients when seeking care in their local area for North and South Carolina using ambulatory surgery discharge data for colonoscopies from 2001-2010.
Additional links: Fact Sheet
Author(s): Jan M. Eberth, Michele Josey, Tushar Trivedi, et al.
Date: 07/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
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Disparities in Adolescents’ Residence in Neighborhoods Supportive of Physical Activity — United States, 2011–2012
Discusses the connection between adolescents living in neighborhoods that support physical activity (have sidewalks and walking paths, parks, playgrounds, and/or recreation centers) and overall health. Indicates differences in access to neighborhoods supportive of physical activity based on ethnicity and race, income level, parental education level, and rural areas, with recommendations for community-based projects for improvement.
Author(s): Kathleen B. Watson, Carmen D. Harris, Susan A. Carlson, Joan M. Dorn, Janet E. Fulton
Location: MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 65(23), 598-601
Date: 06/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Disparities in the Health and Well-Being of Children and Youth in Rural Areas
Recording of a May 2016 DataSpeak webinar. Topics addressed include trends in rural children's health, rural child mortality, and challenges facing American Indian children. Speakers included Janice Probst of the South Carolina Rural Health Research Center, Alana Knudson of the NORC Walsh Center for Rural Health Analysis, and Steve Holve of Indian Health Service.
Author(s): Janice Probst, Alana Knudson, Steve Holve
Date: 05/2016
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Maternal and Child Health Bureau
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Association of Blood Lead Levels in Children 0-72 Months with Living in Mid-Appalachia: A Semi-Ecologic Study
A study comparing the blood lead levels in children ages 0 – 72 months in Mid-Appalachia with children of same age in the U.S. Includes a relational comparison of the number of housing units built before 1950 and 1940 in both regions. Data for the study was derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Census Bureau.
Author(s): R. Constance Wiener, Richard Jurevic
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 16, 3597
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
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2015 National Quality Healthcare and Disparities Report: Chartbook for Health Care for Blacks
Summarizes and illustrates trends in healthcare for the Black population associated with access to healthcare and the priorities of National Quality Strategy (NQS). Includes a comparison of the rural and urban Black population and discusses the high poverty rates for the Blacks in rural areas.
Date: 02/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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NACRHHS Webinar: Mortality and Life Expectancy in Rural America
Slides from a January 28, 2016 webinar that examined increasing mortality and decreasing life expectancy in rural America, highlighting findings from a report from the National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services.
Author(s): Ronnie Musgrove, Wayne Myers, Curt Mueller, Alana Knudson, Jocelyn Richgels
Date: 01/2016
Type: Presentation Slides
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
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Increases in Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, 2006-2013
Reports on increased rates of hepatitis B infections in three Appalachian states, particularly among injection drug users and in non-urban areas.
Author(s): Aaron M. Harris, Kashif Iqbal, Sarah Schillie, et al.
Location: MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 65(3), 47-50
Date: 01/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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HHS Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: A Nation Free of Disparities in Health and Health Care
Describes efforts by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to coordinate programs and assess progress toward addressing disparities in health and healthcare among racial and ethnic minorities. Includes discussion of the CDC Community Transformation Grant Program, which places emphasis on reducing health disparities in rural and frontier areas.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health
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Aging Well in the 21st Century: Strategic Directions for Research on Aging
Outlines the priorities of the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Goal F focuses on improving the health status of older adults in diverse populations, including rural older adults.
Date: 2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Institute on Aging
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Mortality and Life Expectancy in Rural America: Connecting the Health and Human Service Safety Nets to Improve Health Outcomes Over the Life Course
Policy brief describing the driving forces behind rural health disparities in Appalachian Kentucky, and offering nationally relevant recommendations for addressing these challenges. Discusses rural and urban differences in life expectancy and mortality rates, and other significant factors including behavioral health, substance abuse, population health, trauma care, and transportation.
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
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A Cross-Sectional Study on Health Differences Between Rural and Non-Rural U.S. Counties Using the County Health Rankings
Examines the rural and urban differences in health and healthcare within the U.S. using data accessed from the 2013 County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. Vital health factors evaluated include mortality, morbidity, health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and the physical environment.
Author(s): Timothy J. Anderson, Daniel M. Saman, Martin S. Lipsky, M. Nawal Lutfiyya
Location: BMC Health Services Research, 15, 441
Date: 10/2015
Type: Document
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Environmental Scan of Programs and Policies Addressing Health Disparities Among Rural Children in Poverty
Examines policies and programs aimed to address health disparities of rural children living in poverty. Provides an environmental scan of community- and state-level interventions aimed to address obesity, behavioral health, oral health, prenatal and postnatal care, and respiratory health.
Author(s): Brenda Natzke, Luke Horner
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Mathematica Policy Research
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Do Rural and Urban Women Experience Differing Rates of Maternal Rehospitalizations?
Compares rural and urban differences in maternal hospital readmission rates for women who delivered with minor assistance and for women who delivered by cesarean section, using data from the 2011 California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.
Author(s): Wei-Chen Lee, Charles Phillips, Robert Ohsfeldt
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 15, 3335
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
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The Intersection of Residence and Area Deprivation: The Case of Hospitalizations from Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions among Children
Analyzes the role of residence and community deprivation on potentially avoidable hospitalizations among children. Examines rates of potentially avoidable hospitalizations by geography across 9 states and discusses policy and research implications of the findings. (Part 2 of a 2-part series.)
Additional links: Fact Sheet
Author(s): Nathan Hale, Janice Probst, Ashley Robertson
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
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Area Deprivation is Higher among Rural Counties — but Not All Rural Counties are Deprived
Examines the role of residence and community deprivation on potentially avoidable hospitalizations among children. Introduces the Area Deprivation Index, applies the index to counties across the United States, and analyzes rates of potentially avoidable hospitalizations by urban and rural across 9 states. (Part 1 of a 2-part series.)
Additional links: Fact Sheet
Author(s): Nathan Hale, Janice Probst, Ashley Robertson
Date: 08/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
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Unequal Lives: The State of Black Women and Families in the Rural South
Analyzes the health and well-being of low-income black women in nine rural counties across Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia, and identifies barriers to success and economic security, including poverty, low educational attainment, and inadequate access to public infrastructure, healthcare, and more. Includes statistics and demographics for each of the states and counties included in the study.
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Southern Rural Black Women’s Initiative
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Differences in Stroke Mortality Among Adults Aged 45 and Over: United States, 2010-2013
Provides data on stroke mortality among adults aged 45 and over by age, race/ethnicity, income, urban-rural residence, and residence inside or outside the Stroke Belt. Figure 4 shows stroke rates for metropolitan and non-metro counties.
Author(s): Deborah D. Ingram, Jessica A. Montresor-Lopez
Date: 07/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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Opportunity for All: Fighting Rural Child Poverty
Examines trends in poverty in rural areas, including comparison with urban areas. Provides a discussion of the impact of safety net programs that address poverty, and support healthy children and their families in rural areas.
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: White House (Obama Administration)
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Deaths From Unintentional Injury Among Adults Aged 65 and Over: United States, 2000–2013
Provides data on unintentional death rates in the United States, highlighting differences by age, race and ethnicity, and urbanization. Figure 5 compares unintentional deaths for metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas by cause of death. Includes rural/urban data on deaths caused by falls, motor vehicle accidents, suffocation, poisoning, and fire.
Author(s): Ellen Kramarow, Li-Hui Chen, Holly Hedegaard, Margaret Warner
Date: 05/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Health Statistics
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The Health and Well-Being of Children in Rural Areas: A Portrait of the Nation 2011–2012
A chartbook providing data from the National Survey of Children’s Health demonstrating the health and well-being of children, as well as the family environment and the characteristics of the community that affect rural children and their families.
Additional links: PDF version
Date: 04/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Maternal and Child Health Bureau
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Distribution of Cardiovascular Disease and Associated Risk Factors by County Type and Health Insurance Status: Results from the 2008 Ohio Family Health Survey
Analyzes the health status of the Appalachian population in Ohio with other rural and non-rural populations in Ohio. Uses 2008 Ohio Family Health Survey data to identify links among county demographics, health insurance coverage, and health outcomes in low-income adult populations.
Author(s): Mbabazi Kariisa, Eric Seiber,
Location: Public Health Reports, 130(1), 87–95
Date: 01/2015
Type: Document
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QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged ≥45 Years with Selected Diagnosed Chronic Conditions, by Number of Conditions and Urban/Rural Classification - National Health Interview Survey, 2013
Chart showing the percentage of adults 45 and older with zero, one, or two or more chronic conditions, for rural areas, urban areas, and the U.S. overall.
Location: MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 63(53), 1247
Date: 01/2015
Type: Chart/Graph
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New England Regional Health Equity Profile & Call to Action
Report of the New England Regional Health Equity Council (RHEC) identifying disparities in health among racial, ethnic, and disability populations and suggesting pathways for health equity. Includes statistics broken down by race/ethnicity, disability status, gender, age, and urban/rural status.
Author(s): C.E. Drum, K.G. Phillips, K. Chiu
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities
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Rural Healthy People 2020: A Companion Document to Healthy People 2020, Volume 1
Provides a rural focus for the Healthy People 2020 priorities. Includes overviews of the top 10 rural health priority areas identified by rural stakeholders. (Volume 2 discusses priorities 11-20.) Topics addressed include: health insurance, primary care, emergency services, nutrition and weight status, diabetes, mental health, substance abuse, heart disease and stroke, physical activity, older adults, maternal and child health, and tobacco use. Each overview includes reviews of the relevant literature and models that rural communities can use to address the issues. Document is available for free download, after providing brief information about intended use.
Author(s): Jane N. Bolin, Gail Bellamy, Alva O. Ferdinand, Bita Kash, Janet W. Helduser
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Southwest Rural Health Research Center
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The Role of Medicare and the Indian Health Service for American Indians and Alaska Natives: Health, Access and Coverage
Examines the health, healthcare access, income, and education disparities that exist within the Native American and Alaskan Native population, as well as the roles of Medicare and the Indian Health Service (IHS) in addressing these disparities.
Author(s): Cristina Boccuti, Christina Swoope, Samantha Artiga
Date: 12/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Among Persons Aged ≥55 Years, by Sex and Urbanization of County of Residence - United States, 2009-2011
Chart showing death rates from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease for metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas by gender among adults over 55.
Location: MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 63(44), 1016
Date: 11/2014
Type: Chart/Graph
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Disparities in Obesity Among Rural and Urban Residents in a Health Disparate Region
Reports on a community-based study to measure and compare the current levels of obesity and associated lifestyle behaviors of physical activity and diets of fruits and vegetables among rural and urban residents in south central Virginia and north central North Carolina.
Author(s): Jennie L Hill, Wen You, Jamie M Zoellner
Location: BMC Public Health, 2014(14), 1051
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
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The 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook
Updates information presented in Health, United States, 2001: With Urban and Rural Health Chartbook. Highlights current trends and disparities across different levels of metro and nonmetropolitan counties including population characteristics; health-related behaviors and risk factors; mortality rates; healthcare access and use; and other health measures such as teen birth rates, tooth loss, and activity limitations due to chronic disease. Individual data tables are available in an Excel file.
Author(s): Michael Meit, Alana Knudson, Tess Gilbert, et al.
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
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Rural-Urban Disparities in Heart Disease
Policy brief reporting on rural disparities in heart disease and the associated risk factors of obesity and physical inactivity. Includes heart disease-related death rates and information on obesity prevalence by sex, region, and rural/urban status from 2008-2010. Based on data from The 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook.
Author(s): Alana Knudson, Michael Meit, Shena Popat
Date: 10/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
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Geographic Variation in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations for Acute and Chronic Conditions, 2005-2011
Examines potentially preventable hospitalizations for adults from 2005 to 2011. Includes data for acute and chronic conditions by location of patient residence for large and small metropolitan, micropolitan, and remote rural areas.
Author(s): Celeste M. Torio , Roxanne M. Andrews
Date: 09/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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The Geography of Disability in America: On Rural-Urban Differences in Impairment Rates
Shows how adult disability rates vary between rural and urban areas in the U.S. Includes statistics on six types of impairment with breakdowns by age group and three levels of county population density.
Author(s): Christiane von Reichert, Lillie Greiman, Andrew Myers,
Date: 08/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Montana: Rural Institute
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Assessment of Appalachian Region Pediatric Hearing Healthcare Disparities and Delays
Reports on a study to analyze the timeliness of diagnostic and rehabilitative services for children with severe hearing loss in rural areas of Appalachia which may postpone or delay cochlear implantation and other intervention services.
Author(s): Matthew L. Bush, Mariel Osetinsky, Jennifer B. Shinn, et al.
Location: Laryngoscope, 124(7), 1713-1717
Date: 07/2014
Type: Document
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Effect of Rurality on Screening for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Comparing Mammography
Analyzes the rural and urban differences in how adult women utilize mammography screenings.
Author(s): J. Leung, S. McKenzie, J. Martin, D. McLaughlin
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 14, 2730
Date: 06/2014
Type: Document
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'Heart Attack' Symptoms and Decision-Making: The Case of Older Rural Women
Finds that rural Americans are more likely than urban Americans to face challenges maintaining health. Interviews rural woman about myocardial infarction prevention, recognition, and treatment.
Author(s): Melanie Jackson, B Jan McCulloch
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 14, 2560
Date: 05/2014
Type: Document
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Health Coverage and Care in the South: A Chartbook
Provides key data on the demographic and economic characteristics of the Southern population as well as their health status, health insurance coverage, and access to care. Provides data on citizenship status, age, urban-rural composition, and income of residents in the South as well as the number of Rural Health Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers in the South.
Author(s): Jessica Stephens, Alexandra Gates, Vann Newkirk, Laura Snyder
Date: 04/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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Health Disparities in Rural Women
Discusses the health disparities that exist for rural women in all categories of women's health, including obstetric and gynecologic outcomes and access to care.
Date: 02/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
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Urban-Rural Differences in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in the United States: 1999-2009
Describes the trends and magnitude of variations in death rates, with statistical breakdowns by age group, sex, race, geographical region, urbanization level, and year. Examines possible contributing factors for the disparities, including physical activity levels, access to health care, socioeconomic status, and education level.
Author(s): Ambar Kulshreshtha, Abhinav Goyal, Kaustubh Dabhadkar, Emir Veledar, Viola Vaccarino
Location: Public Health Reports, 129(1)
Date: 01/2014
Type: Document
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The State of Health Equity Research: Closing Knowledge Gaps to Address Inequities
Reports results of an analysis of health disparities research funded between 2007 and 2011. Finds that certain populations which experience disparities, including rural populations and Native Americans, are underrepresented in the research. Reports on the health conditions most studied and geographic distribution of studies. Describes a trend to more research on solutions rather than just description of health disparities.
Author(s): AAMC Health Equity Research and Policy Staff
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: AcademyHealth
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Widening Rural–Urban Disparities in All-Cause Mortality and Mortality from Major Causes of Death in the USA, 1969–2009
Examines mortality rates throughout the United States between 1969 and 2009 to identify growth or reduction of mortality disparities between rural and urban settings.
Author(s): Gopal Singh, Mohammad Siahpush
Location: Journal of Urban Health, 91(2), 272-292
Date: 12/2013
Type: Document
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Adventures (and Misadventures) in Understanding (and Reducing) Disparities in Stroke Mortality
Discusses the racial and geographic disparities in stroke mortality in the U.S. with a goal of determining which intervention methods will best reduce disparities.
Author(s): George Howard
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
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CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report - United States, 2013
Addresses the differences in mortality and disease risk related to behaviors, access to health care, and social determinants of health in both rural and urban settings.
Location: MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 62(3)
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Rural Residence and Cancer Outcomes in the US: Issues and Challenges
Analyzes the current literature regarding the outcomes of cancer patients who reside in rural locations. Discusses several methods of defining rural.
Author(s): Ashley Meilleur, SV Subramanian, Jesse J. Plascak, et al.
Location: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 22(10), 1657-1667
Date: 10/2013
Type: Document
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Appalachian Women’s Perspectives on Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening
Examines barriers and facilitators to better understand breast and cervical cancer screening among Appalachian women and identifies methods to increase cancer screening.
Author(s): Nancy Schoenberg, Tina Kruger, Shoshana Bardach, Britteny Howell
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 13, 2452
Date: 09/2013
Type: Document
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All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among US Youth: Socioeconomic and Rural-Urban Disparities and International Patterns
Analyzed the socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from leading causes of death, including homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries, and HIV/AIDS, among U.S. youth aged 15–24.
Author(s): Gopal K. Singh, Romuladus E. Azuine, Mohammad Siahpush, Michael D. Kogan
Location: Journal of Urban Health, 90(3), 388-405
Date: 06/2013
Type: Document
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Health Centers’ Role in Reducing Health Disparities Among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders
Describes the disparities among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islanders in rural and urban communities and how health centers overcome them.
Date: 05/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Association of Community Health Centers
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Rural-Urban Disparities in Quality of Life among Patients with COPD
Discusses the health status of rural patients with COPD versus urban patients and identifies the factors associated with the two different locations.
Author(s): B.E. Jackson, D.B. Coultas, S. Suzuki, K.P. Singh, S. Bae
Location: Journal of Rural Health, 29(1), 62-69
Date: 02/2013
Type: Document
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Rural Women's Health
Policy paper providing information and statistics on the state of women's health in rural America and how legislation and national trends can affect women's health.
Author(s): Kevin J. Bennett, John E. Lopes Jr., Kathleen Spencer, Saskia van Hecke
Date: 01/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Rural Health Association
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Rural Border Health Chartbook
Examines potential geographic and ethnic disparities among U.S.-Mexico border residents and describes select indicators related to access to care, women's preventive services, oral health, infectious and communicable diseases, and mental health that have been identified as disparities.
Author(s): Amy Brock Martin, Myriam Torres, Medha Vyavaharkar, et al.
Date: 01/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
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A Vision for Wellness and Health Equity for American Indian and Alaska Native Boys and Men
Discusses the disparities in health and wellness among American Indian and Native Alaska boys and men.
Date: 2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Men's Health Network
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An Analysis of Oral Health Disparities and Access to Services in the Appalachian Region
Analyzes disparities in oral health status and access to oral healthcare in the Appalachian Region. Examines relationships between oral health disparities and socioeconomic status indicators. Focus of report is to aid efforts to develop targeted interventions to reduce these disparities in Appalachia.
Author(s): Denise D. Krause, Warren L. May, Nancy M. Lane, et al.
Date: 12/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organizations: Appalachian Regional Commission, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research
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National Partnership for Action: Toolkit for Community Action
Toolkit for community action in order to support community efforts in the goal of ending health disparities and promoting health equity in rural and urban areas.
Date: 2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health
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National Stakeholder Strategy for Achieving Health Equity
Identifies 20 strategies to address health disparities, developed through a collaborative process. The section on the current context includes data on rural minorities. Several of the strategies include a objectives related to rural and tribal populations.
Date: 2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health Disparities
Provides an overview of NHPA (Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander) health in the United States. Where possible, this health brief also includes data on the health status of NHPAs living in the USAPI (U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands.)
Author(s): Won Kim Cook, Corina Chung, Taunu'u Ve'e
Date: 08/2010
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum
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Rural-Urban Differences in Health Care Access Vary Across Measures
Reports that rural residents are more likely than urban residents to have a usual source of care (USC), or primary provider for healthcare services. Despite this, rural adults are somewhat less likely than urban adults to receive certain preventive care services and often have more limited access.
Author(s): Erika Ziller, Jennifer Lenardson
Date: 06/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Maine Rural Health Research Center
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The Causes and Consequences of the Rural Uninsured and Underinsured
Details health insurance coverage in rural America. Includes how rural citizens get insurance coverage and how it differs from urban America, reviews research that explores obstacles in attaining health insurance, addresses the problem of underinsurance, and explores the impact of inadequate financing for health care and its effects on the community.
Author(s): Joe Blankenau, Jon M. Bailey, Julia Hudson
Date: 04/2009
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Center for Rural Affairs
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Rural Health Disparities in Asthma Care and Outcomes
Discusses the prevalence of asthma in rural communities and the health disparities in rural areas influencing the effective treatment of asthma.
Author(s): Robert S. Valet,Tamara Perry, Tina V. Hartert
Location: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 123(6), 1220-1225
Date: 02/2009
Type: Document
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Child Health and Well-Being Differ for Metro and Nonmetro Low-Income Households
Provides a comparison of metro and nonmetro data for children in low-income households by multiple measures, including physical and emotional health and home, community, and social environment.
Author(s): Tracey Farrigan
Date: 11/2008
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Health Disparities: A Rural-Urban Chartbook
Presents data on health disparities experienced by people living in rural America. Includes national and state-level data on health status, health behaviors, healthcare access, preventive care, and diabetes care.
Additional links: Executive Summary, Fact Sheet, December 2008
Author(s): Kevin J. Bennett, Bankole Olatosi, Janice C. Probst
Date: 06/2008
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
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DATA2020
Interactive tool to explore data and technical information related to the Healthy People 2020 objectives. Includes data for metropolitan and nonmetro locations for some topics. After selecting a topic and measure, chose "View data by group" and look for Geographic Location to find rural/urban data. Topics addressed include healthcare access, health-related behaviors, specific health conditions, specific populations, and more.
Additional links: Health Disparities Widget
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Healthy People
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Insights from the CDC MMWR Rural Health Series Webinars
Collection of recorded webinars focused on studies featured in the CDC MMWR Rural Health Series and rural programs funded by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy (FORHP) that are working to address rural health disparities.
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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CDC Rural Health
Provides an overview of rural health concerns, access to CDC-produced reports highlighting rural health issues, and examples of resources and successful approaches to improve health in rural communities.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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MMWR Rural Health Series
A series of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report articles focused on rural health issues.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Mapping Medicare Disparities
County-by-county interactive map providing information on geographic disparities in chronic disease among Medicare beneficiaries. Indicates disparities in health outcome, utilization, and spending among racial and ethnic minorities and geographic location.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
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Exploring Rural and Urban Mortality Differences
Offers a variety of data tables and online tools that display indicators of mortality rates by age, rurality, region, and sex to help researchers examine the impact of rurality on mortality.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
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Child Health USA 2014
A collection of data on the physical, mental, and emotional health of the Nation’s children. Addresses poverty, education, child care, and health service utilization and financing. Includes selected data by rural and urban residence.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Maternal and Child Health Bureau
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Rural Healthy People 2020
Outlines the strategic plan for completing Rural Healthy People (RHP) 2020, names the top priority areas to be addressed, and describes the next steps toward its development. RHP 2020 will aim to identify rural health priorities, support rural health leaders and researchers, and promote effective rural health programs.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Southwest Rural Health Research Center
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The 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook (Webinar Recording)
Webinar presented by Alana Knudson on December 9, 2014. Discusses the 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook, which includes a comparison of population demographics, health-related behaviors and risk factors, mortality, access to care, health insurance, mental health, and other health-related issues affecting rural and urban residents.
Additional links: Presentation Slides, Transcript
Type: Video/Multimedia
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Research Gateway
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diversitydatakids.org
State and county-level profiles and maps providing data on children, including population, race/ethnicity, types of households, teenage mother births, low birthweight, and more.
Type: Website
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U.S. Health Map
Interactive map that provides county-level data by gender on life expectancy, mortality rates, and risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, physical activity, alcohol use, and smoking.
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
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PubMed Search: Healthcare Disparities and Rural Health
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations on the topic of healthcare disparities and rural health.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: National Library of Medicine
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Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice
An online journal that explores the problems and challenges of health disparities among the diverse populations of the United States and the world. Topics covered include rural health disparities.
Type: Journal/Newsletter
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Indian Health Service: Indian Health Disparities
Fact sheet providing statistics on American Indian and Alaska Native health disparities and mortality disparities.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Indian Health Service
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Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports: State Snapshots
Provides state-specific health care quality and disparities information, including strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement. Information is based on the National Healthcare Quality Report and National Healthcare Disparities Report and is updated annually.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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IHS Fact Sheets
Offers information on specific healthcare topics concerning American Indian and Alaska Natives. Covers health disparities, treaties and laws, statistics and more.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: Indian Health Service
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State Health Facts
Contains state-level data on demographics, health status, healthcare costs and access, healthcare providers, and more. Individual state profiles and 50-state comparisons.
Type: Database
Sponsoring organization: Kaiser Family Foundation
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Additional resources are available related to this guide. See the full list of resources by topic for:


Last Updated: 12/13/2017