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Rural Schools and Health Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Schools and Health.

Leveling the Playing Field for Rural Students
Provides a snapshot of rural schools and discusses the challenges they face. Challenges include how to provide new, high quality educational opportunities, health barriers that affect learning, providing career and technical education programs, food insecurity for rural children, and investments in rural schools.
Date: 11/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: School Superintendents Association
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Confronting Adverse Childhood Experiences to Improve Rural Kids’ Lifelong Health
Highlights a western North Carolina school district and a Native American tribe in Wisconsin that are working to address adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Provides an overview of the impact ACEs have on health and provides data on ACE exposure among rural adults.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Location: Rural Monitor
Date: 09/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Why Rural Matters 2015-2016: Understanding the Changing Landscape
Describes the context and conditions of rural education in each of the fifty states. Discusses poverty, substance abuse, and food insecurity as they relate to the education and health of children in rural areas.
Author(s): Daniel Showalter, Robert Klein, Jerry Johnson, Sara L. Hartman
Date: 06/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural School and Community Trust
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Mountains, Plains, Cities, Schools: An Analysis of Colorado's Rural and Urban School-Based Health Centers
Examines important aspects of Colorado's school-based health centers (SBHCs), including program growth, funding sources, populations served, and service offerings. Uses statewide statistics to compare urban versus rural SBHCs and illustrate how SBHCs help fill critical healthcare gaps within the state.
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Colorado Health Institute
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Access to Mental Health Services for Children in Rural Areas
Policy brief identifying strategies to help rural children with mental, behavioral, or development disorders (MBDDs) access behavioral health services. Discusses the potential of telehealth, integration of behavioral health and primary care, and school-based health centers to address this need.
Date: 05/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Daily Access to Local Foods for School Meals: Key Drivers
Report on the progress of farm-to-school programs as a way to improve access to local foods for daily meals. Includes examples of successful programs, a discussion of the influence of school location, size, farmers markets, and state policies as impacts on that success, and variation by regional districts.
Additional links: Report Summary
Author(s): Katherine Ralston, Elizabeth Beaulieu, Jeffrey Hyman, et al.
Date: 03/2017
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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Most U.S. School Districts Have Low Access to School Counselors: Poor, Diverse, and City School Districts Exhibit Particularly High Student-to-Counselor Ratios
Examines trends in school counselor access. Discusses health-related roles counselors play, including meeting students' personal and social needs, supporting wellness programs, and advocating for students with disabilities. Includes data for rural areas.
Author(s): Douglas J. Gagnon, Marybeth J. Mattingly
Date: 10/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Food-Related Practices and Beliefs of Rural US Elementary and Middle School Teachers
Results of a study examining personal health and eating habits, classroom food practices, beliefs about the school food environment, and nutrition knowledge of 102 teachers from 8 rural school districts in northeastern Oregon.
Author(s): Nancy E. Findholt, Betty T. Izumi, Jackilen Shannon, Thuan Nguyen
Location: Rural and Remote Health, 16
Date: 06/2016
Type: Document
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School Factors Associated With the Percentage of Students Who Walk or Bike to School, School Health Policies and Practices Study, 2014
Examines health benefits of active school transport, such as walking or biking. Features statistics including breakdowns by school locations in cities, suburbs, towns, or rural locations.
Author(s): Sherry Everett Jones, Sarah Sliwa
Location: Preventing Chronic Disease, 13
Date: 05/2016
Type: Document
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15 Million Kids in Health Care Deserts: Can Telehealth Make a Difference?
Highlights the problems with access to healthcare for children of vulnerable populations living in rural and poverty stricken areas, and discusses how telehealth can be implemented to overcome these barriers. Describes several case studies including a rural school-based telehealth program as a method for improving access to healthcare services to children.
Author(s): Dale Alverson, Julie Hall-Barrow, Denise M. Dion, et al.
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Children's Health Fund
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Meeting the Needs of the Whole Child through CATCH
Highlights the implementation of the Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) program, which supports healthy eating and physical activity, in rural Illinois elementary schools.
Author(s): Jenn Lukens
Location: Rural Monitor
Date: 04/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Estimating the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Alaska Using Partial, Nonrandom Measurement Data
Results of a 2013-2014 study of obesity among students in the 8 largest Alaska school districts, 7 of which are in rural areas. Features statistics with breakdowns including district, grade level, sex, and ethnicity.
Author(s): Erik Everson, Myde Boles, Karol Fink, Rebecca Topol, Andrea Fenaughty
Location: Preventing Chronic Disease, 13
Date: 03/2016
Type: Document
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Improvements and Disparities in Types of Foods and Milk Beverages Offered in Elementary School Lunches, 2006-2007 to 2013-2014
Evaluates changes and disparities in school lunch characteristics, using data from 4,630 public schools. Features breakdowns by urban, suburban, town, or rural locale.
Author(s): Lindsey Turner, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati, Lisa Powell, Frank J. Chaloupka
Location: Preventing Chronic Disease, 13
Date: 03/2016
Type: Document
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America After 3PM Special Report: The Growing Importance of Afterschool in Rural Communities
Provides an overview of afterschool and summer learning programming in rural America. Discusses health and wellness impacts of afterschool programs for rural children. Describes strengths of rural programs and identifies barriers to participation in rural communities.
Date: 03/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Afterschool Alliance
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Indian Affairs: Key Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Health at Indian School Facilities
Results of a GAO examination of the health and safety at Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) schools. Includes recommendations to conduct required annual inspections at all BIE schools and develop a plan to build schools' capacity to address health and safety concerns in a timely manner, among others.
Additional links: Highlights
Date: 03/2016
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Government Accountability Office
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Schools Vary - And That Means Meal Costs Vary Too
Examines school meal costs and identifies factors that affect per-meal costs, including the school food authority's location, size, and balance between the number of lunches and breakfasts served. Includes data on school meal costs for rural, suburban, and urban schools.
Author(s): Joanne Guthrie, Michael Ollinger
Location: Amber Waves
Date: 12/2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: USDA Economic Research Service
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The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards
Examines nutritional quality of foods and beverages available in 8 rural Virginia middle schools. Includes statistics with breakdowns by number of foods and beverages offered, number that were compliant with USDA National School Lunch Program standards, percentage of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunches, and percentages of components such as sugar, fat, and sodium in available foods.
Author(s): Georgianna Mann, Vivica Kraak, Elena Serrano
Location: Preventing Chronic Disease, 12
Date: 09/2015
Type: Document
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Rural Adults’ Perspectives on School Food in a North Carolina County
Describes parents' and school staff's perceptions of school food in four rural North Carolina elementary schools, and their views about potential changes designed to enhance appeal of school meals containing more fruits and vegetables.
Author(s): Jayne K. Jeffries, Linden M. Thayer, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Seth M. Noar
Location: Preventing Chronic Disease, 12
Date: 04/2015
Type: Document
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Disparities Persist in Nutrition Policies and Practices in Minnesota Secondary Schools
Examines school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Compares school nutrition policies by rural versus urban/suburban location and across three main areas: the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and restrictions on advertising LNED products around the school.
Author(s): Caitlin Eicher Caspi, Cynthia Davey, Toben F. Nelson, Nicole Larson, Martha Y. Kubik, et al.
Location: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(3), 419–425
Date: 03/2015
Type: Document
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Food Allergy Emergency Preparedness in Illinois Schools: Rural Disparity in Guideline Implementation
Assesses current practices and preparedness of schools in Illinois to handle food allergy emergencies. Includes information on school preparedness plans, school nurse response, availability of epinephrine, and the impact of state legislation related to food allergy emergencies in schools by rural, suburban, and urban location.
Author(s): Christine Szychlinski, Katherine A. Schmeissing, Zeena Fuleihan, et al.
Location: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 3(5), 805-807
Date: 2015
Type: Document
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Special Considerations for Mental Health Services in Rural Schools
Discusses the challenges experienced by rural and frontier schools regarding the development, implementation, and the expansion of behavioral health services for students and their families.
Author(s): Susan Wilger
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
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Many Eligible Children Don't Participate in School Nutrition Programs: Reauthorization Offers Opportunities to Improve
Reports on rates of participation in the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, comparing rural, urban, and suburban eligible households. Discusses reauthorization of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 as an opportunity to expand participation in these programs generally and particularly for rural eligible children.
Author(s): Jessica A. Carson
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Carsey School of Public Policy
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Rural Communities: Best Practices and Promising Approaches for Safe Routes
Discusses the barriers to safe walking and biking to school in some rural communities. Describes how to successfully implement the Safe Routes to School approach in rural areas, with examples of successful programs.
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Safe Routes to School National Partnership
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Rural Communities: Making Safe Routes Work
Describes the benefits of making walking and biking safer for rural children. Discusses implementing the Safe Routes to School approach in rural communities, with ideas for how to get started.
Date: 2015
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Safe Routes to School National Partnership
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Perceived Reactions of Elementary School Students to Changes in School Lunches after Implementation of the United States Department of Agriculture's New Meals Standards: Minimal Backlash, but Rural and Socioeconomic Disparities Exist
Study assesses the observation by school staff of rural and urban student reaction to changes in the school lunch menus, implemented in 2012 according to revised standards required by the USDA’s National School Lunch Program.
Author(s): Lindsey Turner, Frank J. Chaloupka
Location: Childhood Obesity, 10(4), 349-356
Date: 08/2014
Type: Document
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Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013
Presents data on crime and safety concerns in schools across the nation by urban, suburban, and rural classification. Discusses physical injuries and deaths at school, weapons on school property, illegal substances, bullying, gangs, campus safety, and security measures to keep students safe.
Author(s): Simone Robers, Jana Kemp, Amy Rathbun, Rachel E. Morgan, Thomas D. Snyder
Date: 06/2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Center for Education Statistics
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Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes From a Pilot Study of an Integrated Health-Mental Health Promotion Program in School Mental Health Services
The results of a study of adolescents along with their parents who received mental health services in a school based setting for a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. The participants lived in a rural and underserved southern region of the U.S. where low income, high poverty are prevalent and where few mental health services are available.
Author(s): Melissa W. George, Nevelyn N. Trumpeter, Dawn K. Wilson, et al.
Location: Family & Community Health, 37(1), 19-30
Date: 01/2014
Type: Document
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2013-14 Digital Census Report
Summarizes the findings from a national survey of school based healthcare centers (SBHCs) with emphasis on the growth of SBHCs across the U.S. This report includes the type of health services SBHCs offer, how they are integrated within the community healthcare system, their sustainability efforts, and how they measure for accountability. Survey covers both rural and urban areas and is conducted every 3 years.
Date: 2014
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: School-Based Health Alliance
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Local Wellness Policy 5 Years Later: Is It Making a Difference for Students in Low-Income, Rural Colorado Elementary Schools?
Assesses 45 schools' environmental and policy changes resulting from implementation of a federally mandated program designed to increase physical activity and healthy eating, as a response to the childhood obesity epidemic. Looked at factors including number of minutes of recess per week, minutes of physical education, playground features, total number of fruit and vegetable offerings at meals, presence of a school health team, and familiarity with their district’s policy and related state or federal mandates.
Author(s): Elaine S. Belansky, Nick Cutforth, Lynn Gilbert, et al.
Location: Preventing Chronic Disease, 10
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
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Improving Rural Health: State Policy Options
Discusses strategies that states have used to improve healthcare in rural communities. Covers workforce pipeline initiatives, long-term care services, behavioral health, emergency medical services, wellness and prevention, rural health clinics, school-based health centers, telehealth, recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals, loan repayment programs, and community health workers.
Author(s): Kristine Goodwin, Laura Tobler
Date: 11/2013
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Conference of State Legislatures
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Rural Disparities in the Distribution of Policies That Support Healthy Eating in US Secondary Schools
Highlights a study on food and nutrition policies in secondary schools drawing on data from the 2008 School Health Profiles principal survey from 28 states. Compares results by urban, suburban, and rural geographic areas.
Author(s): Marilyn S. Nanney, Cynthia S. Davey, Martha Y. Kubik
Location: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 113(8), 1062-1068
Date: 08/2013
Type: Document
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Challenges to Head Start and Early Childhood Development Programs in Rural Communities
Seeks to address the challenges to providing quality early childhood development programs including health screenings in rural communities.
Date: 12/2012
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services
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School-Based Health Centers in an Era of Health Care Reform: Building on History
Presents the history and growth of school-based health centers (SBHCs) in the U.S., and discusses their effect on delivering needed services to students, including rural students, from kindergarten to high school. Includes suggestions for future use of SBHCs, and for healthcare providers working in communities without a SBHC.
Author(s): Victoria Keeton, Samira Soleimanpour, Claire D. Brindis
Location: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 42(6), 132–158
Date: 07/2012
Type: Document
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Strengths and Silences: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students in Rural and Small Town Schools
A report compiled by the Gay, Lesbian, & Straight Education Network (GLSEN) that examines safety, harassment and assault of LGBT students in rural schools based on data collected in the GLSEN's National School Climate Survey (2010-2011). Includes demographics broken down by gender identity, race, sexual orientation, age, region, school type, and school size.
Author(s): Neal A. Palmer, Joseph G. Kosciw, Mark J. Bartkiewicz
Date: 2012
Type: Document
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Mobile and Portable Dental Services in Preschool and School Settings: Complex Issues
Describes dental care access issues among children in small and underserved communities. Summarizes mobile dental programs utilized in preschools, Head Starts, and K-12 schools to help overcome access barriers.
Date: 02/2011
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors
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Case Study: Hospital Partners with Local High Schools to Prepare Students for Health Care Professions
Discusses the structure and organization of Box Butte General Hospital's (BBGH) Health Professions Club, which engages local high school students in healthcare career preparation activities. Located in Alliance, Nebraska, BBGH uses the program to educate area students about healthcare careers, while simultaneously creating and recruiting a well-prepared rural healthcare workforce.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Bryant Health
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Case Study: Hospital and School District Partner for Emotional Health
Details an initiative started by leaders at Fillmore County Hospital and Fillmore Central Public Schools, located in Fillmore, Nebraska, to address behavioral health issues among the student population. Started in 2015, the comprehensive program seeks to connect high risk students with specialized help and promote ongoing mental health wellness through educator, parent, and student training.
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Bryan Health
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The Children's Health and Education Mapping Tool
An interactive mapping resource that focuses on education and healthcare access among low-income children using geographic information systems (GIS). County-level data and statistics included for child health, education, and socioeconomic status.
Additional links: Video Tutorials
Type: Map/Mapping System
Sponsoring organization: School-Based Health Alliance
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PubMed Search: Rural Schools and Health
Searches PubMed's collection of journal article citations.
Type: Literature Search
Sponsoring organization: National Library of Medicine
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Youth.gov
Promotes positive, healthy outcomes for youth and provides information on topics such as school climate, afterschool programs, bullying, teen pregnancy prevention, civic engagement, and preventing youth violence. Includes resources specific to rural youth.
Type: Website
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StopBullying.gov
Provides information from various federal agencies about bullying, cyberbullying, and who is at risk. Offers educational materials for students, parents, educators and health professionals to prevent and respond to bullying.
Type: Website
Sponsoring organization: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Last Updated: 12/12/2017