Defining Emergency Preparedness and Response
There are many related terms and definitions in emergency preparedness and response. This section differentiates
between emergencies and disasters and provides other related definitions. This section also defines the four
phases of the emergency management
cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Mitigation and preparedness occur before an
emergency event, while response and recovery occur after an event. At any given time, communities are in at
least one of the phases of the emergency management cycle.
Detailed information on rural planning, response, and recovery is in Module 2: Rural Community Planning,
Response, and Recovery.
Emergencies, Disasters, and Hazards
The World Health Organization defines an emergency,
disaster, and hazard as follows:
Emergency: “A state in which normal procedures are suspended and extra-ordinary
measures are taken in order to avert a disaster.”
Disaster: “An occurrence disrupting the normal conditions of existence and causing a
suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community.”
Hazard: “A natural or human-made event that threatens to adversely affect human life,
or activity to the extent of causing a disaster.”
A key differentiating factor between an emergency and a disaster is the availability of sufficient resources.
While both emergencies and disasters can be sudden and catastrophic, emergencies have sufficient resources
available to respond while disasters do not. Throughout this toolkit, the terms “emergency” and
“disaster” are used interchangeably.
Public health emergencies can include infectious disease outbreaks and other emergency situations such as mass
casualty events, natural disasters, weather disasters, wildfires, and chemical spills. Emergencies can be
different sizes: There are smaller, more localized events that can be classified as minor emergencies as well as
large-scale emergencies, which can be classified as major disasters. Emergencies can be time-limited (acute) or
evolving (ongoing). Damage from emergencies can range from minimal to major. Public health emergencies can
increase morbidity, mortality, and emotional distress for impacted communities. For examples of how these
factors can vary in different situations, see Module 4: Types of Public
Health Emergencies and Disasters.
The first phase in the emergency management cycle is mitigation, also called prevention. In this phase,
communities take action to prevent or mitigate the causes and consequences of an emergency. Examples of
mitigation activities include:
- Educating the public about potential hazards and how to prepare
- Establishing cross-sector partnerships
- Buying insurance
- Building infrastructure reinforcements (for example, levees for flooding prevention, roof straps for
hurricane protection, flexible foundations for earthquake resistance, and fire-resistant building materials)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines community preparedness as the “ability
of communities to prepare for, withstand, and recover from public health incidents in both the short and long
term.” Preparedness requires coordinated and ongoing planning, validation, review, and updating. The
planning activities that occur before an emergency support a community's preparedness. In rural communities,
planning activities may include:
- Convening planning meetings
- Standardizing protocols and procedures
- Engaging partners and establishing agreements
- Training community members and volunteers
- Testing communication systems and equipment
- Running practice drills
During the preparedness phase, communities should establish plans; determine availability of equipment and
supplies; determine roles and responsibilities, including with partners; determine priorities and goals; and
For detailed information on planning approaches and considerations, see Rural Community Planning for
Emergency Preparedness and Response.
The response phase includes the actions taken after an emergency or disaster to help minimize the negative
effects. During the response phase, communities implement the response plan developed in the preparedness phase.
This phase may also be referred to as the intra-disaster phase.
In a rural community, response activities may include:
- Coordinating first responders and volunteers
- Triaging patients and providing medical care
- Initiating emergency communications
- Distributing supplies and equipment
- Evacuating residents
For more information on response activities, see Rural Community Emergency
The recovery phase focuses on restoring essential services and resuming normal operations. Following an
infectious disease pandemic, this phase may be referred to as the post-pandemic environment.
The short-term recovery period generally occurs within the six months after a public health emergency
and focuses on addressing the immediate needs of the community. Immediate needs may be restoring essential
services such as healthcare and public health facilities, enabling the community to begin to function as normal
Long-term recovery may take months or years and focuses on mitigating any long-term negative effects of
the emergency. Communities should continue to engage partners to support their recovery needs.
The recovery phase can be initiated while the community is still responding. It is important to incorporate
mitigation measures into recovery efforts so that rural communities can build back better and
For detailed information on recovery considerations, see Rural Community Recovery after an
Emergency or Disaster.
The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) defines
community resilience as “a community's ability to withstand, adapt, and recover from a disaster or
public health emergency.” By strengthening existing public health and health system infrastructure, local
health departments can create a strong foundation of health and resilience within the community. In this way,
populations within communities can improve their physical, behavioral, and emotional health while mitigating,
preparing for, responding to, and recovering from public health emergencies.
All-hazards and flexible preparedness plans support community resilience. The Centers for Medicare &
Services (CMS) provides the following definition
of an all-hazards approach:
“An all-hazards approach is an integrated approach to emergency preparedness planning that
focuses on capacities and capabilities that are critical to preparedness for a full spectrum of emergencies or
disasters, including internal emergencies and man-made emergencies (or both) or natural disasters.”
Instead of trying to plan for every possible emergency, an all-hazards approach focuses on building community
capacity to be prepared for a broad range of emergencies and disasters.
Resources to Learn More
Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness
Proposes a definition of public health emergency preparedness and discusses the key elements of
Author(s): Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S.
Citation: American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl. 1), S9-S11
Emergency Management in the United States
A training unit outlining the four phases of emergency management and defining common emergency management
Organization(s): Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)