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Rural Health Disparities – Resources

Selected recent or important resources focusing on Rural Health Disparities.

Spatial Access to Hospital-Based Obstetric Units in Minoritized Racial/Ethnic Areas
Documents geographic accessibility and travel burdens for obstetric care based on local minoritized racial/ethnic group (MRG) distributions at the ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) level. Features statistics with breakdowns by race or ethnicity and urban or rural ZCTA, and maps showing geographic distribution of ZCTAs meeting the 95th percentile threshold, locations of hospital-based obstetric units across top MRG ZCTAs in 2019, and driving distances to a hospital obstetric unit by MRG classification.
Author(s): Peiyin Hung, Gabriel Benavidez, Melinda A. Merrell, et al.
Date: 08/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural and Minority Health Research Center (formerly the South Carolina Rural Health Research Center)
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Inequities in Availability of Evidence-Based Birth Supports to Improve Perinatal Health for Socially Vulnerable Rural Residents
Examines the social risk factors rural residents face related to maternal and infant mortality. Utilizes data from 285 rural hospitals across the United States that have inpatient birthing centers to measure the availability of maternal and postpartum supports such as breastfeeding support groups, nurse home visiting, childbirth education classes, and more. Evaluates each hospital's social vulnerability index (SVI) on the county-level to determine the level of birth support inequities in rural areas and for residents who are Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC).
Author(s): Bridget Basile Ibrahim, Julia D. Interrante, Alyssa H. Fritz, Mariana S. Tuttle, Katy Backes Kozhimannil
Citation: Children, 9(7), 1077
Date: 07/2022
Type: Document
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Rural/Urban Differences in Access to Paid Sick Leave Among Full-time Workers
Features a study on the accessibility of paid sick leave for full-time workers in rural and urban areas. Discusses the negative health outcomes of lacking paid sick leave. Highlights correlative factors, such as educational attainment, age, race, and chronic conditions, among others.
Author(s): Carrie Henning-Smith, Janette Dill, Arianne Baldomero, Katy Backes Kozhimannil
Citation: Journal of Rural Health
Date: 07/2022
Type: Document
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Traffic Safety Facts, 2020 Data: Rural/Urban Comparison of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities
Reports 2020 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data describing fatal motor vehicle crashes. Provides rural versus urban statistics for fatal motor vehicle crashes by light condition, age group, speeding, alcohol use, seat belt use, and rollover crashes.
Date: 07/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
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Wiping Away the Tears: Addressing Increasing Death in Rural America
Examines rural mortality trends and discusses the impact of the opioid epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic, as well as rural maternal and infant mortality. Describes federally-funded efforts to address rural disparities.
Author(s): Whitney Zahnd
Citation: Rural Monitor
Date: 07/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Rural Health Information Hub
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Advancing Health Equity in Rural America
Report examining rural health equity, covering rural economic and demographic data, disparities by rurality, race/ethnicity, and class, and examples of initiatives that aim to increase health equity in rural communities. Offers recommendations for increasing health equity through economic and policy actions.
Additional links: Executive Summary
Author(s): Paula Braveman, Julia Acker, Elaine Arkin, Katrina Badger, Nicole Holm
Date: 06/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
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Self-Rated Health Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults: Rural/Urban Differences
Policy brief examining differences in self-rated health by sexual orientation and rural or urban location. Includes statistics from the National Health Interview Survey, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and the Health Information National Trends Survey.
Author(s): Hannah MacDougall, Carrie Henning-Smith, Courtney Sarkin, Gilbert Gonzales
Date: 06/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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White House Blueprint for Addressing the Maternal Health Crisis
Provides an overview of the maternal health crisis, including maternal mortality and morbidity disparities, and outlines investments and initiatives to address these issues. Presents goals and actions related to access to maternal and behavioral health services, improving data collection and policy, expanding and diversifying the maternal health workforce, and strengthening economic and social supports.
Date: 06/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: The White House
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Prevalence of Chronic Conditions by Sexual Orientation and Rural-Urban Location
Presents a study on the correlation between chronic health issues by sexual orientation and rurality. Breaks down rates of chronic diseases such as arthritis, high cholesterol, diabetes, and others by sexual orientation and rural versus urban location.
Author(s): Carrie Henning-Smith, Gilbert Gonzales, Megan Lahr, et al.
Date: 06/2022
Type: Document
Sponsoring organization: University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
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Life Expectancy by County, Race, and Ethnicity in the USA, 2000–19: A Systematic Analysis of Health Disparities
Examines county-level racial health disparities over a 20-year period by isolating geography and race/ethnicity in mortality rates. Utilizes death registration data from the U.S. National Vital Statistics System as well as population data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Includes U.S. maps that show county-level life expectancy by race/ethnicity and figures tracking state-by-state changes in life expectancy by race from 2000 to 2019. Free to download with registration.
Author(s): Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Parkes Kendrick, Yekaterina O Kelly, et al.
Citation: The Lancet
Date: 06/2022
Type: Document
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Last Updated: 8/10/2022