Rural HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs may ask different types of evaluation questions. Process
evaluations look at what was implemented and how well it was implemented, while outcome evaluations examine
whether a program is having the intended effects for the target population.
For additional information about
process and outcome evaluations, see Evaluation
Design in the Rural Community Health Toolkit.
Some examples of questions that might be asked during a process or an outcome evaluation are provided below.
Questions for a Process Evaluation
What HIV/AIDS prevention or treatment services were delivered and to whom? (for example, condom
distribution, screening programs, case management services, medication assistance)
How many people participated in the program?
How many screenings were conducted every month? How does this compare to previous months?
What challenges did the program face when trying to help people stay in treatment? What made this
What barriers to accessing HIV/AIDS prevention or treatment services did people report?
Questions for an Outcome Evaluation
Have rates of new HIV diagnoses decreased among the program's target population?
Did participants report greater knowledge of safer sex behaviors at the end of the program?
Has the program demonstrated measurable improvements in health outcomes, like higher rates of
Has the program increased access to care for people living with HIV/AIDS?
What policy changes regarding HIV/AIDS prevention or treatment have resulted from the program?
Did the program contribute to a reduction in HIV risk behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS
individuals and high-risk individuals?
Resources to Learn More
Offers guidance on how to develop practical, meaningful evaluation questions for sexually transmitted disease
(STD) prevention and treatment programs by involving stakeholders, brainstorming ideas, reviewing the project
logic model, and prioritizing questions according to relevance.
Organization(s): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for HIV/AIDS,
Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Coordination Services for Persons Living with HIV in Los Angeles County: A Robust Strategy to Strengthen the
HIV Care Continuum
An example of an evaluation report that could be used as a model. Outlines the implementation and evaluation of
a locally developed program in Los Angeles County, the Medical Care Coordination Program, which addresses the
unmet medical and non-medical needs of people living with HIV through coordinated case management
Author(s): Garland, W.H., Oksuzyan, S., Mejia, M., & Kulkarni, S.
Organization(s): Los Angeles County Department of Public Health
Practical Use of Program Evaluation among Sexually
Transmitted Disease (STD) Programs
Provides guidance on how to develop an STD program evaluation plan that can internally monitor program
activities, recognize effective components, obtain relevant data, and help interpret findings to support meeting
Organization(s): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
for Prevention: Minority AIDS Initiative (MAI) Cross-Site Evaluation Final Report
An example of an evaluation report that could be used as a model. Offers an analysis of the evaluation data
submitted from Minority AIDS Initiative (MAI) program grantees aiming to prevent substance use and HIV/AIDS
infection among at-risk minority communities disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS.
Organization(s): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance