Rural HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs may ask different types of evaluation questions. Process evaluations look at what was implemented and how well it was implemented, while outcome evaluations examine whether a program is having the intended effects for the target population.
For additional information about process and outcome evaluations, see Evaluation Design in the Rural Community Health Toolkit.
Some examples of questions that might be asked during a process or an outcome evaluation are provided below.
Questions for a Process Evaluation
- What HIV/AIDS prevention or treatment services were delivered and to whom? (for example, condom distribution, screening programs, case management services, medication assistance)
- How many people participated in the program?
- How many screenings were conducted every month? How does this compare to previous months?
- What challenges did the program face when trying to help people stay in treatment? What made this process easier?
- What barriers to accessing HIV/AIDS prevention or treatment services did people report?
Questions for an Outcome Evaluation
- Have rates of new HIV diagnoses decreased among the program's target population?
- Did participants report greater knowledge of safer sex behaviors at the end of the program?
- Has the program demonstrated improved and measurable health outcomes, like higher rates of medication adherence?
- Has the program increased access to care for people living with HIV/AIDS?
- What policy changes regarding HIV/AIDS prevention or treatment have resulted from the program?
- Did the program contribute to a reduction in HIV risk behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS individuals and high-risk individuals?
Resources to Learn More
Guidance for STD programs about how to write practical, meaningful evaluation questions through involving stakeholders, brainstorming ideas, and using the program logic model. Also provides suggestions on how to prioritize questions during the evaluation process.
Organization(s): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
to Effectively Evaluate your HIV Prevention Program
Provides an overview of a six-step process for evaluating HIV/AIDS programs. Includes guidelines for developing objectives, evaluation questions, and meaningful measures.
Organization(s): AIDS Project Los Angeles: Acción Mutua
Practical Use of Program Evaluation among Sexually
Transmitted Disease (STD) Programs
Uses the CDC Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health and contextualizes it for STD prevention and control programs. Includes step-by-step instructions to help local programs conduct their own evaluations. Also provides suggestions on how to integrate evaluation into regular program activities, which can make the evaluation process less burdensome.
Organization(s): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Workbook containing an extensive section describing how to frame and focus evaluation questions and objectives, particularly for government-funded grants. Designed for community-based organizations. Also includes a useful step-by-step framework for collecting data that will be used in the evaluation.
Organization(s): National Minority AIDS Council: Technical Assistance, Training, and Treatment Division